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Genetic Breakthrough that Reveals the Differences Between Humans

Posted on 11/23/2006 1:14:57 PM PST by Hawthorn

Link only, due to copyright restrictions:

http://news.independent.co.uk/world/science_technology/article2007490.ece


TOPICS: Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: dna; genetics; godsgravesglyphs; humangenetics

1 posted on 11/23/2006 1:14:58 PM PST by Hawthorn
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To: Hawthorn

This could be BIG!


2 posted on 11/23/2006 1:21:41 PM PST by babygene
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To: Hawthorn

Hmm, the link above did not work for me, but the same story appears elsewhere:

http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/story.jsp?story=715801


3 posted on 11/23/2006 1:27:20 PM PST by mvonfr
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To: Hawthorn
Here's another link:

Human DNA is far more varied than thought

(NewScientist.com news service).

4 posted on 11/23/2006 1:29:02 PM PST by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: AdmSmith; AnalogReigns; caryatid; Celtjew Libertarian; CobaltBlue; concentric circles; ...
Genetic
Genealogy
Send FReepmail if you want on/off GGP list
Marty = Paternal Haplogroup O(2?)(M175)
Maternal Haplogroup H
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The List of Ping Lists

5 posted on 11/23/2006 1:30:45 PM PST by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: Hawthorn

IBTZ?


6 posted on 11/23/2006 1:31:44 PM PST by dqauto
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To: All
I've always thought that races of man were the equivalent to "breeds" in other animals such as dogs and cats.

Anyone have any thoughts about this?
7 posted on 11/23/2006 1:44:41 PM PST by babygene
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To: Hawthorn

Yeah, big like a firecracker, all blow and little effect.

But you've got to admire hip genetic investigators; they know how to work a room full of supplicants.


8 posted on 11/23/2006 1:46:24 PM PST by the final gentleman
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To: Hawthorn

Happy Thanksgiving. Are you missing something?


9 posted on 11/23/2006 2:15:34 PM PST by dqauto
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To: Hawthorn
Genetic Breakthrough that Reveals the Differences Between Humans

---

Some understand baseball....... some don't.

10 posted on 11/23/2006 2:17:30 PM PST by beyond the sea ( Whiskey For My Men, Beer For My Horses)
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To: babygene
I've always thought that races of man were the equivalent to "breeds" in other animals such as dogs and cats.

Anyone have any thoughts about this?

Its a bit more complex than that.

There are genetic races (based on descent), and there are geographic races (based on living conditions). There is no necessary connection between the two.

Extremely small, dark skinned individuals are found in several areas (Pygmies, Negritoes, etc.). Some of the tribes in the Amazonian rain forests are tending in this direction as well, but have not quite had time to pick up all of the adaptations of the other groups. These specialized traits are geographic in origin, and there is no close genetic relationship among these groups.

In the opposite direction, groups which are relatively closely related genetically can look quite different. An example would be the Pygmies and Watusi of Africa.

11 posted on 11/23/2006 2:20:52 PM PST by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: Coyoteman

Are coyotes and domestic dogs two different races of canines?

Or are domestic dogs several hundred different "races" -- mostly the AKC breeds -- with coyotes being just another breed?


12 posted on 11/23/2006 2:42:05 PM PST by Hawthorn
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To: Hawthorn
Are coyotes and domestic dogs two different races of canines?

Or are domestic dogs several hundred different "races" -- mostly the AKC breeds -- with coyotes being just another breed?

Actually a difficult question.

Coyotes (Canis latrans) and dogs (Canis familiaris) are classified as different species, which implies they do not interbreed. While this may be true for the most part, coyotes can interbreed with both dogs and wolves (Canis lupus/rufus).

The differences among these three Canis species is far greater than the difference among various breeds of dog.

I am not sure if the term "race" applies, as that term has many meanings and still is poorly defined. However, if you use it to mean visible differences it would probably work for dog breeds.

13 posted on 11/23/2006 2:55:54 PM PST by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: Hawthorn
I cannot seem to wrap my mind around this, maybe it is the turkey: The findings mean that instead of humanity being 99.9 per cent identical, as previously believed, we are at least 10 times more different between one another than once thought... ...our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, than previously assumed from earlier studies. Instead of being 99 per cent similar, we are more likely to be about 96 per cent similar. are we 10 times more different from each other or 96 percent more similar to chimpanzees???
14 posted on 11/23/2006 3:00:33 PM PST by momincombatboots (Those who are too smart to engage in politics are punished by being governed by those who are dumber)
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To: Hawthorn

More use for the "junk" DNA.


15 posted on 11/23/2006 3:03:20 PM PST by AndrewC (Duckpond, LLD, JSD (all honorary))
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To: Coyoteman

> Coyotes (Canis latrans) and dogs (Canis familiaris) are classified as different species, which implies they do not interbreed. While this may be true for the most part, coyotes can interbreed with both dogs and wolves (Canis lupus/rufus). <

If one were to take the above practice as a guideline, then the Eskimos and the Australian aborigines would constitute different species, since they generally don't interbreed -- even though presumably they "can" do so!


16 posted on 11/23/2006 3:05:10 PM PST by Hawthorn
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To: Hawthorn
If one were to take the above practice as a guideline, then the Eskimos and the Australian aborigines would constitute different species, since they generally don't interbreed -- even though presumably they "can" do so!

That's why I said your question was difficult. Your use of the above analogy, based on coyotes and dogs, actually leads to the wrong answer in humans.

All human groups can interbreed and are considered the same genus, species, and subspecies. The genetic and physical differences among human groups are extremely minor.

17 posted on 11/23/2006 3:12:42 PM PST by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: momincombatboots

> are we 10 times more different from each other or 96 percent more similar to chimpanzees? <


I think the journalist is trying to say this:

Certain DNA specialists now believe that approximately one per cent of our genetic material differs from human to human -- whereas they used to think there was a human-to-human difference of about one-tenth of one percent.

Therefore, since one percent is ten times as large as 0.1 per cent, the new finding says we differ from one another by about ten times as much as previously thought.

(Stated alternatively, we're only 99.0 per cent alike rather than 99.9 per cent alike.)

Similarly, scientists used to say that about one per cent of the typical human's genetic material was different from the genetic material of the typical chimpanzee. Now however, certain experts believe we differ from chimps in about four per cent of our genetic material. So the new doctrine has increased the perceived human-to-chimpanzee difference by a factor of four.

(Or, we're only 96 per cent like chimps, rather than 99 per cent. And a good thing it is, IMHO!)


18 posted on 11/23/2006 3:21:36 PM PST by Hawthorn
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To: Hawthorn
Although there was an underlying similarity in terms of how common it was for genes to be copied, there were enough racial differences to assign every person bar none to their correct ethnic origin.

Just great..in a few decades someone will be able to make a nanotech weapon that targets a single ethnic group.

19 posted on 11/23/2006 3:26:16 PM PST by Bobalu (This is not the tag line you are looking for.....move along (waves hand))
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To: Coyoteman
Are you sure about this?

The differences among these three Canis species is far greater than the difference among various breeds of dog.

I was under the impression that DNA testing could not tell if a dog was part wolf, altho that may no longer be true. Here is a reference:

http://www.idir.net/~wolf2dog/genetic1.htm

susie

20 posted on 11/23/2006 3:29:22 PM PST by brytlea (amnesty--an act of clemency by an authority by which pardon is granted esp. to a group of individual)
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To: AndrewC

I've often wondered if someday we will discover the 'junk' is really useful codes. Reminds me of the ancient idea that the brain was a cooling place for the blood. So when making mummies, they would draw out the brains and throw them away, leaving only 'vital' things for the arising from the dead or the trip into the next world!


21 posted on 11/23/2006 3:29:23 PM PST by gb63
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Comment #22 Removed by Moderator

To: Hawthorn

Funny, we have evidence we are 96% DNA compatible with chimps, yet on another FR thread we have an on-going debate about high-school students in trouble for writing that a local Taco Bell had customers that acted like a pack of monkeys...Go figure!


23 posted on 11/23/2006 3:34:56 PM PST by gb63
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Comment #24 Removed by Moderator

To: brytlea
I was under the impression that DNA testing could not tell if a dog was part wolf, altho that may no longer be true

There has been a lot of research in DNA, particularly mtDNA in the past ten years. Here are two good links:

Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domestic Dog (its from the same site which you linked to)

Evolution of the family dog

25 posted on 11/23/2006 3:43:43 PM PST by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: Hawthorn

True scientists know that, each time we make some scientific "breakthrough", we have reached another point in which we now realize that we know far less than we thought we knew before the breakthrough and that the breakthrough has created far more new questions than the number of answers it resolved.

I have no hesitation is saying we still know far less than we think we do about the real workings of DNA.


26 posted on 11/23/2006 3:58:51 PM PST by Wuli
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To: Wuli

> I have no hesitation is saying we still know far less than we think we do about the real workings of DNA <

I share your sentiment. But there's a much bigger gap in our knowledge about proteins:

We know quite a lot about how DNA, working with RNA, codes for specific proteins. But its my impression that compared to what we know about DNA, we know next to nothing about the process by which these proteins generate specific organs and tissues.

So even if we should someday learn "everything" about DNA, it seems likely that we won't even be close to unlocking all the mysteries of life itself.

(But maybe a thousand years from today?)


27 posted on 11/23/2006 4:46:07 PM PST by Hawthorn
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To: Coyoteman

Interesting, thank you. I read thru it rather quickly, but is the gist that they could now do dna testing on a supposed wolf/dog hybrid and tell if it really was a combination of both?
susie


28 posted on 11/23/2006 7:15:16 PM PST by brytlea (amnesty--an act of clemency by an authority by which pardon is granted esp. to a group of individual)
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To: Hawthorn
But maybe a thousand years from today?

What exactly is the hope? Maybe some Fukuyamaist will write "The End of Science."

29 posted on 11/23/2006 7:21:59 PM PST by cornelis
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To: brytlea
but is the gist that they could now do dna testing on a supposed wolf/dog hybrid and tell if it really was a combination of both?

I think one of the critical paragraphs is:

The large number of different dog sequences, and the fact that no wolf sequences are found among them, suggests that dogs must have been separated from wolves for a long time.

This suggests that dog and wolf can be separated by the mtDNA sequences.

Now, the hard part. mtDNA is passed only from mother to daughter.

I would have to do a lot more study on this, but it may be that what you would call a dog, if it was a dog/wolf cross on the maternal lineage, would have wolf mtDNA.

This is one of the problems with mtDNA. I would like to see what the genetic DNA says as well.

Bottom line: its a very complex field, and it is progressing very rapidly. Most of the really advanced studies are less than 10 years old, and methods are improving increasingly rapidly.

My field deals, in part, with human mtDNA, and a lot of the interesting results are only 2-3 years old, or less, and many are not yet even in print. Things are changing that quickly.

Stay tuned!

30 posted on 11/23/2006 7:40:52 PM PST by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: Coyoteman

Thanks for the info. I understood genetics back in the olden days when it was all Mendal! It's gotten so much more complicated now! As a dog hobby breeder, sometimes I feel like the more we know the less we understand (as far as actually breeding *better* dogs--makes me feel pretty humble!)
Interesting about the mtDNA, I didn't think of that (altho I am familiar with the concept).
susie


31 posted on 11/23/2006 7:45:26 PM PST by brytlea (amnesty--an act of clemency by an authority by which pardon is granted esp. to a group of individual)
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To: cornelis

Don't know? I'll bet it's power. Human identification with knowledge that translates into power. The highest power is to overcome survival. The greatest survivor is eternal.


32 posted on 11/25/2006 9:23:49 AM PST by cornelis
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A Blast from the Past.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
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33 posted on 02/03/2007 11:08:54 AM PST by SunkenCiv (I last updated my profile on Wednesday, January 31, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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http://agonist.org/node/36685/print
http://www.anapsid.org/cnd/diffdx/geneticvariance.html
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20061123/ai_n16861165
http://www.bioinformatics.org/forums/forum.php?forum_id=4810


34 posted on 01/06/2008 9:15:34 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________Profile updated Sunday, December 30, 2007)
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