I wonder what possessed them to think they were remains that would belong to the Caddos or Wichitas? They tended to range further south and west, even 1000 years ago. This is forested area and they were open plains Indians, even into Kansas, to the north, but in the western part. The tools sound like Plains tools, too.
Eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas had been Cherokee for maybe 300 years. Maybe it was some Caddoan (not necessarily the Caddos or Wichitas themselves) or a Delaware-Lenape tribal family that came from the east.
I suppose if they dig more and find some mounds, that might answer the question - or they already know there are some. Hunh - interesting, anyway.
I caught my very first fish as a tiny kiddo at Spavinaw! Then promptly fell down *splat* in the watercress at the shoreline, just me and my little perch and short-stuff rod/reel.
They probably mean this small site is caddo as in "Spiro mounds caddoan" but I don't think people have settled to whom exactly the Spiro mounds era "caddo" are really related; the old theory was they were ancestors of the modern Caddo and Witchita but it's in dispute- they may be more akin to other peoples northeast of them all the way up to Illinois. Certainly the people from the Arkansas basin are linked in some fashion- and Spiro seems to have been a trade hub or gateway in the midst of this basin where finished goods passed from places like Cahokia with its numerous copper and shell workshop sites and huge caches of chert drills in return for something- some say Spiro may have been the conduit through which flowed soft bison hair for textiles, meat, bow d'arc staves for bows, etc, since we're not sure. Spiro is lacking in workshop sites but abounds in exotic finished goods. Trade in perishable products from their region and from the west is most likely the reason but it could be that goods went to Spiro for other cultural needs- a form of tribute, a kind of religious sacrifice at what may have been considered a special site, or reasons we can't understand yet.
I don't think it is Caddo or Wichita either. These tribes were assigned to reservations there but that was in the late 1800's. If these findings are 1000 years old they have to be some other tribe.
***I wonder what possessed them to think they were remains that would belong to the Caddos or Wichitas?***