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Not One But 'Six Giraffe Species'
BBC ^ | 12-22-2007 | Anna-Marie Lever

Posted on 12/22/2007 2:06:52 PM PST by blam

Not one but 'six giraffe species'

Anna-Marie Lever
Science and nature reporter, BBC News

Giraffe populations have dropped by 30% over the past decade

The world's tallest animal, the giraffe, may actually be several species, a study has found.

A report in BMC Biology uses genetic evidence to show that there may be at least six species of giraffe in Africa.

Currently giraffes are considered to represent a single species classified into multiple subspecies.

The study shows geographic variation in hair coat colour is evident across the giraffe's range in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting reproductive isolation.

"Using molecular techniques we found that giraffes can be classified into six groups that are reproductively isolated and not interbreeding," David Brown, the lead author of the study and a geneticist at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), told BBC News.

"The results were a surprise because although the giraffes look different, if you put them in zoos, they breed freely."

Spots and maple leaves

The study also found that the two giraffe subspecies that live closest to each other - the reticulated giraffe (Currently: Giraffa camelopardalis reticulate) in North Kenya, which has reddish round spots; and the Maasai giraffe (Currently: Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in South Kenya - separated 0.5 to 1.5 million years ago.

SOME GIRAFFE FACTS

* The familiar animals can grow up to 6m (20ft) in height
* Their remarkable tongues grow up to 45cm (18in) long
* Adult giraffes can weigh in excess of 1,000kg (2,200lbs)
* Long legs enable speeds of up to 35miles/hour (55km/h)

These results are interesting as giraffes are highly mobile animals. They frequently range over several hundred square kilometres and are capable of long distance movements of some 50-300km (30-170 miles), which means different populations are likely to meet.

Mr Brown added: "There are no rivers or forests to prevent breeding, but some evolutionary process is keeping the two groups reproductively separated."

The researchers have suggested this separation may be being driven by ecological differences, such as differences in vegetation at a micro-level, or even sexual selection.

"The female Maasai giraffe may be looking at the male reticulated giraffe and thinking, 'I don't look like you; I don't want to mate with you'," Mr Brown explained.

Need for conservation

Mr Brown also highlighted the conservation implications of this study: "Lumping all giraffes into one species obscures the reality that some kinds of giraffe are on the brink.

"Some of these populations number only a few hundred individuals and need immediate protection."

Over the past decade there has been a 30% drop in giraffe numbers, with total numbers under 100,000.

It is hoped that classifying current subspecies as fully fledged species will help inform conservation plans to save the most threatened populations. These include:

The Nigerian giraffe (Currently: Giraffa camelopardalis peralta). The last 160 individuals are found in found in West and Central Africa.

The Rothschild giraffe (Currently: Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi). The last few hundred can only be found in a few protected areas in Kenya and in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda. The animals' status is currently under review by an International Giraffe Working Group (IGWG). Its evidence will inform the IUCN Red List of threatened and endangered species.

The genetic research was supported by the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: africa; genetic; giraffe; species

1 posted on 12/22/2007 2:06:54 PM PST by blam
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To: blam

Giraffes laugh at people. Elephants are just annoyed by the mere existence of people.


2 posted on 12/22/2007 2:10:00 PM PST by RightWhale (Dean Koonz is good, but my favorite authors are Dun and Bradstreet)
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To: RightWhale

Giraffe ping


3 posted on 12/22/2007 2:11:27 PM PST by Sir_Humphrey (Scratch a liberal, find a communist)
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To: blam
"The female Maasai giraffe may be looking at the male reticulated giraffe and thinking, 'I don't look like you; I don't want to mate with you'," Mr Brown explained.

:^)

4 posted on 12/22/2007 2:12:00 PM PST by Disambiguator (Political Correctness is criminal insanity writ large.)
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To: blam

Will DNA decoding lead to a change in biological toponymy? Or, as the article suggests, just a word game to get funding and protection?


5 posted on 12/22/2007 2:13:20 PM PST by NonValueAdded (Fred Dalton Thompson for President)
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To: NonValueAdded

I wonder what the same exact DNA analysis would say about the human species?


6 posted on 12/22/2007 2:16:02 PM PST by AlphaNumericus
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To: blam

If the different “species” can interbreed and produce fertile offspring, then they are just different breeds of giraffe. Unless they want to start calling a German Shepard a different species from a Labrador Retriever.


7 posted on 12/22/2007 2:22:13 PM PST by MediaMole
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To: blam

Giraffes are insincere.


8 posted on 12/22/2007 2:27:09 PM PST by Steely Tom (Steely's First Law of the Main Stream Media: if it doesn't advance the agenda, it's not news.)
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To: AlphaNumericus

DNA analyses of humans have been performed to a far greater extent than the equivalent on any other living organism.


9 posted on 12/22/2007 2:27:55 PM PST by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: CarrotAndStick

I know, but politically incorrect finding would have been suppressed.


10 posted on 12/22/2007 2:37:22 PM PST by AlphaNumericus
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To: blam; SunkenCiv

“Giraffe populations have dropped by 30% over the past decade”

OK, so if there ARE multiple species, which ones are least fit?

And is there not a government program for these underprivileged?

Darwin, bah humbug.



In other news, heard near the herd:

Hey Baby, wanna NECK?


11 posted on 12/22/2007 2:39:25 PM PST by The Spirit Of Allegiance (Public Employees: Honor Your Oaths! Defend the Constitution from Enemies--Foreign and Domestic!)
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To: blam

If they don’t taste good, who cares?


12 posted on 12/22/2007 2:51:09 PM PST by Soliton (Vote "next")
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To: Steely Tom
"Giraffes are insincere."

At The Zoo

13 posted on 12/22/2007 2:52:52 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

If giraffes can reproduce across these differentiations, they are manifestly not separate “species.”


14 posted on 12/22/2007 2:54:32 PM PST by unspun (God save us from egos -- especially our own.)
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To: blam
That "Dirty Jobs" show did a day at the zoo. The pooper-scooper guy said giraffe poop was probably his favorite, since it passes through four stomachs, and comes out looking like Kix cereal.

So off to the giraffe area they went....

15 posted on 12/22/2007 2:58:53 PM PST by Calvin Locke
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To: Calvin Locke
Giraffes Duking It Out
16 posted on 12/22/2007 3:07:22 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: unspun

Lions and tigers turn out to be the same species. A lion and tiger can interbreed and produce fertile offspring with mixed lion/tiger characteristics


17 posted on 12/22/2007 3:12:45 PM PST by PapaBear3625
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To: PapaBear3625
I'm glad that at least the article uses the word "subspecies" in its body.
18 posted on 12/22/2007 3:16:11 PM PST by unspun (God save us from egos -- especially our own.)
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To: MediaMole

If they thought there was any influence or money in it, they would try that argument; unfortunately, there seems to be no liklihood that dogs will become extinct unless we run out of meat for the planet.


19 posted on 12/22/2007 3:18:05 PM PST by Old Professer (The critic writes with rapier pen, dips it twice, and writes again.)
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To: blam
From the giraffes point of view thier necks are too short, from their predators point of view they grin and see dinner while Mr Giraffe quenches his ample thirst.


20 posted on 12/22/2007 3:23:12 PM PST by jwalsh07
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To: AlphaNumericus

http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf

Maps of the world showing the distribution of Y chromosome and the MTDNA haplogroups throughout the world.

21 posted on 12/22/2007 3:37:51 PM PST by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: AlphaNumericus

Of note:

R1

The undifferentiated R1 lineage is quite rare. It is found only at very low frequencies in Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. This lineage possibly originated in Europe and then migrated east into Asia.

>>> R1a

The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. This lineage is believed to have originated in a population of the Korgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.

>>> R1b1

Haplogroup R1b1 is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype.

http://htmlsd.com/haplogroups.htm


22 posted on 12/22/2007 3:43:31 PM PST by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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To: CarrotAndStick

Thanks. I’ve already done my DNA. I’m yDNA R1b and mtDNA ‘V’ (which you don’t show in that chart). ‘V’ is mainly Saami, Laplanders.


23 posted on 12/22/2007 3:45:04 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: CarrotAndStick

R1b Genographic Migration Map

24 posted on 12/22/2007 3:47:28 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

Gee...well, then all those species must be endangered, right...


25 posted on 12/22/2007 3:49:11 PM PST by RavenATB
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To: CarrotAndStick

DNA Ice Age Refuges 12,000 Years ago

26 posted on 12/22/2007 3:51:08 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

Interesting!


27 posted on 12/22/2007 3:54:08 PM PST by CarrotAndStick (The articles posted by me needn't necessarily reflect my opinion.)
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I wonder what giraffe would taste like.


28 posted on 12/22/2007 3:57:42 PM PST by isom35
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To: Steely Tom
Zebras are reactionaries
Antelopes are missionaries
Pigeons plot in secrecy
While hamsters turn on frequently.
29 posted on 12/22/2007 3:58:55 PM PST by Publius (A = A)
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To: blam
“Mr Brown also highlighted the conservation implications of this study: “Lumping all giraffes into one species obscures the reality that some kinds of giraffe are on the brink.

“Some of these populations number only a few hundred individuals and need immediate protection.” “

The sum and substance of this article’s agenda is that if giraffes can be divided by the infamous “trinomial (subspecies), then funding can be justified.

This is the old Lumpers v. Splitters argument. Those wanting to split species based on minor coat patterns are either grad students seeking a thesis or established scientists seeking Endangered Species Act funding.

The rest of us know what a giraffe knows - If it looks like one, it IS one.

30 posted on 12/22/2007 5:29:16 PM PST by GladesGuru (In a society predicated upon freedom, it is essential to examine principle)
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To: The Spirit Of Allegiance

“separated 0.5 to 1.5 million years ago.”

Dang, I had no idea a giraffe could get that old.


31 posted on 12/22/2007 7:20:14 PM PST by SunkenCiv (Profile updated Tuesday, December 18, 2007___________________https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv; DaveLoneRanger

> > > > > > “separated 0.5 to 1.5 million years ago.”

> > > Dang, I had no idea a giraffe could get that old.


This ‘scientist’ is running neck and neck with the inventor of Piltdown Man for my awed respect...


32 posted on 12/22/2007 7:50:31 PM PST by The Spirit Of Allegiance (Public Employees: Honor Your Oaths! Defend the Constitution from Enemies--Foreign and Domestic!)
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To: unspun

Horses and donkeys can mate. Granted, their offspring are always sterile, but they do produce offspring.


33 posted on 12/23/2007 5:43:11 AM PST by ops33 (Retired USAF Senior Master Sergeant)
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