1845 March 3
Florida became the 27th state in the United States.
Well, happy birthday Florida. And thanks for all the oranges. They are tasty.
Ponce de León, Juan , c.14601521, Spanish explorer, first Westerner to reach Florida. He served against the Moors of Granada, and in 1493 he accompanied Columbus on his second voyage to America.
From 1502 to 1504 he assisted in the conquest of Higuey (the eastern part of Hispaniola, now the Dominican Republic) and was made governor of that province. After finding gold on Boriquén (Puerto Rico) in 1508, he conquered the island and, as governor (150912), made a fortune in gold, slaves, and land.
Hearing tales from the Carib of a wonderfully rich island called Bimini, said to be N of Cuba, Ponce de León secured a commission (1512) to conquer and colonize that land. There is a legend that he was seeking a spring with waters having the power of restoring youth.
From Puerto Rico on Mar. 3, 1513, with three vessels, he sailed NE through the Bahamas, sighting the Florida peninsula (which he took to be an island) late in March and landing near the site of St. Augustine early in April. Probably because his arrival in Florida occurred at the time of the Easter feast (Pascua Florida), Ponce de León named the land (which he claimed for Spain) La Florida.
He turned south, exploring the coast to Key West, and proceeded up the west coast as far as Cape Romano... continued at: Infoplease
By Jerry Wilkinson
From the beginning, the human race has progressed to higher and more efficient life styles. The various Indian cultures banded together into what we now call tribes. Those that were here when Columbus made his voyage are referred to as historic Indians or pre-Columbian Indians. Therefore, with the arrival of the white man and his written language, out went the prehistoric times and in came the historic times. Fragments of written evidence, such as hand written ship logs and guides (derroteros) began to appear.
At the beginning of the historic period, in 1492 AD, it is conservatively estimated that there were about 100,000 Indians living in Florida. Some estimate as many as 350,000. Accepting the first estimate, the distribution is thought of as this: Timucuans in the northeast, 40,000; Apalachee and Pensacola in the northwest, 25,000; Tocobaga in the west-central, 8,000; Calusa in the southwest, 20,000; Tequesta in the southeast, 5,000; Jeaga, Jobe and Ais in the east-central, 2,000.
There were others, as well as sub-groups, i.e., Saturiwa, Santaluces, Boca Ratones, Tocobaga, etc. By the late 1700s, it is thought that all of these indigenous Indians were gone. Also, note that there is no mention of the Seminoles, as they did not enter Florida until the early 1700s.
Please be aware that all these Indian names, and those given later, were names given by their so-called educated new world explorers, primarily Europeans. The presumed names would be recorded phonetically by each writer. Even the Seminoles, who are not indigenous Florida Indians, never did -and still do not- call themselves Seminoles when speaking privately among themselves.
There exists considerable debate about which historic Indians were the early inhabitants of the Keys. Historians are relatively certain that the Florida West Coast Calusa was dominant and exercised political control over the east coast Tequesta's. However, the two tribe's pottery differs and fragments of pottery found in the Keys often indicate presence of the Tequesta, but the living areas (middens) were shell mounds indicating Calusa.
There is also mounting evidence that the Caribbean Island Indians may have also inhabited the Keys. The present archaeological evidence is not conclusive, other than the general reference by early European travelers to the Matecumbes as the Keys Indians.
Another explanation is that the Calusa was actually a confederation of other tribes including the Tequesta, Ais, Jeaga and others. All of these major tribes are thought to have been composed of sub-tribes usually named after their respective chiefs, possibly giving rise to names like Matecumbes, Bahiahondas and Biscaynos. The latter were the names prevalently used by the early European travelers to the Keys and the former names to those of the mainland.
This compares with a person who could be described as Irish, American, Floridian, Dade Countian and Miamian, but there is still only one person. Ethnology deals with not only the place of origin, but with subsequent divisions and distributions.
I recommend that the serious Florida Keys' Indian student consult the 1991 and 1994 published books by John Hann titled Missions to the Calusa, Tacachale edited by Milanich and Proctor, and Florida's First People by Robin C. Brown.
One problem that I found was when the Spanish used the word transcribed as " Cayo or Key", how does one know if it is the Monroe County Keys or some other Florida Key such as those on Florida's west coast. The only time I feel certain is when they refer to the Martyrs. Often the term "Keys Indians" included the Calusa, Tequesta and other south Florida Indians.
The Spanish did most of the early historic writings of the Keys and the following is presented to introduce the Indian/Spanish attitude in these early times.
When Christopher Columbus made his second voyage to Cuba in 1494 with his son Diego as second in charge, the Indians were absolutely friendly. Seventeen years later, when Diego sent Diego Velasquez to Cuba, he was greeted with a cloud of arrows. Chief Hatuey had crossed the Windward Passage from Hispaniola to Cuba and had informed the local natives how terribly the Spanish in Hispaniola were treating the Indians.
