Because of the nature of the security clearance Pollard held, the treason charge has a much lower threshold.
Tomoya Kawakita was convicted of treason and sentenced to death. His case is interesting because he didn't really give any particular benefit to the enemy. Eisenhower commuted his sentence. The Rosenbergs were, of course, executed.
Robert Hanssen would most likely have been sentenced to death for treason but confessed and plead down to a sentence that spared his life.
Sgt. Bryan Patrick Regan's case might lead to treason charges. A very interesting article at the FoxNews website details why treason is not pursued more often. Basically, it's easier to charge them with murder.
All of these were cases in which the countries were unfriendly, but I think it's clear that if the Rosenbergs gave the secret of the bomb to, say, Canada, they still would have been executed.
Irrelevant. You altered the quote to call the Minister a liar: he was not.
And you have shown nothing to validate your assertion the friendliness of the country doesn't matter. Cite me some case law. Your gratuitous assertions are just as gratuitously denied.