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Santorini Eruption Much larger Than Originally Believed
University Rhode Island ^ | 8-23-2006 | Todd McLeish

Posted on 08/23/2006 5:58:47 PM PDT by blam

Santorini eruption much larger than originally believed

Media Contact: Todd McLeish, 401-874-7892

Santorini eruption much larger than originally believed; likely had significant impact on civilization

KINGSTON, R.I. – August 23, 2006 – An international team of scientists has found that the second largest volcanic eruption in human history, the massive Bronze Age eruption of Thera in Greece, was much larger and more widespread than previously believed.

During research expeditions in April and June, the scientists from the University of Rhode Island and the Hellenic Center for Marine Research found deposits of volcanic pumice and ash 10 to 80 meters thick extending out 20 to 30 kilometers in all directions from the Greek island of Santorini.

“These deposits have changed our thinking about the total volume of erupted material from the Minoan eruption,” said URI volcanologist Haraldur Sigurdsson.

In 1991 Sigurdsson and his URI colleague Steven Carey had estimated that 39 cubic kilometers of magma and rock had erupted from the volcano around 1600 B.C., based on fallout they observed on land. The new evidence of the marine deposits resulted in an upward adjustment in their estimate to about 60 cubic kilometers. (The eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 1815 is the largest known volcanic eruption, with approximately 100 cubic kilometers of material ejected.)

An eruption of this size likely had far-reaching impacts on the environment and civilizations in the region. The much-smaller Krakatau eruption of 1883 in Indonesia created a 100-foot-high tsunami that killed 36,000 people, as well as pyroclastic flows that traveled 40 kilometers across the surface of the seas killing 1,000 people on nearby islands. The Thera eruption would likely have generated an even larger tsunami and pyroclastic flows that traveled much farther over the surface of the sea.

“Given what we know about Krakatau, the effects of the Thera eruption would have been quite dramatic,” said Carey, a co-leader of this year’s expeditions. “The area affected would have been very widespread, with much greater impacts on the people living there than we had considered before.”

Thera has erupted numerous times over the last 400,000 years, four of which were of such magnitude that the island collapsed and craters were formed. Some scientists believe the massive eruption 3,600 years ago was responsible for the disappearance of the Minoan culture on nearby Crete. Others link the eruption to the disappearance of the legendary island of Atlantis.

While investigating the seafloor around Santorini, the scientists explored the submarine crater of the Kolumbo volcano, just 5 kilometers from Thera and part of the same volcanic complex, and discovered an extensive field of previously unknown hydrothermal vents. Using remotely operated vehicles from the Institute for Exploration, the scientists recorded gases and fluids flowing from the vents at temperatures as high as 220 degrees Centigrade.

“Most of the known vents around the world have been found on the mid-ocean ridges in very deep water and in areas where there are geologic plate separations,” Sigurdsson explained. “The Kolumbo and Santorini volcanoes are in shallow water at plate convergences, the only place besides Japan where high-temperature vents have been found in these conditions.”

“The high temperature of the vents tells us that the volcano is alive and healthy and there is magma near the surface,” added Carey.

The scientists said that, in addition to fluids and gases, the vents are emitting large quantities of metals, including silver, which precipitate out to form chimneys on the crater floor up to 10 feet tall and 2 to 4 feet wide. The floor of the crater is covered in a layer of red and orange mats of bacteria 2 to 3 inches thick that live on the nutrients in the vent fluids. Bacteria also cover the vent chimneys, and 4- to 5-inch long, hair-like bacterial filaments extend from the chimneys making them “look like hairy beasts, like woolly mammoths,” according to Sigurdsson.

The expedition was part of a longer research cruise led by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Robert Ballard, a URI oceanography professor and president of the Institute for Exploration, which included a search for Bronze Age shipwrecks in the Black Sea and a survey of the seafloor in the Sea of Crete. Additional details can be found at www.uri.edu/endeavor/thera or www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06blacksea/.

The research expeditions were funded in large part by the National Science Foundation, with additional support from the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration, the Rhode Island Endeavor Program, the Institute for Exploration, and the National Geographic Society. The April expedition was conducted aboard the Greek research vessel Aegaeo, while the June cruise was aboard the URI vessel Endeavor.

Live video of the June expedition was broadcast over the internet 24 hours a day by Immersion Presents, which also broadcast four, 30-minute live programs each day to museums, school districts, science centers and Boys and Girls Clubs featuring Sigurdsson, Carey and Ballard.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: atlantis; believed; calliste; catastrophism; crete; eruption; exodus; exodusdecoded; godsgravesglyphs; jamescameron; larger; minoan; minoans; much; originally; plato; santorini; simchajacobovici; thera; volcano; vulcanism
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The Fireworks for the Exodus.
1 posted on 08/23/2006 5:58:50 PM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv

GGG Ping.


2 posted on 08/23/2006 5:59:21 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

The end of Atlantis?


3 posted on 08/23/2006 6:04:59 PM PDT by Parley Baer
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To: blam

One big bang!


4 posted on 08/23/2006 6:07:03 PM PDT by lexington minuteman 1775
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To: blam
Exodus Decoded - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Exodus Decoded History Channel

5 posted on 08/23/2006 6:12:28 PM PDT by yield 2 the right
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To: blam

Just Mother Nature's way of adjusting for global warming...


6 posted on 08/23/2006 6:35:56 PM PDT by Bean Counter (Stout hearts!!)
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To: blam
Thera has erupted numerous times over the last 400,000 years, four of which were of such magnitude that the island collapsed and craters were formed.

Does this mean that some of the previous eruptions were even more explosive than the last major eruption?

7 posted on 08/23/2006 6:47:50 PM PDT by Fraxinus
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To: blam

I'll ping (among other things ;') when I get home.


8 posted on 08/23/2006 8:24:35 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam

Santorini is a strange place. You get off the ship and drive up switchbacks to the top of a high cliff. Then you drive on what seems to be a perfectly level road to the other side of the island, where you run into a beach. IT has to be some sort of illusion, but it seems like the ocean is at different levels on different sides of the island. Like all Greek islands, it’s close to paradise for travelers.


9 posted on 08/23/2006 8:28:05 PM PDT by Minn
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To: Fraxinus

The stuff just looked for and found on the sea floor would date to those large prehistoric and very ancient massive eruptions. I think the caldera seen today formed in an eruption over 100,000 years ago. There isn't any evidence for an eruption in historical times (and by historical, I include the Minoan/Mycenaean use of Linear A and Linear B, and cuneiform users in Anatolia) until circa 200 BC.


10 posted on 08/23/2006 8:37:48 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: 75thOVI; AndrewC; Avoiding_Sulla; BenLurkin; Berosus; CGVet58; chilepepper; ckilmer; demlosers; ...

· Catastrophism ping list · join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark ·

11 posted on 08/23/2006 9:59:49 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam; FairOpinion; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; ...
Thanks Blam.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

12 posted on 08/23/2006 10:00:20 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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I'm goin' to bed...

New Ice-Core Evidence Challenges the 1620s age for the Santorini (Minoan) Eruption
Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 25, Issue 3, March 1998, Pages 279-289 | 13 July 1997 | Gregory A. Zielinski, Mark S. Germani
Posted on 07/29/2004 3:25:45 AM EDT by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1180724/posts


13 posted on 08/23/2006 10:04:28 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam

bttt


14 posted on 08/23/2006 10:11:32 PM PDT by nopardons
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To: Minn
Sounds great!
Google

15 posted on 08/23/2006 10:30:31 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam
Santorini was such a massive event that even across 3500 years some kind of partial historical record nearly has to remain of it, not just the almost certainly linked Atlantis legend. At the time it had to be considered a divine act. The theory that it should STILL be considered one is fascinating. The odd thing to me is the parallel non-barking dog story of Tambora. How is it that an event nearly twice as large less than 200 years ago has generated so little interest? The biggest volcanic eruption in history is a historical nonevent. The nearby, over-hyped, much smaller, Krakatoa eruption 78 years later has generated much more interest then and to this day.
16 posted on 08/23/2006 11:14:15 PM PDT by JohnBovenmyer
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To: blam

I am quite skeptical that it was the fireworks for the Exodus . . .

Sometimes God uses natural phenomena and features. Sometimes He doesn't. I think the Exodus was super special to Him and that much of the time, He used other than natural stuff.

imho, of course.

I'm not the least bit impressed with the Nat Geo special on the topic.


17 posted on 08/24/2006 2:26:17 AM PDT by Quix (LET GOD ARISE AND HIS ENEMIES BE SCATTERED. LET ISRAEL CALL ON GOD AS THEIRS! & ISLAM FLUSH ITSELF)
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To: yield 2 the right

The History Channel . . . hmmm. Does Nat Geo have one, too? Or was I merely confusing the two sources?


18 posted on 08/24/2006 2:27:27 AM PDT by Quix (LET GOD ARISE AND HIS ENEMIES BE SCATTERED. LET ISRAEL CALL ON GOD AS THEIRS! & ISLAM FLUSH ITSELF)
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To: SunkenCiv

Ahhhh. Thanks.

[[BTW, I had you down as a tentative on the UFO ping list. Went ahead and put you in. If you want off it, please let me know. Oh, and, have you noticed an increased . . . something . . . in such programs on TV recently? They seem to be paying persistent attention to the volcano in Mexico]]


19 posted on 08/24/2006 2:29:58 AM PDT by Quix (LET GOD ARISE AND HIS ENEMIES BE SCATTERED. LET ISRAEL CALL ON GOD AS THEIRS! & ISLAM FLUSH ITSELF)
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To: SunkenCiv

Last year I became a believer in the theory that a natural disaster in 535 A.D. caused the Dark Ages. For me the clincher came when I read a book on the Mayans that was too old for the authors to know anything about the theory, and they reported that the city of Tikal left NO historical records between the years 534 and 593. The most likely culprit for the disaster is a Southeast Asian volcano like Krakatoa or Tambora; any idea how much ash and rock it would have sent into the atmosphere?

There's also a theory that Mt. Toba, a really big volcano on Sumatra, erupted during the ice age, and the resulting "nuclear winter" killed off everyone, except for a few thousand Neanderthals. I don't know about that, but if Mt. Toba blows in our lifetime, it's safe to say that we'll never have to worry about global warming again!


20 posted on 08/24/2006 2:44:09 AM PDT by Berosus ("There is no beauty like Jerusalem, no wealth like Rome, no depravity like Arabia."--the Talmud)
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To: Parley Baer
End of Atlantis?

That's what I was thinking.

It does make sense. If Pato or the ones who told him the story of Atlantis were off a few thousand years, then that would put the eruption on Santorini right in the time frame for the destruction of Atlantis.

It just makes sense.

If only the Greek government would permit an archeological research in the area. There may be lots to find underwater near Santorini.

21 posted on 08/24/2006 3:31:13 AM PDT by Anne of DC (Boycott all Bush-bashing threads!)
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To: blam

What of the strength of Toba (~75,000 years ago)? I thought that was bigger still.


22 posted on 08/24/2006 4:11:33 AM PDT by NukeMan
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To: Quix
Sometimes God uses natural phenomena and features. Sometimes He doesn't. I think the Exodus was super special to Him and that much of the time, He used other than natural stuff.

I was taught that the miracles all have scientific explanations. The miracle wasn't the events themselves, but that they occurred at the exact right time to be useful. You're free to agree or disagree.

23 posted on 08/24/2006 4:43:14 AM PDT by Celtjew Libertarian ("Don't take life so seriously. You'll never get out of it alive." -- Bugs Bunny)
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To: Berosus
There's also a theory that Mt. Toba, a really big volcano on Sumatra, erupted during the ice age, and the resulting "nuclear winter" killed off everyone, except for a few thousand Neanderthals. I don't know about that, but if Mt. Toba blows in our lifetime, it's safe to say that we'll never have to worry about global warming again!

Never mind Toba... I've read and seen a few items recently that there is a potential supervolcano under Yellowstone, just waiting to go.

24 posted on 08/24/2006 4:46:38 AM PDT by Celtjew Libertarian ("Don't take life so seriously. You'll never get out of it alive." -- Bugs Bunny)
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To: NukeMan; Celtjew Libertarian
"What of the strength of Toba (~75,000 years ago)? I thought that was bigger still."

Toba was the last Super Volcano to blow it's top.

Late Pleostocene Population Bottleneck. . . (Toba)

25 posted on 08/24/2006 4:54:22 AM PDT by blam
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To: Celtjew Libertarian
"I've read and seen a few items recently that there is a potential supervolcano under Yellowstone, just waiting to go."

It has been determined that the Yellowstone super volcano erupts about every 600,000 years. It has been 640,000 year since it last erupted. Ahem, prepare now.

26 posted on 08/24/2006 4:57:08 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam

I do not think one can.


