Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Navy's 'Top Gun' jet takes final flight
AP via Yahoo! ^ | 7/22/206 | SONJA BARISIC

Posted on 09/23/2006 8:40:26 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy

VIRGINIA BEACH, Va. - The F-14 Tomcat, the dogfighting Cold War fighter jet immortalized in the movie "Top Gun," made its ceremonial final flight Friday in a display that suggested the timing was right for retirement.

Pilot Lt. Cmdr. David Faehnle and radar intercept officer Lt. Cmdr. Robert Gentry gave a final salute from inside their cockpit before aircraft no. 102 taxied down the runway and out of sight at Oceana Naval Air Station.

The plane that actually took off as thousands applauded and whistled, however, was aircraft no. 107, with Lt. Cmdr. Chris Richard at the controls and intercept officer Lt. Mike Petronis in the back seat.

The first jet had mechanical problems — "a common occurrence with the F-14," said Mike Maus, a Navy spokesman. The second jet had been on standby just in case.

Before the flight, Adm. John Nathman, commander of U.S. Fleet Forces Command and a former F-14 pilot, said the retiring jet with the moveable, swept-back wings was "sometimes tough to fly" and tough to fix — but it was resilient.

"The legacy of this aircraft is not the 'Top Gun' movie," Nathman said. "The legacy is found in America's commitment to win the Cold War."

Built by what was then Grumman Aircraft Corp., the F-14 joined the Navy fleet in 1972 and originally was intended to defend U.S. aircraft carriers from Soviet bombers carrying long-range cruise missiles.

Its dogfighting capabilities were glamorized in the 1986 film "Top Gun," starring Tom Cruise, but the need for such aerial feats dropped steeply when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.

The Navy retooled the F-14 as a ground-attack jet, and it dropped bombs over Bosnia and Kosovo in the late 1990s, and helped support ground troops in Iraq as recently as this year.

The jet's replacement is the F/A-18 Super Hornet attack fighter. The Navy's last 22 F-14 aircraft deployed came home to Oceana in March, but one squadron continued to flying the jets until this month.

Gentry likened retiring the Tomcat to "losing a member of the family."

"It's a bittersweet moment to look and realize that pretty soon you won't be flying that aircraft," he said. "There are few aircraft that elicit such a strong bond between the air crew and the maintainers and the people who build them."

About 3,000 guests — mainly former aviators, mechanics, suppliers and builders — were on hand for the jet's official retirement. The last flying F-14s will go to museums such as the Virginia Aviation Museum in Richmond, which received one last week.

Mike Boehme, the museum's executive director, expects the F-14 to be a big draw. "There's a certain mystique about it," he said.


TOPICS: News/Current Events; US: Virginia
KEYWORDS: f14; tomcat; topgun; usn
A followup to the thread posted here - http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1592052/posts
1 posted on 09/23/2006 8:40:27 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: Pukin Dog

A sad story, indeed :(


2 posted on 09/23/2006 8:41:10 AM PDT by freedumb2003 (Insultification is the polar opposite of Niceosity)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1592052/posts


3 posted on 09/23/2006 8:41:39 AM PDT by VOA
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Former Military Chick
Saw your Mar, 2006 post re: the last of the F-14 squadrons coming home.

Here's one on the last flight / official retirement.

4 posted on 09/23/2006 8:42:37 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy

The F-14 was a badass plane... one of the best ever flown in combat.


5 posted on 09/23/2006 8:42:43 AM PDT by Lunatic Fringe (Fiscal Conservative, Social Moderate. Understand?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: VOA

Thank you, VOA, I was expecting the link to work, but I guess the html in the body of the article prevented that. 'preciate the assistance, and I won't forget to add the appropriate html when posting articles again.


6 posted on 09/23/2006 8:44:35 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy

Will they be sold to other countries? I believe there are still F-4s flying in remote corners of the world.