Ponce de Leon was not treated as badly by the Florida Indians on his first trip in 1513 as he was on his second voyage in 1521. It is generally assumed that Spanish slave ships had visited the Florida coast in between De Leon's voyages and had alienated the Indians.
The slavers were visiting the Americas as early as 1502. It was reported that the Indians screamed Spanish words at Ponce de Leon on his second trip. How else could they have so quickly learned Spanish words? More on Ponce later...
Continued: Keys History Historic Florida Indians
Tuesday, February 21, 2006
WEST PALM BEACH - Governor Jeb Bush today addressed more than 400 Florida life science researchers, venture capitalists, students and industry leaders at "Building the Vision: From Cornerstone to Capstone" - BioFlorida's 8th annual conference. Governor Bush highlighted Scripps Florida and the state's rapidly expanding biotech infrastructure as foundations for growing Florida's economy through biomedical research, advanced medical technologies and drug discovery.
"The bioscience industry is key to solidifying Florida's future as a global hub for innovation and groundbreaking research and development," said Governor Bush. "We must continue to foster an environment that attracts the field's best and brightest to Florida, encouraging innovative partnerships, capital investment, research-to-the-marketplace, a well trained workforce and high-wage jobs for Floridians."
The conference featured panel discussions on subjects critical to building Florida's bioscience industry, with tracks on Bioscience, BioBusiness and BioDeals. Many renowned speakers and experts participated in the two-day conference including: Dennis J. Purcell, Senior Managing Partner-Aisling Capital; Camillo Ricordi, MD, Chief of the Division of Cellular Transplantation, Scientific Director and Chief Academic Officer of the Diabetes Research Institute; Hilary Koprowski, M.D., the discoverer of the first vaccine against poliomyelitis; and James C. Greenwood, President and CEO of Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO). Conference presentations addressed the life science climate in Florida, identifying partnership opportunities, venture capital perspectives, academic partnerships, commercializing university research and growing Florida's bioscience workforce.
"Our conference reflected the inflection point of the bioscience industry in its evolution, as well as Florida's emergence as an important participant in translating our industry's research into life changing reality," stated Diana Robinson, President of BioFlorida and Director of Business Development for Aisling Capital. "Bioscience will change our world in this century and Florida has the potential to be one of the leading contributors to that evolution."
As part of today's conference, Governor Bush presented the BioFlorida Legacy in Life Science Award to four post-doctoral fellows who have contributed significantly to the advancement of bioscience in Florida: Dr. Lynn Usher, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine; Dr. Yvonne Resler, Florida Atlantic University; Dr. Amelia Narutle, University of Florida; and Dr. Li-Zhen Cao, University of Florida. The Legacy in Life Science Awards recognizes groundbreaking medical research conducted at Florida-based academic institutions.
Also today, BIO of Washington, D.C., the nation's largest biotechnology industry organization, representing more than 1,100 biotechnology companies worldwide, presented Governor Bush with its "BIO Governor of the Year" award.
Each year, BIO presents this award to a governor who stands out in his or her efforts to improve the business and regulatory climates for biotechnology companies. Governor Bush was selected to receive this year's award based on his commitment to grow the bioscience industry throughout Florida, promoting innovation and continuing to attract unparalleled talent and capital to the state.
"No Governor has done more for the industry than Governor Bush. The growth of our industry in Florida is directly attributable to his visionary leadership and dedication," said Ms. Robinson about the award.
BioFlorida, an independent statewide bioscience organization, serves its members by providing the infrastructure to exchange information and ideas through industry specific programs, education, networking and legislative initiatives. BioFlorida focuses on ensuring a favorable business environment, advancing the commercialization of research and working with investors, private enterprise, government, academia and financial and service sectors to further develop existing companies, launch start-up companies and attract new businesses to Florida.
BIO represents more than 1,100 biotechnology companies, academic institutions, state biotechnology centers and related organizations across the United States and 31 other nations. BIO members are involved in the research and development of healthcare, agricultural, industrial and environmental biotechnology products.
In November 2003, Governor Bush signed an historic law laying the framework for Scripps to expand its world-renowned scientific research and endeavors to Florida. The bill, passed by the Florida Legislature during a special session, provides a one-time investment of $310 million from federal stimulus monies to fund the start-up operations of the Scripps Florida campus during its first seven years. As a leading research facility, Scripps Florida will serve as a nucleus for the life sciences industry, creating jobs and spurring economic growth.
Recently, Governor Bush and Lt. Governor Jennings announced their 2006-2007 budget recommendations, earmarking $630 million to further diversify and strengthen Florida's economy. The proposal includes $200 million to create and fund the 21st Century Technology, Research and Scholarship Enhancement Act, $75 million in tax credits for the new Florida Capital Formation Program, $50 million to expand Florida's Quick Action Closing Fund and $250 million to create the Florida Innovation Incentive Fund.
For more information on BioFlorida's annual conference and the Bush/Jennings budget recommendations, please visit www.myflorida.com .
BioFlorida Annual Conference 2006