27 posted on 08/24/2006 5:09:03 AM PDT by patton (LGOPs = head toward the noise, kill anyone not dressed like you.)
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To: patton
"I do not think one can."

Yup, six years of a 'nuclear winter' when nothing will grow is hard to prepare for.

My plan is to move north and search for animals that have starved to death and were frozen stiff where they fell and then eat them. I will get real cold in a lot of places real fast.

28 posted on 08/24/2006 5:14:33 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Good plan. Do you have a link to the fallout map for the yellowstone calderra? I saw it on one of your previous threads.


29 posted on 08/24/2006 5:29:07 AM PDT by patton (LGOPs = head toward the noise, kill anyone not dressed like you.)
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To: patton
" Do you have a link to the fallout map for the yellowstone calderra? I saw it on one of your previous threads."

No. It's lost on one of the earlier threads.

30 posted on 08/24/2006 5:38:24 AM PDT by blam
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To: Quix

I think that either way (volcano or no), the events of the exodus was a supernatural event. The specific details do not to me make a difference in seeing God's in it. But I just don't see that the dates match. 1600 BC for the Santorini eruption is earlier than most dates I've seen for the exodus.


31 posted on 08/24/2006 6:05:59 AM PDT by twigs
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To: blam
I read where the explosion is believed to have caused a tidal wave around 700 feet tall! That would cause flooding many, MANY miles inland throughout the Meditteranean and parts beyond . To put that in perspective, the St Louis arch is about 70 ft tall, so just imagine 10 arches one on top of the other, in the form of a giant wall of ocean water.....shudder!
32 posted on 08/24/2006 7:32:58 AM PDT by Verloona Ti (I'm from MO, so what else would I use as a visual aid for comparison?)
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To: blam

Velokovsky said the Exodus was sponsored by the volcanic eruption. A lot changed for civilization right then.


33 posted on 08/24/2006 7:55:46 AM PDT by RightWhale (Repeal the law of the excluded middle)
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To: SunkenCiv

100,000 years ago? Are you sure? I heard they had archeological digs going on at the island and were discovering the ruins of life there a la Pompei.


34 posted on 08/24/2006 8:45:46 AM PDT by wildbill
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To: RightWhale
Velokovsky said the Exodus was sponsored by the volcanic eruption. A lot changed for civilization right then.
No, he didn't, but he discussed (and dismissed) a 19th c work, "Mount Sinai a Volcano".
35 posted on 08/24/2006 8:54:50 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: wildbill
100,000 years ago? Are you sure? I heard they had archeological digs going on at the island and were discovering the ruins of life there a la Pompei.
The ruins of Akrotiri have been excavated on the island, but that hasn't much to do with the formation of the caldera, apart from showing that the caldera was already there when the town was built. :')
36 posted on 08/24/2006 8:57:27 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Quix
have you noticed an increased . . . something . . . in such programs on TV recently? They seem to be paying persistent attention to the volcano in Mexico
I had not seen that.
37 posted on 08/24/2006 8:57:59 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Verloona Ti
"To put that in perspective, the St Louis arch is about 70 ft tall, so just imagine 10 arches one on top of the other, in the form of a giant wall of ocean water.....shudder!"

Er, 10 Gateway Arches on top of one another would be 6,300 feet tall ! It's 630 feet, not 70.

38 posted on 08/24/2006 8:59:11 AM PDT by fieldmarshaldj (Cheney X -- Destroying the Liberal Democrat Traitors By Any Means Necessary -- Ya Dig ? Sho 'Nuff.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Earth in Upheaval, Ages in Chaos, or the other one I forget the title right now goes into the volcano idea at length. Pillar of Smoke, plagues on Egypt, all that.


39 posted on 08/24/2006 9:00:17 AM PDT by RightWhale (Repeal the law of the excluded middle)
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To: Berosus
Last year I became a believer in the theory that a natural disaster in 535 A.D. caused the Dark Ages. For me the clincher came when I read a book on the Mayans that was too old for the authors to know anything about the theory, and they reported that the city of Tikal left NO historical records between the years 534 and 593. The most likely culprit for the disaster is a Southeast Asian volcano like Krakatoa or Tambora; any idea how much ash and rock it would have sent into the atmosphere?
That theory would be from David Keys' book. I don't have a whole lot of use for his eventual culprit, because of the worldwide distribution of the supposed darkness.
There's also a theory that Mt. Toba, a really big volcano on Sumatra, erupted during the ice age, and the resulting "nuclear winter" killed off everyone, except for a few thousand Neanderthals. I don't know about that, but if Mt. Toba blows in our lifetime, it's safe to say that we'll never have to worry about global warming again!
That's another popular one, but again, I don't have much use for alleged supereruptions, despite my catastrophist orientation. :')
40 posted on 08/24/2006 9:01:43 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: fieldmarshaldj

I'd love to see a wall of water that size-from the safety of an airplane or helicopter, quite a bit higher!


41 posted on 08/24/2006 9:18:46 AM PDT by Verloona Ti
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To: Celtjew Libertarian

That's a reasonable conjecture.

My biases just tend toward otherwise, much to most of the time.

It's probably safe to say that Moses on the mountains involved some natural lava, fire, brimstone.

But then Scripture characterizes God Himself as causing the mountains to melt. I don't think we know what that means in all cases.


42 posted on 08/24/2006 9:20:39 AM PDT by Quix (LET GOD ARISE AND HIS ENEMIES BE SCATTERED. LET ISRAEL CALL ON GOD AS THEIRS! & ISLAM FLUSH ITSELF)
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To: twigs

Ahhhh.

I have been thrilled by the discovery of chariot wheels etc. on the Sinai side of the crossing across the RED sea.

The old notion that they crossed the REED sea during a nice hot wind storm was so laughable. Right, Pharoah and all his armies and horses drowned in 4 inches of water! Grope, grope.


43 posted on 08/24/2006 9:23:26 AM PDT by Quix (LET GOD ARISE AND HIS ENEMIES BE SCATTERED. LET ISRAEL CALL ON GOD AS THEIRS! & ISLAM FLUSH ITSELF)
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To: blam
Santorina Caldera Webcam

Santorina Volcano Webcam

44 posted on 08/24/2006 9:24:14 AM PDT by COEXERJ145 (Free Republic is Currently Suffering a Pandemic of “Bush Derangement Syndrome.”)
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To: Strategerist

Thought this thread might be of interest to you.


45 posted on 08/24/2006 9:25:52 AM PDT by COEXERJ145 (Free Republic is Currently Suffering a Pandemic of “Bush Derangement Syndrome.”)
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To: SunkenCiv; Las Vegas Dave

I !THINK! Las Vegas Dave has a similar impression of a slight or better tweaking up of various subtle levels of disclosure in the UFO field in recent months. More programs airing and reairing and another level of detail being disclosed. But I need to ask him if that's his perspective.

The bit about the ET's paying a lot of attention to the Mexico City area volcano is just sort of recalling in gestalt fashion all the mentions of such in the news over the last several years.


46 posted on 08/24/2006 9:26:26 AM PDT by Quix (LET GOD ARISE AND HIS ENEMIES BE SCATTERED. LET ISRAEL CALL ON GOD AS THEIRS! & ISLAM FLUSH ITSELF)
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To: RightWhale
Biblical Plagues And Parting Of The Red Sea Caused By Volcano
47 posted on 08/24/2006 9:36:33 AM PDT by blam
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To: RightWhale

Yes, V discusses the "Mount Sinai a Volcano" book (which at first actually sounds reasonable, pillar of fire by night, pillar of cloud during the day), the author of which hiked all over the Sinai and elsewhere trying to find a volcanic peak as a candidate. He failed.


48 posted on 08/24/2006 9:39:02 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

Velikovsky's Planets in Collision hypothesis finally bit the dust when the Venera series of Venus landers found no oil on Venus. I had already decided against the wandering planets because there appears to be no mechanism for Mars, earth and Venus to have been flying around in wild orbits so recently and then to be in fairly circular orbits now.


49 posted on 08/24/2006 9:43:26 AM PDT by RightWhale (Repeal the law of the excluded middle)
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To: Verloona Ti

Oddly enough, the open side of the caldera (IOW, the part that collapsed and caused the supposed wave) points right toward the Greek mainland -- home of the Mycenaeans who succeeded the Minoans in their old trade routes and lands, including Crete. Seems a little strange, doesn't it? It will until the idea of a super-eruption and tsunami in historical times is abandoned. :')


50 posted on 08/24/2006 9:59:32 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Thursday, August 10, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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