Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Open Letter: Star Jones Checks Bill O'Reilly's Racist Remark
AOL Black Voices ^ | February 26, 2008 | Jawn Murray/Star Jones Reynolds

Posted on 02/27/2008 9:49:41 PM PST by 2ndDivisionVet

Star Jones Reynolds has never been one to mince words. It's no wonder that when Bill O'Reilly's most recent controversial (see also: racist) comments about Michelle Obama, wife of Democratic frontrunner Barack Obama, were discovered by Media Matters, the TruTV legal analyst was infuriated!

O'Reilly, the curmudgeon host of Fox News Channel's 'The O'Reilly Factor,' was talking to a caller that was angry that Obama had said on C-Span that "for the first time in my adult lifetime, I'm really proud of my country."

The 58-year-old television commentator, who privately settled a sexual harassment lawsuit against him in 2004, responded to the caller by offering that of course they'd have to check the facts first.

He said: "I don't want to go on a lynching party against Michelle Obama unless there's evidence, hard facts, that say this is how the woman really feels. If that's how she really feels - that is a bad country or a flawed nation, whatever - then that's legit. We'll track it down."

"Lynching party? Track it down?"

In the words of Whitney Houston: "Hell to the naw!"

Even better are the prolific words of Reynolds.

With her permission, The BV Buzz is running the current 'Today Show' legal contributor and the former 'The View' host's entire 'Open Letter' about Bill O'Reilly.

"I'm sick to death of people like Fox News host, Bill O'Reilly, and his ilk thinking that he can use a racial slur against a black woman who could be the next First Lady of the United States, give a half-assed apology and not be taken to task and called on his crap.

This week O'Reilly gave the following response to a caller on his radio show who was making unsubstantiated negative charges against presidential candidate Barack Obama's wife, Michelle Obama:

'And I don't want to go on a lynching party against Michelle Obama unless there's evidence, hard facts, that say this is how the woman really feels. If that's how she really feels -- that is a bad country or a flawed nation, whatever -- then that's legit. We'll track it down.'

What the hell? If it's 'legit,' you're going to 'track it down?' And then what do you plan to do?

How dare this white man with a microphone and the trust of the public think that in 2008, he can still put the words 'lynch and party' together in the same sentence with reference to a black woman; in this case, Michelle Obama? I don't care how you 'spin it' in the 'no spin zone,' that statement in and of itself is racist, unacceptable and inappropriate on every level.

O'Reilly claims his comments were taken out of context. Please don't insult my intelligence while you're insulting me. I've read the comments and heard them delivered in O'Reilly's own voice; and there is no right context that exists. So, his insincere apology and "out-of-context" excuse is not going to cut it with me.

And just so we're clear, this has nothing to do with the 2008 presidential election, me being a Democrat, him claiming to be Independent while talking Republican, the liberal media or a conservative point of view. To the contrary, this is about crossing a line in the sand that needs to be drawn based on history, dignity, taste and truth.

Bill, I'm not sure of where you come from, but let me tell you what the phrase 'lynching party' conjures up to me, a black woman born in North Carolina . Those words depict the image of a group of white men who are angry with the state of the own lives getting together, drinking more than they need to drink, lamenting how some black person has moved forward (usually ahead of them in stature or dignity), and had the audacity to think that they are equal. These same men for years, instead of looking at what changes, should and could make in their own lives that might remove that bitterness born of perceived privilege, these white men take all of that resentment and anger and decide to get together and drag the closest black person near them to their death by hanging them from a tree -- usually after violent beating, torturing and violating their human dignity. Check your history books, because you don't need a masters or a law degree from Harvard to know that is what constitutes a 'lynching party.'

Imagine, Michelle and Barack Obama having the audacity to think that they have the right to the American dream, hopes, and ideals. O'Reilly must think to himself: how dare they have the arrogance to think they can stand in a front of this nation, challenge the status quo and express the frustration of millions? When this happens, the first thing that comes to mind for O'Reilly and people like him is: 'it's time for a party.'

Not so fast...don't order the rope just yet.

Would O'Reilly ever in a million years use this phrase with reference to Elizabeth Edwards, Cindy McCain or Judi Nathan? I mean, in all of the statements and criticisms that were made about Judi Nathan, the one-time mistress turned missus, of former presidential candidate Rudy Giuliani, I never heard any talk of forming a lynch party because of something she said or did.

So why is it that when you're referring to someone who's African-American you must dig to a historical place of pain, agony and death to symbolize your feelings? Lynching is not a joke to off-handedly throw around and it is not a metaphor that has a place in political commentary; provocative or otherwise. I admit that I come from a place of personal outrage here having buried my 90 year-old grandfather last year. This proud, amazing African-American man raised his family and lived through the time when he had to use separate water fountains, ride in the back of a bus, take his wife on a date to the 'colored section' of a movie theater, and avert his eyes when a white woman walked down the street for fear of what a white man and his cronies might do if they felt the urge to 'party'; don't tell me that the phrase you chose, Mr. O'Reilly, was taken out of context.

To add insult to injury, O'Reilly tried to 'clarify' his statements, by using the excuse that his comments were reminiscent of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas' use of the term 'high-tech lynching' during his confirmation hearing. I reject that analogy. You see Justice Thomas did mean to bring up the image of lynching in its racist context. He was saying that politics and the media were using a new technology to do to him what had been done to black men for many years -- hang him. Regardless of if you agreed with Justice Thomas' premise or not, if in fact -- Bill O'Reilly was referencing it -- the context becomes even clearer.

What annoys me more than anything is that I get the feeling that one of the reasons Bill O'Reilly made this statement, thinking he could get away with it in the first place, and then followed it up with a lame apology in a half-hearted attempt to smooth any ruffled feathers, is because he doesn't think that black women will come out and go after him when he goes after us. Well, he's dead wrong. Be clear Bill O'Reilly: there will be no lynch party for that black woman. And this black woman assures you that if you come for her, you come for all of us." -- Star Jones Reynolds


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News; News/Current Events; Politics/Elections; US: Illinois; US: New York
KEYWORDS: africanamericans; barackhusseinobama; barackobama; billoreilly; blacks; bor; clarencethomas; cultofpersonality; cw2; democraticparty; democratparty; democrats; election; electionpresident; elections; foxnews; howtostealanelection; husseinobama; lynching; michelleobama; noose; obama; race; racebaiting; racerelations; raceriots; racism; saulalinsky; soros; starjonesreynolds; talkradio; television; ubersensitive; yellowjournalism
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-100101-150151-200201-234 next last
I have no great love for Bill O'Reilly, but was this really racist? Are we on the verge of another civil war or race riots?
1 posted on 02/27/2008 9:49:45 PM PST by 2ndDivisionVet
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

If i heard and read this right, he used the phrase “lynching party” in reference on whether or not to attack/unload on Mrs. Obama.

Well, he may not be a racist, I have no idea, but he sure showed poor judgment.

She’s black. Lynching has an undeniable racial connotation in our country.

He probably wasn’t thinking when he said it, and didn’t mean anything bad by it, but, it’s not unreasonable for someone to point out he was being insensitive or careless in his language.

Apologize or not, his choice, but bottom line is, he said a dumb thing.


2 posted on 02/27/2008 9:53:34 PM PST by Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
"I don't want to go on a lynching party against Michelle Obama unless there's evidence, hard facts, that say this is how the woman really feels. If that's how she really feels - that is a bad country or a flawed nation, whatever - then that's legit. We'll track it down."

Um, does star jones realize that O'Reilly was basically defending Michelle Obama and basically trying to say, lets not jump the guy without and facts?

My god, even protecting Obama and co isn't good enough for this cult, you must bow down and worship him.

3 posted on 02/27/2008 9:53:38 PM PST by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Sounds to me like Star is a racist herself.


4 posted on 02/27/2008 9:53:57 PM PST by I'm ALL Right! (Dear RNC: Not one Conservative Candidate? Not one "RED" penny)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Sounds like media matters is trying to lynch BOR.


5 posted on 02/27/2008 9:54:02 PM PST by Brett66 (Where government advances, and it advances relentlessly , freedom is imperiled -Janice Rogers Brown)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Are we on the verge of race-religion wars? Probably.


6 posted on 02/27/2008 9:54:22 PM PST by SatinDoll (Desperately seeking a conservative candidate.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Racism implies knowing his intention, which is not so clear in this instance. That said, given the recent lynching related comments and events (even those that were staged) he showed incredibly poor judgment in his choice of words.

Of course, this isn’t exactly the first time.


7 posted on 02/27/2008 9:54:22 PM PST by SlapHappyPappy
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Oh please,where was Jones when they ran that ad in Texas against George Bush with the chain dragging behind a pick-up truck? That was alot more out of line then O’Reillys dumb comment.


8 posted on 02/27/2008 9:54:24 PM PST by linn37 (phlebotomist on duty,its just a little pinch)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

I remember when O’Reilly first said this, a FReeper made the comment (perhaps jokingly) that some nut would probably accuse him of racism for using the word lynch. I guess it’s really gone that far. It is now a racist offense to even use the word lynch in any connection whatsoever with a black person.


9 posted on 02/27/2008 9:54:51 PM PST by forkinsocket
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

The Left is salivating for civil war. They are employing Blacks as useful idiots, as per usual.


10 posted on 02/27/2008 9:55:55 PM PST by Mad_Tom_Rackham ("The land of the Free...Because of the Brave")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: forkinsocket
It is now a racist offense to even use the word lynch in any connection whatsoever with a black person.

We'll just have to start referring to the word "lynch" as the L-word.

11 posted on 02/27/2008 9:57:35 PM PST by FoxInSocks
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Not to worry.

McCain will be along tomorrow to apologize for Bill O’Reilly “insulting” remarks.

He’s on a roll.


12 posted on 02/27/2008 9:58:01 PM PST by exit82 (People get the government they deserve. And they are about to get it--in spades.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Star Jones is DUMB.

When a moron accuses of racism, its a compliment.

These idiots have lost their mind.

O’Reilly is saying that I WON’T join the Lynching party and will explore what her intentions were (his words were track it down).

I don’t care for O’Reilly because I honestly think he is a pervert.

But he is no damn racist.


13 posted on 02/27/2008 9:58:05 PM PST by The_Republican (You know why Chelsea Clinton is so Ugly? Because Janet Reno is her Father! LOL! - Mac is Back!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Mad_Tom_Rackham
"The Left is salivating for civil war. They are employing Blacks as useful idiots, as per usual."

Then they must not care a whit about blacks: Conservatives (their enemy) are usually well-armed.

14 posted on 02/27/2008 9:58:15 PM PST by 2ndDivisionVet (http://www.fourfriedchickensandacoke.blogspot.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: Sonny M
My god, even protecting Obama and co isn't good enough for this cult, you must bow down and worship him.

Seriously. Get ready for all criticism of Obama to be condemned as either subtle or overt racism if he becomes the nominee.

15 posted on 02/27/2008 9:58:18 PM PST by forkinsocket
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

“.. don’t insult my intelligence...”

how could anyone read that tripe and NOT insult her [lack of] intelligence and articulation? And she gets paid for this?


16 posted on 02/27/2008 9:59:00 PM PST by EDINVA (Proud American for 23,062 days.... and counting!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Star...another great thinker from the Left.


17 posted on 02/27/2008 9:59:12 PM PST by RavenATB
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Doesn’t anyone remember lynch parties from those old western movies?


18 posted on 02/27/2008 9:59:31 PM PST by donna ("We can create Kingdom on earth" - Barack Hussein Obama)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
One good thing about Obama--the race pimps are so going to get on everyone's nerves and jump the shark at last, at last--jump the shark at last. The whining has so gotten old. Here we have two overprivileged Americans "ashamed" of their country and walking around with chips on their shoulders.

And Obama's supporters better worry if the first candidacy of a black man is going to come across as really "sticking it to whitey"--that's going to turn off a lot of white voters.

19 posted on 02/27/2008 9:59:55 PM PST by Mamzelle (Time for Conservatives to go Free Agent)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Mad_Tom_Rackham
The Left is salivating for civil war. They are employing Blacks as useful idiots, as per usual.

Will they fight us primarily with their purses, their vandalism, or their shouting? I'm frightened!!

20 posted on 02/27/2008 10:00:02 PM PST by Carling (It's Danny, Sir)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: RavenATB

Star is Dumb, but here replacement on view is Dumber. (She didn’t know if the world was round - honest).


21 posted on 02/27/2008 10:00:54 PM PST by The_Republican (You know why Chelsea Clinton is so Ugly? Because Janet Reno is her Father! LOL! - Mac is Back!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Reminds me of the uproars to the “niggardly” and “catch a tiger by the toe” flaps.


22 posted on 02/27/2008 10:01:25 PM PST by endthematrix (He was shouting 'Allah!' but I didn't hear that. It just sounded like a lot of crap to me.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

Comment #23 Removed by Moderator

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Oh enough of this crap!

I’m afraid, though, it’s just the beginning!


24 posted on 02/27/2008 10:01:50 PM PST by aquila48
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Geeeeez! Quite honestly, when I hear the phrase ‘’Lynching Party’’, I think of town villagers carrying torches and tracking Frankenstein.

I think Star needs to get her bolts loosened a bit.


25 posted on 02/27/2008 10:02:00 PM PST by LittleBillyInfidel (''Undocumented nukes want to do the job that American nukes won't do.'')
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh

No, it was not...the word has been used against whites, and Clarence Thomas used the term on himself “high tech lynching.” So no, it was not a dumb term and former fatso Starr Jones needs to STFU.


26 posted on 02/27/2008 10:04:29 PM PST by FUMETTI (Hillary, burn those pantsuits)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Not smart. He made it easy for them.


27 posted on 02/27/2008 10:04:31 PM PST by buck jarret
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh
Lynching has an undeniable racial connotation in our country.

My first acquaintance with the word "lynch" was 1950's cowboy movies in which the victim was usually a cattle rustler, another cowboy.

This is just another example of the left trying to hijack the language and control what can or cannot be said and create a class of victims in the process.

28 posted on 02/27/2008 10:05:01 PM PST by CaptRon (Pedicaris alive or Raisuli dead)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: exit82

It’s hard to work up sympathy for Bill.

He’s just getting the same treatment he gave to FreeRepublic a few months ago.


29 posted on 02/27/2008 10:05:03 PM PST by exit82 (People get the government they deserve. And they are about to get it--in spades.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Roger that. This is a big problem for the softies, to be sure.


30 posted on 02/27/2008 10:05:27 PM PST by Mad_Tom_Rackham ("The land of the Free...Because of the Brave")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

I’m tired of black liberals screaming racism every time they’re criticized.

I’ll tell you who are the real victims of racists: Justice Thomas, Mike Steele, Alan Keyes, Condi Rice, etc.


31 posted on 02/27/2008 10:06:21 PM PST by TBP
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
When discussing African Americans make sure not to include certain words in the same sentence ... or better yet ... same paragraph.

Some words are completely inoffensive and are even delightful to contemplate. Among these are "watermelon" and "fried chicken".

OK. There I said it, but I made sure to put the words in a different paragraph. Did I escape being identified as a racist?

You be the judge ... and jury!

32 posted on 02/27/2008 10:06:29 PM PST by who_would_fardels_bear
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Barack isn’t a racist? Of course he is.


33 posted on 02/27/2008 10:06:56 PM PST by TBP
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Star Jones is a racist.


34 posted on 02/27/2008 10:09:15 PM PST by TBP
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh
She’s black. Lynching has an undeniable racial connotation in our country.

I've lived in the East, Southwest, West ... and until this Jenna nonsense I had no idea that 'lynching' was copyright protected by one Group of citizenry. I always took it as a 'cowboy' thing. Vigilante 'justice' (of the Oxbow Incident variety).
Burning crosses - sure.
Men dressed in their finest white sheets (a la' Mr. Byrd) - sure.
But seeing racial overtones in the use of the word 'lynch', or the use of nooses -- is absurd...

35 posted on 02/27/2008 10:09:36 PM PST by El Cid (Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh
She’s black. Lynching has an undeniable racial connotation in our country.

Maybe to ignorant people lynch party has a racial connotation. However lots of white people got lynched too and some of them actually deserved it.

36 posted on 02/27/2008 10:09:47 PM PST by Mogollon (Vote straight GOP for congress....our only protection against Obama-Clinton, or McCain.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
Then they must not care a whit about blacks: Conservatives (their enemy) are usually well-armed.

Yo, Dude, but dem ganstas shoots wit STYLE when dey misses 9 outta 8!

Kinda like a certain NBA "star" what can't hit the basket from the free throw line. :)

37 posted on 02/27/2008 10:10:03 PM PST by ApplegateRanch (Islam: a Satanically Transmitted Disease, spread by unprotected intimate contact with the Koranus.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: SatinDoll
"Are we on the verge of race-religion wars? Probably."

Hussein is not a communist-organizer, er, community-agitator, er, COMMUNEity organizer for nothing.

yitbos

38 posted on 02/27/2008 10:10:19 PM PST by bruinbirdman ("Those who control language control minds. - Ayn Rand")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
Uh oh.....


39 posted on 02/27/2008 10:10:39 PM PST by hole_n_one
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
No, it was not racist.

The Professional Blacks are at it again.

There's no there there.

40 posted on 02/27/2008 10:11:24 PM PST by Lizavetta
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

The Obama phenomena is toxic for this country. Anything and everything you say can now be declared racist by some mentally deficient moron who is insulated from reproach by skin color.and it will only get worse with old white crackers apologizing to demagogues for imagined offenses.


41 posted on 02/27/2008 10:11:34 PM PST by isrul
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

Star’s a real prize.
http://www.nydailynews.com/gossip/rush_molloy/2007/11/06/2007-11-06_struggling_teens_hurt_by_star_jones_nosh.html


42 posted on 02/27/2008 10:11:52 PM PST by Westlander (Unleash the Neutron Bomb)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: TigersEye; yorkie
Well, he's dead wrong. Be clear Bill O'Reilly: there will be no lynch party for that black woman. And this black woman assures you that if you come for her, you come for all of us." -- Star Jones Reynolds

Sigh, so it starts. I am already sick of Star & Oprah & the rest of them. Where is Jesse & Al? shaking my head again.

43 posted on 02/27/2008 10:12:58 PM PST by pandoraou812 (Out, damned spot......OUT)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
Their complaint is BS. Maybe now O'reilly will see how that feels.

Bill O'Reilly, Hiding Under The Desk!!

44 posted on 02/27/2008 10:13:00 PM PST by Anti-Bubba182
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

45 posted on 02/27/2008 10:13:06 PM PST by Lizavetta
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
"I'm sick to death of people like Fox News host, Bill O'Reilly, and his ilk thinking that he can use a racial slur against a black woman..."

That's right Star baby. No white person was ever lynched.

At this rate, all we whities will be able to do is just stand and nod or shake our heads in reponse to any query or remark.
There won't be any 'safe' words left to use. Nothing that a black woman or man would find non-racist.
Cuz' ya knows....we whities is all jus' racists at heart.

46 posted on 02/27/2008 10:15:47 PM PST by Bloody Sam Roberts (Land of The Free and the home of The Brave. Never. Forget. That.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh

When the time comes that we are ever required to be “sensitive” or “careful” in our language, America will be gone. Only despots would be niggardly about freedom of speech.


47 posted on 02/27/2008 10:16:37 PM PST by isrul
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: FoxInSocks

Add it to the two “N” words. And then there’s the “H” word, being the middle name that must not be spoken.


48 posted on 02/27/2008 10:18:57 PM PST by isrul
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh

That’s what blacks want whites to do: apologize. Then after we do, they want more and more. I say NEVER APOLOGIZE to these race pimps. They never apologize to us, why should we to them?


49 posted on 02/27/2008 10:21:38 PM PST by societygirl
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Bronco_Buster_FweetHyagh

He was defending Mrs. Obama. This PC crap makes me ill, as do the simpletons who fall for it.


50 posted on 02/27/2008 10:22:33 PM PST by ozzymandus
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-100101-150151-200201-234 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson