Yep, even we were young and stupid, and totally ignorant of the effects of nuclear fallout. At least our troops were, somewhat, willing participants. They at least knew what they had just witnessed, and they also knew that during a war where such weapons were used, they would be ordered into battle. (I think the latter was to gauge what the psychological affects would be on the troops) They just didn't know what would happen afterwards, and really, neither did the egg heads.
I believe they really knew what would happen but ignored it. I was in the Air Force at that time and I knew but most ignored the results. The mission was the important issue.