Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Rogem Hiri An Ancient, Mysterious Construction
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs ^ | 2008 | U/A

Posted on 01/19/2008 3:41:43 AM PST by Fred Nerks

The megalithic complex of Rogem Hiri (Rujm al-Hiri in Arabic, meaning stone heap of the wild cat) is located in the central Golan, some 16 km. east of the Sea of Galilee, on a desolate plateau of basalt boulders. Since its discovery in a survey of the Golan in the late 1960s, this mysterious site has aroused the curiosity of archeologists. Between 1988 and 1991, archeological excavations and research were conducted in order to establish facts and determine the time of its construction and its function.

Rogem Hiri is a monumental construction of local basalt fieldstones of various sizes. It consists of two architectural units: four concentric circles enclosing a central, round cairn. The outer, largest circle is about 500 m. long and 156 m. in diameter. The walls are of varying width, of up to 3.5 m., and have been preserved to a height of 2.5 m., obliterated in some parts by stone collapse. Several radial walls connect the circular walls, creating a labyrinth-like structure which has only two entryways, one facing northeast, the other southeast.

At the center of the circles is a cairn, an irregular heap of stones. It is 20-25 m. in diameter and preserved to a height of 6 m. The cairn consists of a central mound of stones surrounded by a lower belt, which gives it the appearance of a stepped, truncated cone. A geophysical survey using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) revealed the pile of stones to be hollow. A built burial chamber, with a narrow corridor leading to it, was discovered there. The chamber is round, roughly 2 m. in diameter, built of large stone plates arranged on top of each other, but slightly slanting inwards. It was covered by two massive slabs of basalt, each weighing over 5.5 tons, which created a semi-corbelled dome over the burial chamber.

Rogem Hiri is one of the most intriguing archeological sites in Israel. A variety of theories concerning the function of this structure, which has no parallel in the Middle East, had been proposed prior to the current research: a religious center; a defensive enclosure; a large burial complex; a center for astronomical observation; and a calendrical device. The structure was even identified as the tomb of Og, King of the Bashan and last of the giants. (Deuteronomy 3:11)

Rogem Hiri was also regarded as an astronomical observatory a sort of Middle Eastern Stonehenge. This theory is supported by the fact that the eastern side, facing the rising sun, was built with much greater care. Also, the only two entryways are located on that side, the northeastern one roughly oriented towards the solstitial sunrise on 21 June.

The archeologists who excavated the site offer other possible explanations. According to one view, the concentric circles were built during the Early Bronze Age, in the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, as a cultic and ceremonial center, where nomadic people in the process of becoming sedentary gathered annually; and that much later, during the late Bronze Age (1400 1300 BCE) the cairn containing the burial chamber was added (it was robbed of its contents in antiquity and only a few artifacts were found, including gold earrings and bronze arrowheads). Measurements revealed that the cairn is not located in the center of the concentric circles, supporting the view that the stone pile was a later addition.

According to another view, the architecture of Rogem Hiri proves that both the concentric circles and the cairn were parts of a single structure. There is no evidence for a cultic structure below the cairn and artifacts typical of known cultic centers of that period were not found. Rogem Hiri was therefore a monumental commemorative tomb the mausoleum of an Early Bronze Age leader in the Golan; the tomb was cleared of its early burial remains in the Late Bronze Age, and then reused for burial. The size of the site reflects centralized organization and leadership capable of carrying out an engineering project of such proportions (it is estimated that 42,000 tons of stones had to be transported!).

The riddle of Rogem Hiri remains unsolved. Those who built it some 5,000 years ago left the stage of history and took with them the secrets of this unusual site.

The excavations were directed by Y. Mizrahi and M. Zohar, as part of the Land of Geshur Regional project headed by M. Kochavi, of the Institute of Archeology, Tel Aviv University

The megalithic complex of Rogem Hiri (Rujm al-Hiri in Arabic, meaning stone heap of the wild cat) is located in the central Golan, some 16 km. east of the Sea of Galilee, on a desolate plateau of basalt boulders. Since its discovery in a survey of the Golan in the late 1960s, this mysterious site has aroused the curiosity of archeologists. Between 1988 and 1991, archeological excavations and research were conducted in order to establish facts and determine the time of its construction and its function.