7 posted on 09/23/2006 8:49:35 AM PDT by GOP_Party_Animal
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
Both the F-14 Tomcat and A-6 Intruder have been replaced by the Hornet. The McDonnel Douglas plastic lawn dart is the jack of all trades and a master of none. Both the Tomcat and Intruder were the undisputed masters of their role in Naval Aviation. Age of the airframes or ease of maintenance is really not the issue, it's politics, plain and simple. McD had a stronger lobby than Grumman. An F-14 RIO friend of mine said the Tomcat community used to describe the "bug" as "one plane, one pilot, one mission, one bomb, one way (no endurance)"
8 posted on 09/23/2006 8:52:57 AM PDT by stm (Katherine Harris for US Senate!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
Can the F-18 carry the Phoenix missile? I don't think so.
9 posted on 09/23/2006 8:56:42 AM PDT by Vinnie (You're Nobody 'Til Somebody Jihads You)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: All
For those who want more F-14 pr0n, here's a link mentioned at the end of the article:

Home of M.A.T.S. - http://www.anft.net/f-14/

10 posted on 09/23/2006 9:05:44 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Vinnie
Fleet defense A/C and missiles soon to be obsolete, and not needed. Laser AAA power and tech is now so high, they can destroy any intruder in 1/10 second. Shipboard is also excellent platform for Directed Energy AAA weapons; no horizon problems as compared to land warfare, plenty of electric power, stable platform.

This is not laser guided AAA we are talking about. This is the laser as the actual weapon. In other words; a ray gun.
11 posted on 09/23/2006 9:10:38 AM PDT by MindBender26 (Having my own CAR-15 in RVN meant never having to say I was sorry....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: All
And within the M.T.T.S. site linked above, here's this:

When you're out of F-14s, then you're out of fighters!

12 posted on 09/23/2006 9:10:39 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: GOP_Party_Animal

F-4.......physical proof that if you put big enough engines in a brick, it will fly.....


13 posted on 09/23/2006 9:37:28 AM PDT by joe fonebone (Israel, taking out the world's trash since 1948.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: MindBender26
"Shipboard is also excellent platform for Directed Energy AAA weapons; no horizon problems as compared to land warfare, plenty of electric power, stable platform."

I beg to differ. There are atmospheric heating effects on the beam which are worse near the horizon. Also, there's a small issue with toxic exhaust from chemical lasers. These are not simple problems to solve.

JSL
14 posted on 09/23/2006 9:47:50 AM PDT by free_at_jsl.com
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
Cool plane, bad movie. Probably the GAYEST military movie ever made.

All of my fellow freepers who were fortunate enough to fly one I envy.

15 posted on 09/23/2006 9:49:04 AM PDT by Clemenza (Dave? Dave?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
Same rules that apply to other subjects should apply to something this pretty.


16 posted on 09/23/2006 9:54:33 AM PDT by frithguild (The Freepers moved as a group, like a school of sharks sweeping toward an unaware and unarmed victim)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: frithguild
LOL, agreed! Thanks for the F-14 pr0n! ;>)

Same rules that apply to other subjects should apply to something this pretty.

17 posted on 09/23/2006 9:57:58 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy

One thing I'll never see in my lifetime...the final flight of the C-130 Hercules, which first flew the year I was born.


18 posted on 09/23/2006 9:58:44 AM PDT by AlaskaErik (Everyone should have a subject they are ignorant about. I choose professional corporate sports.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
There are few aircraft that elicit such a strong bond between the air crew and the maintainers and the people who build them."

While the Tomcat is/was indeed a fantastic airplane, which I think should have been modernized rather than retired, you'll find the same thing said about almost every airplane, even the trash haulers. Those who devote their lives to flying them, or keeping them flying, grow to love them.

Even "Old Shaky" the C-124. One of the guys in my old reserve unit flew those, and the nearly notorious (for killing its crews and passengers) C-133. He speaks with similar fondness of *both* of them.

C-133.

C-124.

The fabulous F-14 Tomcat. Literally armed for Bear(s). (Bear == NATO code name for Tu-95 (and follow on) bomber)

19 posted on 09/23/2006 10:05:55 AM PDT by El Gato
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: GOP_Party_Animal
Interesting snippet from an article I just saw:

The only other country flying F-14s after today will be Iran, Pike says. Starved for spare parts, the Iranians struggle to keep the jets in flight.

Smuggled parts will be even harder to come by after the Navy retires the Tomcat.

"Nobody will be sorrier to see them go than the ayatollahs," Pike says.

20 posted on 09/23/2006 10:09:48 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Vinnie
Can the F-18 carry the Phoenix missile? I don't think so.

No, but it, like the F-15, F-16 and F-22, can carry the AMRAAM, aka Slammer, (AIM-120) which has many of the same capabilities, although shorter ranged, and lighter of warhead. However it's also more maneuverable in the "end game". Better, IMHO, against fighter or attack aircraft, and still sufficient against bombers. You have to get a little closer though, probably enough to put in the *theoretical* range of several Russian/Soviet missiles carried by Mig-29s and Su-27s. I'm sure F/A-18 could easily carry Phoenix, although fewer of them.

21 posted on 09/23/2006 10:17:09 AM PDT by El Gato
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: All
Coupalla (intentionally) dead links to another article, and a blog:

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-09-22-F14-tomcat_x.htm

http://blogs.usatoday.com/ondeadline/2006/09/remembering_the_3.html

22 posted on 09/23/2006 10:18:05 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
No doubt about it the dumbest decision ever made by Dick Cheney will be his order as Sec of Def to discontinue production of F-14's and destroy the tooling. Billions could have been saved by throwing the money into Avionics upgrades. The near as perfect as we're gonna get Naval fighter had done been built. What a waste :>{
23 posted on 09/23/2006 10:21:40 AM PDT by cva66snipe (If it was wrong for Clinton why do some support it for Bush? Party over nation destroys the nation.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
Smuggled parts will be even harder to come by after the Navy retires the Tomcat.

Actually might be easier. They'll all be in the boneyard for a while, then they'll be stripped *for parts* useful on other aircraft, leaving all the F-14 unique stuff just laying around in the desert, only lightly secured.

24 posted on 09/23/2006 10:27:29 AM PDT by El Gato
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: All
Heheheh, here's another FR post that I discovered on the USA Today blog:

USN Photo of Day: Forever-Fearsome F-14 Tomcat Fighter Jet's Last Official Launch, Flyby, Landing

25 posted on 09/23/2006 10:27:47 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Vinnie

Phoenix missiles were pulled from the active inventory even before the Tomcat. MUCH better stuff out there nowadays, especially against fighter aircraft (AIM-120 SLAMMER).


26 posted on 09/23/2006 10:28:03 AM PDT by SJSAMPLE
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: EnjoyingLife

Meant to include you in post #25.


27 posted on 09/23/2006 10:28:49 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: free_at_jsl.com
Elec, not chem.

Heating and bending is not a problem when you are shooting 100 "rounds" per second and your sighting and firing elements are collimated.

Remember, Phoenix could range out 100 miles for high altitude targets, but radar limited range to much less if target was very low, down in the wave/ground clutter.
28 posted on 09/23/2006 10:42:14 AM PDT by MindBender26 (Having my own CAR-15 in RVN meant never having to say I was sorry....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy

F-14 of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force

29 posted on 09/23/2006 10:54:47 AM PDT by Lonesome in Massachussets (The hallmark of a crackpot conspiracy theory is that it expands to include countervailing evidence.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Lonesome in Massachussets

I'm already looking forward to the 'last Iranian F-14 crashes and burns, or is shot down by US forces' thread! ;>)


30 posted on 09/23/2006 11:31:55 AM PDT by Ready4Freddy (Sophomore dies in kiln explosion? Oh My God! I just talked to her last week...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: cva66snipe

...and destroy the tooling.

What's the reason for this? Seems you can plunk it down in the desert somewhere and just sit on it.


31 posted on 09/23/2006 11:53:50 AM PDT by mr_hammer (They have eyes, but do not see . . .)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: mr_hammer
...and destroy the tooling. What's the reason for this? Seems you can plunk it down in the desert somewhere and just sit on it.

It seems like it would have been wise to keep enough of the production capabilities to where in a pinch production could have began without having to rebuild all the necessary machinery, molding, etc, to start production again. I don't know why it was done.

We are loosing our in house defense industries and capabilities at an alarming rate. For example only one shipyard remains which can produce even a conventional powered aircraft carrier. The remaining shipbuilder is across the river from the only major east coast carrier repair yard as well. We went from 4 to 1 although I think two of the four never actually produced a carrier.

32 posted on 09/23/2006 12:19:23 PM PDT by cva66snipe (If it was wrong for Clinton why do some support it for Bush? Party over nation destroys the nation.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: cva66snipe; mr_hammer
...and destroy the tooling. What's the reason for this? Seems you can plunk it down in the desert somewhere and just sit on it.

It seems like it would have been wise to keep enough of the production capabilities to where in a pinch production could have began without having to rebuild all the necessary machinery, molding, etc, to start production again. I don't know why it was done.

Political arrogance and bureaucratic pettiness. It's a way to insure that "their" decision can't be undone or reversed by a change in agency management or political regime. I'm certain if you asked, however, they'd give you all sorts of accounting gibberish and BS logistical cost/benefit arguments.

The same thing was done with the tooling for the SR-71 Blackbird, I believe, and whoever made that decision should have their butt kicked.

33 posted on 09/23/2006 1:03:45 PM PDT by tarheelswamprat (So what if I'm not rich? So what if I'm not one of the beautiful people? At least I'm not smart...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 32 | View Replies]

To: tarheelswamprat
he same thing was done with the tooling for the SR-71 Blackbird, I believe, and whoever made that decision should have their butt kicked.

I don't know about the SR-71, but IIRC, its was McNamara that ordered the Tomcat tools & jigs destroyed.


34 posted on 09/23/2006 2:46:31 PM PDT by AFreeBird (If American "cowboy diplomacy" did not exist, it would be necessary to invent it.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: Ready4Freddy
I'm already looking forward to the 'last Iranian F-14 crashes and burns, or...

...rusts in the hangar for lack of spare parts.

35 posted on 09/23/2006 3:32:01 PM PDT by Lonesome in Massachussets (The hallmark of a crackpot conspiracy theory is that it expands to include countervailing evidence.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: AFreeBird
I don't know about the SR-71, but IIRC, its was McNamara that ordered the Tomcat tools & jigs destroyed.

The bird wasn't even in service till 1972 thereabouts. I despise the man but it's another McNamara rumor that is simply urban legend like him ordering the KENNEDY & AMERICA to be conventional steamers instead of nuke power plants. I can prove he didn't do that as well by production dates. AMERICA was planned and keel laid as conventional under Ike's administration. At that point it was too far into production to order such a change of that magnitude.

It was Sec of Def Dick Cheney who ended production of the F-14 Tomcat and requested congress not fund further production. There's many sources to confirm it Cheney +F-14 in any search engine.

36 posted on 09/23/2006 5:27:29 PM PDT by cva66snipe (If it was wrong for Clinton why do some support it for Bush? Party over nation destroys the nation.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: AFreeBird

LOL never mind just saw the Tomcat patch in your post been a while since I've seen that. I remember we were doing some carrier quals in mid 79 I think maybe late 80 and I was watching a helo carrier off to our starboard about 5 miles or so. I kept seeing planes doing what I thought was fly-bys across the LPH flight deck and disappearing half way across. Then somebody said hey watch the Harriers.. Kinda like the flying fish you didn't want to admit you were seeing what you think you were LOL..


37 posted on 09/23/2006 5:47:53 PM PDT by cva66snipe (If it was wrong for Clinton why do some support it for Bush? Party over nation destroys the nation.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: cva66snipe; mr_hammer

F-14D Tomcat vs. F/18 E/F Super Hornet
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/fr/595147/posts

The Carrier Myth.
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/fr/577009/posts

see # 4 & 22


38 posted on 09/23/2006 6:47:42 PM PDT by quietolong
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: El Gato; cardinal4

Back in the day (Oct 1963) when I was on active duty, I got a hop from RAF Mildenhall to Rhein-Main AB on a C-124. It was deadheading, with no cargo. I was the only PAX. It was like riding in a flying empty warehouse.


39 posted on 09/23/2006 7:16:18 PM PDT by Ax (Coeur de lapin..)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: quietolong
I can make a case both for the F-14's and a minimum 12 carrier Navy. Both could still prove their battle worthiness and need. It is politicians that are killing defense programs many of which are needed.

It's not a DEM vs GOP issue either. Bush would be happy to take us to a 10 carrier fleet that Clinton's Sec of Def Les Aspin tried to do. We were headed in that direction before 9/11. Bush was gonna finsh what Poppy and Cheney started. We can't afford not to maintain our carrier fleet of 12 carriers and expect to maintain military superiority and a two hemisphere response and battle capabilities. We are on the edge of a catrostrophy if we come under attack by more than one nation at once. One facility hit and this nation will not be able to produce another carrier period.

