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Light is made of particles AND waves, not OR
What's Next in Science | Rowan University ^ | 3/12/07

Posted on 03/12/2007 11:06:33 PM PDT by LibWhacker

Work completed by physics professors at Rowan University shows that light is made of particles and waves, a finding that refutes a common belief held for about 80 years.

Shahriar S. Afshar, the visiting professor who is currently at Boston's Institute for Radiation-Induced Mass Studies (IRIMS), led a team, including Rowan physics professors Drs. Eduardo Flores and Ernst Knoesel and student Keith McDonald, that proved Afshar’s original claims, which were based on a series of experiments he had conducted several years ago.

An article on the work titled "Paradox in Wave-Particle Duality" recently published in Foundations of Physics, a prestigious, refereed academic journal, supports Albert Einstein’s long-debated belief that quantum physics is incomplete. For eight decades the scientific community generally had supported Niels Bohr’s ideas commonly known as the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. In 1927, in his “Principle of Complementarity,” he asserted that in any experiment light shows only one aspect at a time, either it behaves as a wave or as a particle. Einstein was deeply troubled by that principle, since he could not accept that any external measurement would prevent light to reveal its full dual nature, according to Afshar. The fundamental problem, however, seemed to be that one has to destroy the photon in order to measure either aspects of it. Then, once destroyed, there is no light left to measure the other aspect.

“About 150 years ago, light was thought to behave solely as a wave similar to sound and water waves. In 1905, Einstein observed that light might also act as being made out of small particles. Since then physicists found it difficult understanding the full nature of light since in some situations it acts like a particle and in others like a wave,” Flores said. “This dual nature of light led to the insight that all fundamental physical objects include a wave and a particle aspect, even electrons, protons and students.”

Afshar conducted his initial theoretical and experimental work at IRIMS, where he served the privately funded organization as a principal investigator. He later continued his work at the Harvard University Physics Department as a research scholar, where he was able to verify his initial findings before going to Rowan.

In 2004, Afshar claimed that he had devised an experiment that challenged Bohr’s principle of complementarity. The Rowan team was formed to verify Afshar’s claim at extremely low light intensity levels. Afshar, Flores and Knoesel conducted experiments at Rowan that validated Afshar’s initial findings for single photons.

In this modified double-slit experiment, a laser beam hits a screen with two small pinholes. As a particle, light goes through one of the pinholes. Through a lens system, the light is then imaged onto two detectors, where a certain detector measures only the photons, which went through a particular pinhole. In this way, Afshar verified the particle nature of light. As a wave, light goes through both pinholes and forms a so-called interference pattern of bright and dark fringes.

“Afshar’s experiment consists of the clever idea of putting small absorbing wires at the exact position of the dark interference fringes, where you expect no light,” Knoesel said. “He then observed that the wires do not change the total light intensity, so there are really dark fringes at the position of the wires. That proves that light also behaves as a wave in the same experiment in which it behaves as a particle.”

The findings of the Afshar experiment were published online on January 23 in the Foundations of Physics, an international journal devoted to the conceptual bases and fundamental theories of modern physics, biophysics and cosmology, with several distinguished Nobel laureates on its editorial board. The print version was published in the February 2007 edition and is now available in libraries throughout the world.

“The important new contribution is that light carries both wave and particle aspects at all times, and future experiments will further clarify the nature of each component.” Afshar said.

Flores continued, “It is interesting to note that even after 80 years we can still gain a better understanding about the nature of light using refined measurement techniques and creative ideas and therefore are able add to the vast insights of former scientists.”

Source: Rowan University


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: duality; light; particle; physics; science; stringtheory; wave

1 posted on 03/12/2007 11:06:34 PM PDT by LibWhacker
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To: LibWhacker

bump to read later


2 posted on 03/12/2007 11:10:59 PM PDT by AprilfromTexas
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To: LibWhacker

Enlightening. Thanks.


3 posted on 03/12/2007 11:15:34 PM PDT by saganite
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To: SunkenCiv

ping


4 posted on 03/12/2007 11:18:09 PM PDT by FairOpinion (Victory in Iraq. Stop Hillary. Go to: http://www.TheVanguard.org)
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To: AprilfromTexas

.


5 posted on 03/12/2007 11:20:58 PM PDT by saganite (Why is my tagline missing?)
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To: LibWhacker
I have Schrodinger's Toilet at my house- I flush it, and if I walk away it keeps running. If I stand and watch it- it stops.