Rogem Hiri is a monumental construction of local basalt fieldstones of various sizes. It consists of two architectural units: four concentric circles enclosing a central, round cairn. The outer, largest circle is about 500 m. long and 156 m. in diameter. The walls are of varying width, of up to 3.5 m., and have been preserved to a height of 2.5 m., obliterated in some parts by stone collapse. Several radial walls connect the circular walls, creating a labyrinth-like structure which has only two entryways, one facing northeast, the other southeast.

At the center of the circles is a cairn, an irregular heap of stones. It is 20-25 m. in diameter and preserved to a height of 6 m. The cairn consists of a central mound of stones surrounded by a lower belt, which gives it the appearance of a stepped, truncated cone. A geophysical survey using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) revealed the pile of stones to be hollow. A built burial chamber, with a narrow corridor leading to it, was discovered there. The chamber is round, roughly 2 m. in diameter, built of large stone plates arranged on top of each other, but slightly slanting inwards. It was covered by two massive slabs of basalt, each weighing over 5.5 tons, which created a semi-corbelled dome over the burial chamber.

Rogem Hiri is one of the most intriguing archeological sites in Israel. A variety of theories concerning the function of this structure, which has no parallel in the Middle East, had been proposed prior to the current research: a religious center; a defensive enclosure; a large burial complex; a center for astronomical observation; and a calendrical device. The structure was even identified as the tomb of Og, King of the Bashan and last of the giants. (Deuteronomy 3:11)

Rogem Hiri was also regarded as an astronomical observatory a sort of Middle Eastern Stonehenge. This theory is supported by the fact that the eastern side, facing the rising sun, was built with much greater care. Also, the only two entryways are located on that side, the northeastern one roughly oriented towards the solstitial sunrise on 21 June.

The archeologists who excavated the site offer other possible explanations. According to one view, the concentric circles were built during the Early Bronze Age, in the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, as a cultic and ceremonial center, where nomadic people in the process of becoming sedentary gathered annually; and that much later, during the late Bronze Age (1400 1300 BCE) the cairn containing the burial chamber was added (it was robbed of its contents in antiquity and only a few artifacts were found, including gold earrings and bronze arrowheads). Measurements revealed that the cairn is not located in the center of the concentric circles, supporting the view that the stone pile was a later addition.

According to another view, the architecture of Rogem Hiri proves that both the concentric circles and the cairn were parts of a single structure. There is no evidence for a cultic structure below the cairn and artifacts typical of known cultic centers of that period were not found. Rogem Hiri was therefore a monumental commemorative tomb the mausoleum of an Early Bronze Age leader in the Golan; the tomb was cleared of its early burial remains in the Late Bronze Age, and then reused for burial. The size of the site reflects centralized organization and leadership capable of carrying out an engineering project of such proportions (it is estimated that 42,000 tons of stones had to be transported!).

The riddle of Rogem Hiri remains unsolved. Those who built it some 5,000 years ago left the stage of history and took with them the secrets of this unusual site.

The excavations were directed by Y. Mizrahi and M. Zohar, as part of the Land of Geshur Regional project headed by M. Kochavi, of the Institute of Archeology, Tel Aviv University


TOPICS: Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: archaeology; gilgalrefaim; godsgravesglyphs; israel; letshavejerusalem

Also known as Gilgal Refaim.

1 posted on 01/19/2008 3:41:47 AM PST by Fred Nerks
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

GGG


2 posted on 01/19/2008 3:43:10 AM PST by Calpernia (Hunters Rangers - Raising the Bar of Integrity http://www.barofintegrity.us)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

Clearly Irish. That’s my story and I’m sticking to it.


3 posted on 01/19/2008 5:13:11 AM PST by sphinx
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Calpernia

“It was covered by two massive slabs of basalt, each weighing over 5.5 tons, which created a semi-corbelled dome over the burial chamber.”

Amazing to think of how ancient people moved things like this over long distances with no motors, cranes, etc. There is a lot that we “advanced” civilizations don’t know.


4 posted on 01/19/2008 5:14:23 AM PST by kittymyrib
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

“the tomb of Og, King of the Bashan and last of the giants.”
Great name! “Og”


5 posted on 01/19/2008 5:55:39 AM PST by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ("Don't touch that thing")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

Clearly it’s the first Walmart.


6 posted on 01/19/2008 6:16:50 AM PST by mtbopfuyn (I think the border is kind of an artificial barrier - San Antonio councilwoman Patti Radle)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: mtbopfuyn

Sure does look like some of the crop circles.


7 posted on 01/19/2008 6:40:42 AM PST by WVNan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: mtbopfuyn

Looks more like the first Target...


8 posted on 01/19/2008 7:29:04 AM PST by Hegemony Cricket (IX-XI -- numquam didici)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: sphinx
>Clearly Irish

Irish? Don't piss off
the Welsh witches . . . They have ways
to make you sorry . . .

9 posted on 01/19/2008 7:36:21 AM PST by theFIRMbss
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks; blam; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks Fred Nerks.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

· Google · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology magazine · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Mirabilis · Texas AM Anthropology News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo ·
· History or Science & Nature Podcasts · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


10 posted on 01/19/2008 8:48:53 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__________________Profile updated Wednesday, January 16, 2008)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: WVNan
My first thought too.

I gotta stop listening to Coast to Coast.

11 posted on 01/19/2008 8:51:50 AM PST by BenLurkin
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks
Whether you give them any credence or not - much of what I've read about western heresies claims that the labyrinth found in places across Europe were carried from the east.

Whoever suggested Target stores is wrong, Target was created by a miracle on the day Nortette got her credit card.

12 posted on 01/19/2008 9:24:23 AM PST by norton (deep down inside you know that Fred is your second choice - and there isn't a third choice)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: mtbopfuyn
When traveling, you see signs hawking some tourist trap or attraction. Only 200 miles until Trees of Mystery or South of the Border.

It's probably the ancient equivalent to a billboard.

13 posted on 01/19/2008 9:32:08 AM PST by csvset
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: theFIRMbss
Is that Stevie Nicks?
14 posted on 01/19/2008 9:32:26 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: csvset

15 posted on 01/19/2008 9:35:16 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: blam
>Is that Stevie Nicks?

Yeah. (Have you ever
read her 'commentary' on
'Edge of Seventeen?'

I had always thought
it was a cool song about
an old/young romance

but as she tell it
it's a weird song about death.
I've since stopped reading

Stevie's liner notes
and I just enjoy her songs
without backstory!)

16 posted on 01/19/2008 10:43:10 AM PST by theFIRMbss
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv; blam
FOOTSTEPS OF GOLIATH.link.

...In fact, the Bible says Goliath belonged to a race of giants: the Refaim. High up on the mountainous plains of the Golan Heights we visit the ancient stone circles of Gilgal Refaim, a 5000 year old monument, similar to England’s Stonehenge.

Could this huge monument be the work of giants? After all, it lies in the land of Bashan, the land of giants.

In ancient times, not only the authors of the Bible believed that giants roamed their lands. Many ancient people wrote about giants or engraved them on seals and temple walls. One example is found in the famous Abu Simbel Temple of Ramesses II in Egypt. But ancient texts from Syria and Egypt also suggest giants really existed...

17 posted on 01/19/2008 1:32:58 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

It is perfectly obvious to me that Stone henge is the British Rogem Hiri


18 posted on 01/19/2008 1:39:03 PM PST by bert (K.E. N.P. +12 . Moveon is not us...... Moveon is the enemy)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: theFIRMbss
"I had always thought it was a cool song about an old/young romance"

I did and still do think it was/is a song about her early encounter (in high school, Atherton High) with Lindsey Buckingham.

BTW, if these two people (especially Lindsey) hadn't joined Fleetwood Mac...FWM would just be a small foot note in RR history today.
FWM went after Lindsey and were told that Lindsey and Stevie were a 'package/couple', both or none.


19 posted on 01/19/2008 2:12:03 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: bert; blam; SunkenCiv
There is also a similar lay-out here, in the Alergian Sahara:

concentric circles with a central feature and pathway entrance are common throughout the world.

Cuicuilco, for example. The method is different but the plan appears to be the same.

20 posted on 01/19/2008 2:31:21 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

These structures resemble Plato’s description of Atlantis, except for being on dry land.


21 posted on 01/19/2008 2:33:24 PM PST by RightWhale (Dean Koonz is good, but my favorite authors are Dun and Bradstreet)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: RightWhale

The Lost City Of Atlantis


22 posted on 01/19/2008 2:43:02 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv; blam; bert

http://www.philipcoppens.com/nap_art5.html

Might need a little grain of salt, but it’s the only website that provides any detail worth the read:

“...According to translations of ancient Nahuatl, Cuicuilco can be interpreted as the “place of prayer” or the “place of the rainbow”. Cuicuilco was as a farming village, built up around the ceremonial centre that contained the pyramid. Population at the city’s peak is estimated at an impressive 20,000 people.
Cuicuilco is, as mentioned, recognised as the oldest known civilisation of central highland Mesoamerica...”


23 posted on 01/19/2008 2:45:36 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: RightWhale
I agree with you totally!

Now, I want to know what it was that gave people the idea to follow such a similar layout on three continents...was it something they saw overhead?

This image of a structure on one of the Orkney Islands intruiges me. Based on concentric circles, central hub and entering pathways layout - we can actually see how much of the original was 'snapped off' and disappeared into the sea:

MISTAKEN IDENTITY. LINK.

24 posted on 01/19/2008 3:00:27 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

Another pyramid book..... At Blam’s recommendation i bought Voyages of the the Pyramid Builders

I’ll start it next week on my winter vacation.

This one looks pretty good.


25 posted on 01/19/2008 3:06:48 PM PST by bert (K.E. N.P. +12 . Moveon is not us...... Moveon is the enemy)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

Could be any of a number of things including some of the symbology of ancient and forgotten mystery religions, which we wouldn’t know about in any detail since it was—forgotten. Something we see fairly often in the sky is a rainbow circle around the sun or the moon when the atmosphere is right for that.


26 posted on 01/19/2008 3:07:04 PM PST by RightWhale (Dean Koonz is good, but my favorite authors are Dun and Bradstreet)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

The article was so good I read it twice!


27 posted on 01/19/2008 10:59:29 PM PST by LachlanMinnesota (Si vis pacem, para bellum)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: LachlanMinnesota

Glad you enjoyed it...informative and beautifully written, wasn’t it?


28 posted on 01/20/2008 12:03:59 AM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks; SunkenCiv; blam

“The riddle of Rogem Hiri remains unsolved. Those who built it some 5,000 years ago left the stage of history and took with them the secrets of this unusual site.”

Perhaps, we need to look outside the box for a solution. Often there are clues in site names which although corrupted over time, give us a glimpse into the past.

For example, look at the current name identifying the site. “Rogem” clearly is a third person variation or command of the verb, “to roger” (Something the Arabs are very fond of I understand.)

Therefore one could read the name as a command to ‘roger ‘em hiri’ making the site a vast playground where psychosexual dramas were acted out.

For further proof of this theory one only has to look at the aerial photo view of the site in which the central point looks suspiciously like a ...(I won’t go there in the interests of delicacy and decorum)


29 posted on 01/20/2008 10:54:48 AM PST by wildbill
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: bert

"The main premise in this book is that there are enough distinct threads of evidence to support the theory that the proto-civilization for many of the notable cultures of the past (such as the ancient Egyptions, Mayans, and so on) was based in a time when the sea-levels were much lower in a region called "Sundaland". This region is now mainly underwater due to glacial melting since the last Ice Age and stretches from Indochina to Borneo and Timor."

" Schoch uses a myriad of types of circumstantial evidence such as commonality of flood myths, linguistic comparisons, genetics, geologic, tree-ring data, archeological remains, ancient math and astronomical knowledge, and so forth to piece together support for his theory. Some of it is robust, some of it is a bit tenuous, but all in all, I find it worth considering.

30 posted on 01/20/2008 11:29:10 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: Calpernia

Whoops! And thanks Calpernia!

Thanks Fred for the additional graphics, and wildbill for the naughty bits.


31 posted on 01/20/2008 3:46:09 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__________________Profile updated Wednesday, January 16, 2008)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Renfield; Fred Nerks

Thanks Renfield for the update:
Solving the Mystery of a Megalithic Monument in the Land of Giants [Popular Archaeology]

Solving the Mystery of a Megalithic Monument in the Land of Giants [Popular Archaeology]

32 posted on 11/07/2011 5:56:18 PM PST by SunkenCiv (It's never a bad time to FReep this link -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Original topic is from 2008.

Updating the GGG info, also sending a general distribution. See the many fine graphics, including the new one.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


33 posted on 11/07/2011 6:00:17 PM PST by SunkenCiv (It's never a bad time to FReep this link -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: Fred Nerks

Innerestin’.


34 posted on 11/07/2011 6:06:17 PM PST by El Sordo (The bigger the government, the smaller the citizen.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv
Original topic is from 2008.

Oh yeah, and how was that dated, huh? You use that carbon 18 or something?

35 posted on 11/07/2011 6:42:20 PM PST by decimon
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: blam

“Buckingham Nicks”

I’ve been looking all over for that CD.


36 posted on 11/07/2011 7:00:23 PM PST by dsc (Any attempt to move a government to the left is a crime against humanity.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

My theory is that it’s an ancient recreation center.


37 posted on 11/07/2011 7:50:56 PM PST by Grimmy (equivocation is but the first step along the road to capitulation)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 32 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Bogus Pachysandra

-Great name! “Og”-

“Og” is my middle name!


38 posted on 11/08/2011 2:26:25 AM PST by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv
Basalthenge?
39 posted on 11/08/2011 12:01:06 PM PST by colorado tanker
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: El Sordo

Rogem Hiri (“Mound of the Wild Cat”) is the Arabic name for this site, and Gilgal Refaim* (“Wheel of Refaim”) is the Hebrew name. It is situated in the Golan Heights (Israeli occupied Syria) , 16 kms east of the Sea of Galilee, in the middle of a large plateau (32.908388°N 35.800581°E). Nearby there are also hundreds of dolmens.

It is made from an estimated 42,000 basalt rocks. There is no mystery as to how they built it, but it would’ve been quite an effort. The four concentric rings range from 50m in diameter and 1.5m wide for the innermost, to 150m in diameter and 3.2m wide for the outermost ring.

At the very centre is a tomb, although the burial occurred much more recently (roughly 1400BC) than the construction of the site itself (2500-3000BC). And of course, the tomb has been looted, so it is merely presumed someone was buried there…

At the center of the circles is a cairn, an irregular heap of stones. It is 20-25 m. in diameter and preserved to a height of 6 m. The cairn consists of a central mound of stones surrounded by a lower belt, which gives it the appearance of a stepped, truncated cone. A geophysical survey using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) revealed the pile of stones to be hollow. A built burial chamber, with a narrow corridor leading to it, was discovered there. The chamber is round, roughly 2 m. in diameter, built of large stone plates arranged on top of each other, but slightly slanting inwards. It was covered by two massive slabs of basalt, each weighing over 5.5 tons, which created a semi-corbelled dome over the burial chamber.

Rogem Hiri / Gilgal Refaim.LINK

40 posted on 11/08/2011 5:30:39 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: El Sordo

Interior of 'tomb'

41 posted on 11/08/2011 5:53:20 PM PST by Fred Nerks (FAIR DINKUM!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]




Click the Pic             Thank you, JoeProBono

Gary Gets a Job in Construction and Gets a Hard Hat
After Being Busted by The Cajun for Not Wearing One

Follow the Exciting Adventures of Gary the Snail!


Abolish FReepathons
Go Monthly

If every FReeper and Lurker gave just $7 a month
No More FReepathons!

42 posted on 11/08/2011 6:15:13 PM PST by TheOldLady (FReepmail me to get ON or OFF the ZOT LIGHTNING ping list)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: decimon

I used graphite, sez “No. 2” on the side of it.


43 posted on 11/08/2011 6:27:03 PM PST by SunkenCiv (It's never a bad time to FReep this link -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: Grimmy; colorado tanker; Fred Nerks

:’) Thanks!


44 posted on 11/08/2011 6:28:39 PM PST by SunkenCiv (It's never a bad time to FReep this link -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson