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Most Detailed Global Study Of (Human) Genetic Variation Completed
Science Daily ^ | 2-12-2008 | University of Michigan.

Posted on 02/21/2008 1:50:58 PM PST by blam

Most Detailed Global Study Of Genetic Variation Completed

A schematic of worldwide human genetic variation, with colors representing different genetic types. The figure illustrates the great amout of genetic variation in Africa. (Credit: Illustration by Martin Soave/University of Michigan)

ScienceDaily (Feb. 21, 2008) — University of Michigan scientists and their colleagues at the National Institute on Aging have produced the largest and most detailed worldwide study of human genetic variation, a treasure trove offering new insights into early migrations out of Africa and across the globe.

Like astronomers who build ever-larger telescopes to peer deeper into space, population geneticists like U-M's Noah Rosenberg are using the latest genetic tools to probe DNA molecules in unprecedented detail, uncovering new clues to humanity's origins.

The latest study characterizes more than 500,000 DNA markers in the human genome and examines variations across 29 populations on five continents.

"Our study is one of the first in a new wave of extremely high-resolution genome scans of population genetic variation," said Rosenberg, an assistant research professor at U-M's Life Sciences Institute and co-senior author of the study, to be published in the Feb. 21 edition of Nature.

"Now that we have the technology to look at thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of genetic markers, we can infer human population relationships and ancient migrations at a finer level of resolution than has previously been possible."

The new study, led by Rosenberg and National Institute on Aging colleague Andrew Singleton, produced genetic data nearly 100 times more detailed than previous worldwide assessments of human populations. It shows that:

• A recently discovered type of human genetic variation, known as a copy-number variant or CNV, is a reliable addition to the toolkit of population geneticists and should speed the discovery of disease-related genes. Rosenberg and his colleagues discovered 507 previously unknown CNVs, which are large chunks of DNA—up to 1,000,000 consecutive "letters" of the genetic alphabet—that are either repeated or deleted entirely from a person's genome. Various diseases can be triggered by an abnormal gain or loss in the number of gene copies.

• It's sometimes possible to trace a person's ancestry to an individual population within a geographic region. While previous studies have found that broad-scale geographic ancestry could be successfully traced, the new results indicate "it's becoming increasingly possible to use genomics to refine the geographic position of an individual's ancestors with more and more precision," Rosenberg said.

• Human genetic diversity decreases as distance from Africa—the cradle of humanity—increases. People of African descent are more genetically diverse than Middle Easterners, who are more diverse than Asians and Europeans. Native Americans possess the least-diverse genomes. As a result, searching for disease-causing genes should require the fewest number of genetic markers among Native Americans and the greatest number of markers among Africans.

The results are being made available on publicly shared databases. "I hope the study will be an invaluable resource for understanding genomic variability and investigating genetic association with disease," said the NIA's Singleton.

The researchers analyzed DNA from 485 people. They examined three types of genetic variation: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs; haplotypes; and CNVs.

If the human genome is viewed as a 3-billion-letter book of life, then SNPs represent single-letter spelling changes, haplotype variations equate to word changes, and CNVs are wholesale deletions or duplications of full pages.

The patterns revealed by the new study support the idea that humans originated in Africa, then spread into the Middle East, followed by Europe and Asia, the Pacific Islands, and finally to the Americas.

The results also bolster the notion of "serial founder effects," meaning that as people began migrating eastward from East Africa about 100,000 years ago, each successive wave of migrants carried a subset of the genetic variation held by previous groups.

"Diversity has been eroded through the migration process," Rosenberg said.

In addition to his position at the Life Sciences Institute, Rosenberg is an assistant professor of human genetics at the Medical School; an assistant professor of biostatistics at the School of Public Health; an assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; and an assistant research professor of bioinformatics at the Medical School's Center for Computational Medicine and Biology.

"This data set is so rich. It provides a much more comprehensive, cross-sectional snapshot of the human genome than previous studies," said Paul Scheet, a post-doctoral researcher in the U-M Department of Biostatistics and one of the lead authors.

"The next step for these studies is to sequence whole genomes," said Mattias Jakobsson, a post-doctoral researcher at the U-M Center for Computational Medicine and Biology and another lead author. "You would take 500 individuals, and you would just completely sequence everything, and then you'd have almost every important variant that's out there."

The work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants, the U-M Center for Genetics in Health and Medicine, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and the Intramural Program of the National Institute on Aging.

Adapted from materials provided by University of Michigan.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: gene; gigo; global; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; human; parsimoniousness; study
My dad's mother, Mrs Smith (U5a1a) is related to Cheddar Man (U5a). The ancient relatives of Mrs Smith used to walk from Scotland to Finland.

All the people outside Africa are closer related to themselves than they are to anyone inside Africa.

1 posted on 02/21/2008 1:51:00 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
DNAWitness Bio-Geographical Ancestry DNA Test for Fighting Crime
2 posted on 02/21/2008 1:53:32 PM PST by E. Pluribus Unum (Islam is a religion of peace, and Muslims reserve the right to kill anyone who says otherwise.)
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To: SunkenCiv
GGG Ping.

Famous DNA

Ancient DNA

Famous Haplogroups

3 posted on 02/21/2008 1:54:32 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
None of this research explains Pee Wee Herman.

Al Gore's mentor.

4 posted on 02/21/2008 1:56:58 PM PST by capt. norm (Never underestimate the power of very stupid people in large groups.)
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To: blam
UC Davis Study Finds Distinct Genetic Profiles

"In addition to future medical applications, the data are also of interest to anthropologists who study historical human migrations. The Southern grouping included individuals from Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, as well as Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. The Northern group included people with English, Irish, German, Swedish and Ukranian ancestry. These groups correspond to those historically divided by the Pyrenees and Alps mountain ranges."

5 posted on 02/21/2008 1:58:02 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
The ancient relatives of Mrs Smith used to walk from Scotland to Finland

I know, I know... In 10 feet of snow, 50 degrees below zero, up hill, both ways...
6 posted on 02/21/2008 1:58:21 PM PST by Sopater (A wise man's heart inclines him to the right, but a fool's heart to the left. ~ Ecclesiastes 10:2)
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To: TheZMan

Ping for later.


7 posted on 02/21/2008 1:58:28 PM PST by TheZMan (I'm going to write my own name on the ballot. Screw the current crop of "conservatives".)
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To: blam
Humans Migrated Out Of Africa, Then Some Went Back, Study Says
8 posted on 02/21/2008 2:00:41 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam
Here is where I had my DNA checked:

The Genographic Project (Have Your DNA Checked, Find Your Roots)

9 posted on 02/21/2008 2:03:21 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: capt. norm

The deeper question is ‘Are American Indians descended from Abraham? ... Should we ping the Mormon brigade at BYU using serrogates at FR to refute something claimed by Joe Smith now?


10 posted on 02/21/2008 2:05:57 PM PST by MHGinTN (Believing they cannot be deceived, they cannot be convinced when they are deceived.)
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To: blam
All the people outside Africa are closer related to themselves

I am closely related to myself and much more closely related than anybody else on this street.

11 posted on 02/21/2008 2:10:32 PM PST by RightWhale (Clam down! avoid ataque de nervosa)
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To: ForGod'sSake; Fred Nerks

Wow, its like the whole danged world looks like Arizona.

[inside joke]


12 posted on 02/21/2008 2:13:21 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: blam; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks Blam. "Titan has more oil than the Earth" ping. ;') Helix, Make Mine a Double digest category.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

· Google · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology magazine · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Mirabilis · Texas AM Anthropology News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo ·
· History or Science & Nature Podcasts · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


13 posted on 02/21/2008 2:14:36 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: SunkenCiv
"Wow, its like the whole danged world looks like Arizona."

LOL. That was exactly my first thought when I saw all those colors. Good one, SC.

14 posted on 02/21/2008 2:21:39 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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Human genetic diversity decreases as distance from Africa--the cradle of humanity--increases. People of African descent are more genetically diverse than Middle Easterners, who are more diverse than Asians and Europeans. Native Americans possess the least-diverse genomes.
Africa is split north/south between black Africans and a milieu of descendants of various invaders (Europeans, Romans, various people moved around by the Romans, invaders of the Roman empire, Greeks, Arabs...), and for that matter, is split by various deserts; the Bantu migration (apparently) out of the Niger basin took place about, hmm, 3000 years ago? The Middle East was invaded in many waves by many different folks out of Central Asia, most recently by the Turks. That's for starters...
15 posted on 02/21/2008 2:30:42 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: RightWhale; blam
I believe blam was attempting to say...

“All the people outside Africa are closer related to EACHOTHER”

We are all 100% related to ourselves, unless we are a chimera. ;)

All told however we are a very homologous species, reflecting our recent common ancestry. We are a very young species and very similar to each other despite the obvious difference in skin color to balance vitamin D production with filtering out mutagenic sunlight.

16 posted on 02/21/2008 2:36:28 PM PST by allmendream ("A Lyger is pretty much my favorite animal."NapoleonD)
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To: allmendream; blam

We are nearly identical to each other. That is due to coming from the tiny group of survivors of a worldwide catastrophe not so long ago. There simply hasn’t been time to drift into a lot of variety. Presumably there was no one left in Africa at all after that event, so the present occupants of Africa would have had to migrate back to Africa and might not resemble the original varieties at all.


17 posted on 02/21/2008 2:42:49 PM PST by RightWhale (Clam down! avoid ataque de nervosa)
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To: RightWhale
Care to name this catastrophe that depopulated all of Africa? Your not talking a world wide flood are you?

Sorry but the molecular genetic data points to our common ancestry as being about 100,000 years ago at least. There is no geographic record of any such catastrophe that would depopulate Africa during the last 100,000 years, and the genetic data would show that genetic diversity increased out from Mt.Ararat, not from out of Africa.

18 posted on 02/21/2008 2:52:15 PM PST by allmendream ("A Lyger is pretty much my favorite animal."NapoleonD)
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To: allmendream

I think he’s talking about the Toba event.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toba_catastrophe_theory


19 posted on 02/21/2008 2:56:34 PM PST by Rev DMV
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To: allmendream; blam

Blam might post something.


20 posted on 02/21/2008 2:57:02 PM PST by RightWhale (Clam down! avoid ataque de nervosa)
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To: MHGinTN
I remember hearing some conservative radio show where they were discussing the genetic data that showed no linkage between Amerindians and Semitic people (Amerindians and Asians, yes; Amerindians and Jews, no.). They questioned a Mormon apologist about it saying ‘Now that THIS data is in, does it make you question the Book of Mormon?’

Oh, like THAT would be the straw that broke the camels back. They need to get real. There is no evidence that anything in the Book of Mormon is anything more than (to quote Mark Twain)...

“...merely a prosy detail of imaginary history, with the Old Testament for a model; followed by a tedious plagiarism of the New Testament.” Mark Twain

No linguistic data, no archaeological data, no cultural data, no historic data, no genetic data. It is a perfect record of absolute non-conformance to reality.

Luckily Mormons are good people and good Conservatives and don’t dwell much on their silly theology; they are too busy being Mormons.

21 posted on 02/21/2008 2:57:46 PM PST by allmendream ("A Lyger is pretty much my favorite animal."NapoleonD)
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The Neandertal Enigma
by James Shreeve
Frayer's own reading of the record reveals a number of overlooked traits that clearly and specifically link the Neandertals to the Cro-Magnons. One such trait is the shape of the opening of the nerve canal in the lower jaw, a spot where dentists often give a pain-blocking injection. In many Neandertal, the upper portion of the opening is covered by a broad bony ridge, a curious feature also carried by a significant number of Cro-Magnons. But none of the alleged 'ancestors of us all' fossils from Africa have it, and it is extremely rare in modern people outside Europe." [pp 126-127]

22 posted on 02/21/2008 3:02:05 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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Gene Studies Confirm “Out Of Africa” Theories
Yahoo News | 2-20-2008 | Maggie Fox
Posted on 02/20/2008 5:42:03 PM EST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1973590/posts

Ancient skull dug up in Henan may bury ‘Out of Africa’ theory
South China Morning Post (Hong Kong) | Jan 24, 2008
Posted on 01/24/2008 12:39:26 PM EST by charles m
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1958908/posts

Did a Tsunami Wipe Out a Cradle of Western Civilization?
Discover Magazine | 01.04.2008 | Evan Hadingham
Posted on 01/15/2008 11:53:15 AM EST by forkinsocket
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1954101/posts

Evolution Tied To Earth Movement [Carole King alert]
Eureka Alert | 12-19-2007 | M Royhan Gani
Posted on 12/20/2007 11:02:48 PM EST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1942624/posts

Man descended from early aardvark
UK Times online | January 21, 2003 | Mark Henderson, Science Correspondent
Posted on 01/21/2003 3:23:43 PM EST by CobaltBlue
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/826768/posts


23 posted on 02/21/2008 3:12:26 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: Sopater

And chased by sabertooth tigers.


24 posted on 02/21/2008 3:31:17 PM PST by tbw2 (Science fiction with real science - "Humanity's Edge" - on amazon.com)
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To: RightWhale

Right Whale states a true but horrifying proposition for academia- the reluctant admission that there may actually have been an earth shattering global cataclysm recently, most likely during a period that is referred to by archaeologists as “the bronze age discontinuity”. The catastrophist approach to archaeology and anthropology has been actively suppressed and vilified in academia in spite of growing evidence that the archaeological and geological data and comparative analysis of mythologies of ancient and contemporary peoples make the catastrophist interpretation of history the only rational and compelling one. Academia can accurately be categorized as a cesspool of ideology and grant funding turf protection.


25 posted on 02/21/2008 3:31:17 PM PST by Yollopoliuhqui
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To: allmendream

The Mount Toba eruption was thought to be a partial cause of the human genetic bottleneck, potentially reducing the human population to 2-10K individuals. And the human population that had migrated up to nearly Turkey went extinct, though those that made it to India/Australian coasts probably survived.


26 posted on 02/21/2008 3:33:38 PM PST by tbw2 (Science fiction with real science - "Humanity's Edge" - on amazon.com)
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To: Yollopoliuhqui; ForGod'sSake
Academia can accurately be categorized as a cesspool of ideology and grant funding turf protection.

Hear! Hear! Never a truer word spoken.

27 posted on 02/21/2008 4:00:20 PM PST by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum!)
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To: allmendream

Okay, but to mire this thread in ‘offal’, should we ping the Mormon brigade at BYU using surrogates at FR to refute something claimed by Joe Smith, now?


28 posted on 02/21/2008 4:41:57 PM PST by MHGinTN (Believing they cannot be deceived, they cannot be convinced when they are deceived.)
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To: MHGinTN
Lets not and say we didn’t.
29 posted on 02/21/2008 4:53:08 PM PST by allmendream ("A Lyger is pretty much my favorite animal."NapoleonD)
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To: allmendream
:^ )) Think we'll be accused of hiding something from them?
30 posted on 02/21/2008 5:03:32 PM PST by MHGinTN (Believing they cannot be deceived, they cannot be convinced when they are deceived.)
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To: MHGinTN
Not at all. If anyone asks me about the Book of Mormon I freely quote Mark Twain at them; whose observations I found so similar to my own (chloroform in print). I have nothing against Mormons; they are great people. But no objective observer could conclude that the Book of Mormon has any basis in fact. But why invite them to a discussion where their beliefs are going to be scorned as having no factual basis?
31 posted on 02/21/2008 5:07:35 PM PST by allmendream ("A Lyger is pretty much my favorite animal."NapoleonD)
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To: RightWhale; allmendream
"Blam might post something."

Here:

Late Pleostocene Human Population Bottlenecks. . . (Toba)


32 posted on 02/21/2008 5:09:54 PM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: RightWhale
I am closely related to myself and much more closely related than anybody else on this street.

I have long held that if your parents never had children you probably won't either.

33 posted on 02/21/2008 8:08:39 PM PST by Mind-numbed Robot (Not all that needs to be done, needs to be done by the government.)
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To: allmendream

“100,000 years ago at least”
Historical ‘Science’, not Observational Science


34 posted on 02/22/2008 7:01:50 AM PST by beefree (AMERICA BLESS GOD)
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To: beefree
The observation of genetic divergence and similarity leads one to the ‘historical’ hypothesis that all humans shared a common ancestor around 100,000 years ago.

It is both observational and historical. The observation of diversity within Africa and less diversity spreading out from there, as well as an observation of the cumulative difference and a measurement of the rate of differentiation leads one to ‘out of Africa’ hypothesis and the 100,000 year estimation.

35 posted on 02/22/2008 7:16:44 AM PST by allmendream ("A Lyger is pretty much my favorite animal."NapoleonD)
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To: Rev DMV; blam; SunkenCiv; All

According to the Toba link, after the catastrophe, humans would have migrated out of Africa to repopulate the earth, so no death of all Africans there.

Since the Toba event 74kya and a probable North American boloid event about 13,000 years ago, decimated human and other populations and caused significant downturns in worldwide temperature, does anyone have a catastrophic event for the triggering of the last ice age about 125,000 years ago?


36 posted on 02/23/2008 2:18:39 AM PST by gleeaikin
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To: gleeaikin
"According to the Toba link, after the catastrophe, humans would have migrated out of Africa to repopulate the earth, so no death of all Africans there."

The 'Hobbits' survived the Toba event on near-by Flores Island. Interestingly they disappeared about the time of the comet impact 12-13,000 years ago.
That makes me wonder if there were other pockets of humanity around the world that survived Toba only to succumb to another later event.

I'm thinking specifically about these folks: Vintage Skulls

37 posted on 02/23/2008 7:07:46 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: gleeaikin
IMO, ice ages are caused by large impacts, and end due to gradual thawing by the Sun.

The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: Flood, Fire, and Famine in the History of Civilization The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes:
Flood, Fire, and Famine
in the History of Civilization

by Richard Firestone,
Allen West, and
Simon Warwick-Smith


38 posted on 02/23/2008 10:04:36 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: SunkenCiv; blam; All

IMO, ice ages are caused by large impact.”

I tend to agree, but I would also include monster volcanic events like Yellowstone, Long Valley, etc. I still want to know what big thing happened 125,000 years ago.


39 posted on 02/25/2008 12:50:51 PM PST by gleeaikin
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