I know it's a combination of waves and particles. Very large particles.

6 posted on 03/12/2007 11:22:39 PM PDT by fat city (What part of cognitive dissonance don't you understand?)
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To: fat city
I have Schrodinger's Toilet at my house- I flush it, and if I walk away it keeps running. If I stand and watch it- it stops.

I used to have a Heisenberg uncertainty shower. You could control the pressure or the temperature, but not both.

7 posted on 03/12/2007 11:27:37 PM PDT by Vroomfondel
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To: LibWhacker
That was surprisingly light reading.

8 posted on 03/12/2007 11:31:20 PM PDT by I see my hands (_8(|)
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To: LibWhacker

80 years my ass. I've known this for 25 years and how could I have known it unless I read it somewhere?


9 posted on 03/12/2007 11:36:38 PM PDT by jwh_Denver ("Planet of the Apes" happened because people wouldn't proof read their posts.)
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To: LibWhacker

cool physics bump for later........


10 posted on 03/12/2007 11:44:04 PM PDT by indthkr
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To: LibWhacker
“Afshar’s experiment consists of the clever idea of putting small absorbing wires at the exact position of the dark interference fringes, where you expect no light,” Knoesel said. “He then observed that the wires do not change the total light intensity, so there are really dark fringes at the position of the wires. That proves that light also behaves as a wave in the same experiment in which it behaves as a particle.”

I don't get it. I stand in the sun, and my body casts a shadow, and my hand's shadow disappears when I move it into my trunk shadow. Are these learned Solons saying that my hand shadow can still be discerned in some way?

11 posted on 03/12/2007 11:44:52 PM PDT by brityank (The more I learn about the Constitution, the more I realise this Government is UNconstitutional !!)
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To: brityank

The dark area of an interference fringe is not a "shadow", to begin with. That's where waves of light cancel off each other. Or something to that effect.


12 posted on 03/13/2007 12:05:21 AM PDT by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: Bellflower

ping


13 posted on 03/13/2007 12:14:33 AM PDT by Bittersweetmd (God is Great and greatly to be praised.)
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To: brityank

I believe they mean that when light acts as a particle, it should hit the shadow area, but it does not and indvidualy goes through either hole. Thus the photon chooses one hole or the other for some strange reason, and instead of light acting as a wave interference in the shadow area, it's more of a logical like switching that occurs, according to a certain clock.

This could have fantastic repercution in nano-computer development and "artificial intelligence" as it is more akin to the transistor effect. It also would mean there is no uncertainty...


14 posted on 03/13/2007 12:33:30 AM PDT by JudgemAll (Condemn me, make me naked and kill me, or be silent for ever on my gun ownership and law enforcement)
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To: jwh_Denver
I've known this for 25 years and how could I have known it unless I read it somewhere? This was in high school physics. The particles (or mass portion of the "duality") were called photons. Our teacher had us calculate the force these photons exerted on our bodies as we stood in the sun. The "force" was infintesimally small, but it still existed. I am sure my HS understanding of electromagnetism and related subjects is rudimentary -- but I like you recall this from some time ago.
15 posted on 03/13/2007 12:39:25 AM PDT by Draco
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To: fat city

Sounds like your large toilet waves are related to your large particles.

Surf's up!


16 posted on 03/13/2007 12:53:51 AM PDT by Quix (GOD ALONE IS WORTHY; GOD ALONE PAID THE PRICE; GOD ALONE IS ABLE; LOVE GOD WHOLLY)
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To: Draco

Yeah...gee whiz...wow...damn the Photon torpedoes, full speed ahead!


17 posted on 03/13/2007 1:34:22 AM PDT by gr8eman (Everybody is a rocket scientist...until launch day!)
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To: LibWhacker
So it's a desert topping and a floor wax?

L

18 posted on 03/13/2007 1:37:56 AM PDT by Lurker (Calling islam a religion is like calling a car a submarine.)
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To: LibWhacker

Thanks for illuminating this subject.


19 posted on 03/13/2007 3:28:59 AM PDT by The_Media_never_lie
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To: camle

BFL


20 posted on 03/13/2007 3:35:32 AM PDT by camle (keep your mind open and somebody will fill it full of something for you)
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To: LibWhacker

If true it's pretty odd that guys like Einstein and Bohr didn't think of it first.


21 posted on 03/13/2007 4:12:55 AM PDT by bkepley
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To: JudgemAll

Maybe there is no clock, maybe it is simultaneously acting as both particle and wave. Maybe this demonstrates other dimensions of space time, parallel dimensions...reminds me of the paradox that light has velocity but no acceleration.

walks away humming "Synchronicity"


22 posted on 03/13/2007 4:21:20 AM PDT by ffusco (Maecilius Fuscus,Governor of Longovicium , Manchester, England. 238-244 AD)
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To: bkepley
If true it's pretty odd that guys like Einstein and Bohr didn't think of it first.

I am sure they and others thought of it but experimental verification was not there yet.

23 posted on 03/13/2007 4:54:31 AM PDT by Right Wing Assault ("..this administration is planning a 'Right Wing Assault' on values and ideals.." - John Kerry)
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To: Right Wing Assault

bookmark ping


24 posted on 03/13/2007 5:03:45 AM PDT by Dad yer funny (FoxNews is morphing , and not for the better ,... internal struggle? Its hard to watch)
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To: LibWhacker
Not bragging, but in 1979 I got thrown out of Physics 101 because I would not let go of this exact theory, It was heresy in the Physics world at the time. The professor would hear none of it. Seemed only logical to me at the time. He accused me of "Star Trek" physics. Well joke on him. Roddenberry turned out to be right on many things that have been verified since then.
25 posted on 03/13/2007 5:11:11 AM PDT by mad_as_he$$ (So many geeks, so few circuses.)
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To: ffusco

"time" is over running matter waves(half of your physical existence), ie, deceleration and weight(W>P).


26 posted on 03/13/2007 5:13:08 AM PDT by timer (n/0=n=nx0)
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To: LibWhacker
Flores continued, “It is interesting to note that even after 80 years we can still gain a better understanding about the nature of light using refined measurement techniques and creative ideas and therefore are able add to the vast insights of former scientists.”

Except when challenging something like the Big Bang by demonstrating that red shift of quasars and galaxies is only partly due to recessional velocity. The answer to this is to refuse publication to those scientists who claim otherwise and to lock them out of the observatories.
27 posted on 03/13/2007 5:21:43 AM PDT by aruanan
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To: mad_as_he$$

In 1955 when I was in 2nd grade, I looked at a world map and told my teacher that South America would fit right up against Africa. She chuckled and mentioned that the continents couldn't move that much.

Some years later I read about Wegener, an early proponent (1912) of the idea that the continents were together at one time. The debate went for years as people looked for a mechanism to allow continental drift.



28 posted on 03/13/2007 6:03:07 AM PDT by Right Wing Assault ("..this administration is planning a 'Right Wing Assault' on values and ideals.." - John Kerry)
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To: LibWhacker

Interesting how we are seeing the demise of a number of major theories. Sounds wierd but this makes light sound a bit like it has some characteristics of water....


29 posted on 03/13/2007 6:08:15 AM PDT by applpie
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To: Right Wing Assault

Nice insight!!


30 posted on 03/13/2007 6:36:03 AM PDT by mad_as_he$$ (So many geeks, so few circuses.)
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To: LibWhacker

I have alway been confused by the idea of light as waves, since waves require some type of medium to propagate them (the way sound waves can only move through air or water, but not in a vacuum.)

So it always seemed to me that if light is made of waves, it would not travel through space.

I'm no physicist, but I did study acoustics in music school back in the '70s.

I know that light does have some characteristics of waves, but it always struck me that it fundamentally had to be comprised of particles.


31 posted on 03/13/2007 9:31:07 AM PDT by Maceman (This is America. Why must we press "1" for English?)
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To: LibWhacker
Light is made of particles AND waves, not OR

Yes, I knew that. Thank you junior-year physics!
32 posted on 03/13/2007 2:30:53 PM PDT by G8 Diplomat (Life is full of change....it's called calculus)
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To: fat city
I have Schrodinger's Toilet at my house

Is it dead and alive at the same time?
33 posted on 03/13/2007 2:37:58 PM PDT by G8 Diplomat (Life is full of change....it's called calculus)
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To: Vroomfondel
I used to have a Heisenberg uncertainty shower. You could control the pressure or the temperature, but not both.

My dad illustrates the Heisenberg uncertaint principle when he gets lost while driving...he knows how fast he's going by looking at the spedometer, but doesn't know where the heck he is!
34 posted on 03/13/2007 2:40:19 PM PDT by G8 Diplomat (Life is full of change....it's called calculus)
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To: mad_as_he$$
"Roddenberry turned out to be right on many things that have been verified since then."

Unfortunately it seems that he will also be proved to be right when the earth is run by a quasi-fascistic one-world government led by freakish mutants from who knows where.

35 posted on 03/13/2007 3:46:59 PM PDT by who_would_fardels_bear
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To: LibWhacker

This evidence tends to prove that science should be left to credentialed scientists and not circulated in the general population.


36 posted on 03/13/2007 3:50:00 PM PDT by RightWhale (300 miles north of Big Wild Life)
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To: Maceman
"since waves require some type of medium to propagate them"

That's where the ether comes in ...

37 posted on 03/13/2007 3:50:08 PM PDT by who_would_fardels_bear
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To: ffusco

Interesting. I think of it as guitar strings close together, or when hitting a key next to a piano chord and transmiting the same frequency over. There actualy is no acceleration of the wave indeed, no matter how fast one would travel inside the chord or along it.


38 posted on 03/13/2007 4:14:25 PM PDT by JudgemAll (Condemn me, make me naked and kill me, or be silent for ever on my gun ownership and law enforcement)
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To: aruanan

"Except when challenging something like the Big Bang by demonstrating that red shift of quasars and galaxies is only partly due to recessional velocity. The answer to this is to refuse publication to those scientists who claim otherwise and to lock them out of the observatories."

I think it was Max Planck who observed that an apparent quantum jump in papers on certain topics was really due to the death of "Old Fart" editors of scholastic journals who had suppressed them when they were alive.

So it goes.


39 posted on 03/13/2007 4:24:14 PM PDT by Panzerlied ("We shall never surrender!")
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To: who_would_fardels_bear

Ahhh. You see. I forgot about the ether.


40 posted on 03/13/2007 4:29:53 PM PDT by Maceman (This is America. Why must we press "1" for English?)
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To: LibWhacker

“This dual nature of light led to the insight that all fundamental physical objects include a wave and a particle aspect, even electrons, protons and students.”

I love a guy with a sense of humor.


41 posted on 03/13/2007 4:31:08 PM PDT by tet68 ( " We would not die in that man's company, that fears his fellowship to die with us...." Henry V.)
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To: Physicist; RadioAstronomer

Ping.


42 posted on 03/13/2007 4:32:44 PM PDT by Lurking Libertarian (Non sub homine, sed sub Deo et lege)
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To: LibWhacker

The ramifications of this are pretty spectacular. For starters, if you assume light consists of both waves and particles, you have to assume that the particles create the waves and that the particles are superluminary. Nothing moving through a medium that I know of creates a wave which moves as fast or faster than itself. It also suggests that there actually is an aether of sorts, perhaps the neutrino soup some have suggested, and that Dayton Miller was correct in claiming to have run the Michelson/Morley experiment with better equipment and at higher altitudes, and that it did not fail.


43 posted on 03/13/2007 4:54:30 PM PDT by rickdylan
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To: who_would_fardels_bear

Yup - scary ain't it.......


44 posted on 03/13/2007 6:41:43 PM PDT by mad_as_he$$ (The only difference between Rudy and Hillary is that Rudy has better legs..)
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To: FairOpinion

Thanks FairO. I exspectrum further studies will emerge.


45 posted on 03/13/2007 10:20:31 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (I last updated my profile on Sunday, March 11, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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from February.

46 posted on 07/04/2007 3:52:58 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (This tagline optimized for the Mosaic browser. Profile updated Wednesday, July 4, 2007.)
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To: LibWhacker
...using refined measurement techniques and creative ideas ...

I worked with a guy whose brother was researching something with laser light. He was lasering drops of nitroglycerin to get a spectrum or the like.

Any way, he was given his own structure for that experiment.

47 posted on 07/04/2007 4:24:02 PM PDT by Calvin Locke
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To: LibWhacker
Light was waves.... until evil Republicans caused Global Warming and the light became particles!

Whoa... didn't see that coming!

48 posted on 07/04/2007 4:30:04 PM PDT by Bender2 (A 'Good Yankee' comes down to Texas, then goes back north. A 'Damn Yankee' stays... Damn it!)
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