Gulf War one cost us our second newest conventional carrier due to missed yard time and denial of Ship Life Extension Program. It did three 6 month deployments in three years time. It could still be in service but it had a major boiler room explosion at pier 12 in March 1994 in Norfolk upon return from the third deployment which should not have been made due to serious readiness issues. It was patched back together for a final deployment after it was towed cold iron into Norfolk Naval Ship Yards. It now rest 15,000 feet below the Atlantic ocean. Yet the carrier class name sake the oldest of the class remains in service?

If the Pentagon is running the nuke carrier program the way it has the conventional program we are in deep trouble. The idea that a nuke carrier can go indefinately is pure horse pucks. The ship won't take the abuse any longer than what a conventional carrier would. There's a whole lot more to it than the reactor involved in keeping a carrier operational.

At this point politically I don't see either political party as being pro-defense at this point in time. Both want a bare bones military running what few troops and equipment into the ground via over deployment and over extension with no substantial plans being made to address those concerns. Both are using the military to balance the budget for non defense programs and tax cuts. Kind of a stupid posture for congress, Potus, and all policy makers to make considering we are at war. They forget National Defense is the number one primary function of government. They also forgot it's it's not broke don't fix it. The F-14 program was in good shape till Cheney got a hold of it. He wasted billions that could have went into R&D for future Tomcat Avionics.

40 posted on 09/23/2006 11:53:03 PM PDT by cva66snipe (If it was wrong for Clinton why do some support it for Bush? Party over nation destroys the nation.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 38 | View Replies]

To: cva66snipe

2X ”

Some poor leadership at all levels.

I was talking to a Navy recruiter a short time ago. I couldn’t believe it. He said That Boot camp no longer has Fleet Week, Little marching and Mostly classroom work. (which is probably spent on don’t ask don’t tell acceptence)


41 posted on 09/25/2006 2:03:14 AM PDT by quietolong
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 40 | View Replies]

To: El Gato
Literally armed for Bear(s). (Bear == NATO code name for Tu-95 (and follow on) bomber)

Except for maybe a Backfire, shooting a Phoenix at a Soviet Naval Aviation aircraft would most certainly be followed by a chewing out from the CO. That's what Sparrows and Sidewinders are for, not million-dollar cruise missile killers.

The AWG-9 RADAR and the AIM-54A missile were designed for a single purpose. To shoot down the Soviet SS-N-19.

Their fighter role was strictly secondary. Grumman, upon being told by the Navy that the Tom was expected to be a dogfighter, responded in a typical Grumman way.

They installed a switch on the dashboard that dropped all Phoenix missiles into the sea, thus making the plane light enough to maneuver.

42 posted on 09/25/2006 3:12:00 AM PDT by Knitebane (Happily Microsoft free since 1999.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: quietolong
2X ” Some poor leadership at all levels. I was talking to a Navy recruiter a short time ago. I couldn’t believe it. He said That Boot camp no longer has Fleet Week, Little marching and Mostly classroom work. (which is probably spent on don’t ask don’t tell acceptence)

Fleet Week? Same as service week where they sent you to such places as the mess decks etc? Heck when you got to the ship you got three months worth of it right off the bat.

I went through boot at Great Lakes in late 1976 Our marching was limited a lot of times simply because of extreme weather conditions. Uniform of the day was suspended several times and the CC said wear as much as you can on your body & get to the chow hall as quick as you can and inside. Wind chill one night was estimated minus 100.

Foe marching though we went to a drill hall and in the barracks we got plenty of Mashing just because. Classroom stuff was mostly UCMJ and related info. We missed gas mask and fire fighting due to low temps. That winter was one of the coldest on record though. My Company Commander was a Snipe a MMC actually who also had his Dolphins. Needless to say he used the word "Dive" quite a bit LOL. I graduated basic before Christmas went home on leave and went back up for ATF as I didn't have an A-school. More bitter cold weather and the beginning of the Great Lakes NTC riots. I got to the ship mid FEB 77.

43 posted on 09/25/2006 3:33:03 AM PDT by cva66snipe (If it was wrong for Clinton why do some support it for Bush? Party over nation destroys the nation.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson