Quick definition please -- gram-positive bacteria
posted on 01/31/2006 3:00:46 AM PST
Gram-positive bacteria are one of four types of bacteria. Gram-positive anaerobic, Gram-positive aerobic, gram-negative anaerobic, Gram-negative aerobic. It denotes a slide fixing staining process. Gram-positive bacteria evolved (there's that evil word) with a common toxin design. The toxins from these bacteria have a repetitive sequence of 30 oligosaccharide molecules/genes that bind to intercellular glycoprotein transmitter substances. These toxins are both destructive to carbohydrates and proteins effectively collapsing the immune system. It is how they stealth the bodys' immune system. This is why diabetics and other autoimmune compromised individuals are always getting sick with secondary infections.
If you block the cellular damaging activation sites on these toxins with a compound that adheres to the area on the toxin that does the damage, then you disable the bacteria from stealthing the immune system. The immune system can then recognize the bacteria and begin to clear it.
If you can follow the following documents then you should totally freak! Look for the line that starts with the word, "However,".
Mastoparan-Induced Insulin Secretion from Insulin-Secreting ßTC3 and INS-1 Cells: Evidence for Its Regulation by Rho Subfamily of G Proteins Rajesh H. Amin, Hai-Qing Chen, Rajakrishnan Veluthakal, Robert B. Silver, Jingsong Li, GuoDong Li and Anjaneyulu Kowluru
Departments of Pharmaceutical Sciences (R.H.A., H.-Q.C., R.V., A.K.) and Pharmacology (R.B.S.), Physiology, Radiology, and Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, and ß Cell Biochemistry Research Laboratory (R.H.A., H.-Q.C., A.K.), John D. Dingell Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan 48201; and John D. Dingell Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Argonne National Laboratory (R.B.S.), and Cardiovascular Research Institute (J.L., G.L.), National University Medical Institutes, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597
Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Anjan Kowluru, Ph.D., Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Wayne State University, 259 Mack Avenue, Detroit, Michigan 48201. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mastoparan, a tetradecapeptide from wasp venom, stimulates insulin secretion from the islet ß-cells, presumably via activation of trimeric G proteins. Herein, we used Clostridial toxins, which selectively modify and inactivate the Rho subfamily of G proteins, to examine whether mastoparan-induced insulin secretion also involves activation of these signaling proteins. Mastoparan, but not mastoparan 17 (an inactive analog of mastoparan), significantly stimulated insulin secretion from ßTC3 and INS-1 cells. Preincubation of ßTC3 cells with either Clostridium difficille toxin B, which inactivates Rho, Cdc42, and Rac, or Clostridium sordellii toxin, which inactivates Ras, Rap, and Rac, markedly attenuated the mastoparan-induced insulin secretion, implicating Rac in this phenomenon. Mastoparan-stimulated insulin secretion was resistant to GGTI-2147, a specific inhibitor of geranylgeranylation of Rho G proteins (e.g. Rac), suggesting that mastoparan induces direct activation of Rac via GTP/GDP exchange. This was confirmed by a pull-down assay that quantifies the binding of activated (i.e. GTP-bound) Rac to p21-activated kinase. However, glucose-induced insulin secretion from these cells was abolished by toxin B or GGTI-2147, suggesting that the geranylgeranylation step is critical for glucose-stimulated secretion. Mastoparan significantly increased the translocation of cytosolic Rac and Cdc42 to the membrane fraction. Confocal light microscopy revealed a substantial degree of colocalization of Rac (and, to a lesser degree, Cdc42) with insulin in ß-cells exposed to mastoparan. Further, stable expression of a dominant negative (N17Rac) form of Rac into INS-1 cells resulted in a significant reduction in mastoparan-stimulated insulin secretion from these cells. Taken together, our findings implicate Rho G proteins, specifically Rac, in mastoparan-induced insulin release.
U.S. Class 424/78.04
Patent Number 5948402
Issue Date 1999 09 07
Assignee Genetics Institute, Inc. Inventor(s) Keith, James Schendel, Paul Title
Method of using IL-11 for treating antibiotic induced diarrhea
Abstract Provided by the present invention are methods of treating a variety of disorders including AIDS, arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthropathies), antibiotic induced diarrheal diseases (Clostridium difficile), multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, gingivitis, peptic ulcer disease, esophagitis, diabetes, retinitis, uveitis, reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction (MI) or cerebral vascular accident (CVA), aphthous ulcers (oral), atherosclerosis (plaque rupture), prevention of tumor metastases, asthma, preeclampsia, and allergic disorders such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and urticaria.
Exmp. Claim 1
Ex Claim text A method of treating an antibiotic induced diarrheal disease, comprising administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of IL-11.
P.S.: Those of us who are God really don't appreciate the rest of you telling us how you think things happened.
Moses was explaining how man changed from being a hunter/gather to farmer. This touched off: 1) an arms race to gain slaves to cultivate food, and, 2) a hole in the immune system because several crucial food resources were dropped from the diet. The murder of Able by Caine is an illustration of the rage Caine was suffering from infectious disease. It is what Jesus was after. There are only two places in the Bible where the Tree-of-Life is mentioned: in the Alpha and in the Omega. Moses knew the formula and kept it to his inner circle. They had over 1,000 years experience comparing slaves brought in from the wild and those raised on agriculture. Jesus broke the rules and starting playing God undermining the authority of the Rabbis who were in bed with the Romans. The Alpha is the loss of the complex carbohydrate food source. The Omega is the rediscovery. Everything in between are the explanations of the new morality based on a disease infected society involved in trade and continual warfare.
That is what the Bible is really about... agriculture based technology and disease control.
All things changed when man chose his own food instead of gathering whatever was available. It is our curse.
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