Skip to comments.POLISH ARMY SET TO INVADE LITHUANIA UNLESS DEMANDS ARE ACCEPTED TODAY (Real Time + 70 Years)
Posted on 03/18/2008 8:38:04 AM PDT by Homer_J_Simpson
WASHINGTON, March 17. A firm foreign policy which involves no retreat in the face of disruptive events in Europe and the Far East was presented to the nation today by Secretary Hull in an address at a luncheon of the National Press Club. He strongly urged arming to command respect for the United States as a force for peace at a time when international anarchy threatens world order.
Delivering his first formal pronouncement on Our Foreign Policy since the resignation of Anthony Eden as Foreign Minister and the absorption of Austria by Germany, Mr. Hull spoke before an audience of more than 500 newspaper correspondents, editors and government officials.
The address was broadcast in the United States by the National, Columbia and Mutual Broadcasting systems. It was also delivered to the Canadian and the British Broadcasting Corporations. Later it was rebroadcast to the world over international short-wave stations in translations of Spanish, Portuguese, German, French and Italian, directional antennae pointing the broadcasts toward Europe and South America.
Mr. Hull made clear that fundamental American policy had not been changed. He strongly condemned international lawlessness and reoffered to the nations his peace proposals of last July, which contemplate a world of law and order, and of good-will.
Large Polish forces were massed on the Lithuanian frontier, ready to march on Kaunas unless an ultimatum is answered favorably this afternoon. The demands include regular diplomatic relations, trade and communications facilities and recognition of Polands title to Vilna. Lithuania made offers to negotiate and Germany urged Poland not to use force.
Germany still poured troops into Austria, apparently headed toward the Italian, Czechoslovak and Yugoslav borders. Propaganda agencies called on the people for an outpouring today for the occasion of Hitlers speech to the Reichstag. Its nature was not made known. Decrees uniting Austrian activities with those of the Reich were swiftly issued.
In Vienna there were widespread arrests. They included clericals who were accused of spreading false rumors. What was called a great Spring cleaning resulted in not only the arrest of Jews but continued driving them from employment and business. There was much pillaging, but the Nazis disavowed it.
The British Cabinet and Conservative party were badly divided over policy on Continental events, but an open revolt was not expected. Premier Blum received a vote of confidence, 369 to 196, but failed to draw the Right into a Cabinet of national union. Soviet Russia asked for an immediate conference of powers excluding Germany, Italy and Japan to deal with the menace to world peace.
The note, which was sent by way of Tallinn, Estonia, asks, it is believed in the tone of an ultimatum, that Lithuania agree to the following:
First, the establishment of normal diplomatic and consular relations with Poland.
Second, the opening of the Polish-Lithuanian frontier for normal road and railway traffic and direct telephone and telegraph connections.
Third, a change in those parts of the Lithuanian Constitution that proclaim Vilna to be the capital of Lithuania.
Fourth, the conclusion of a convention for the mutual protection of minorities and full rights for the Polish minority in Lithuania.
Fifth, the conclusion of a trade and tariff convention.
Sixth, full satisfaction for the recent frontier incident in which a Polish soldier was killed.
Columns of armored cars, a few divisions of motorized infantry and artillery and several squadrons of heavy bombers are awaiting orders at the border. The fifty-odd miles separating the frontier from Kaunas can be covered by motorized units in two or three hours. Troops would also be landed from planes on the Kaunas airfield.
The Poles do not expect strong resistance from the small Lithuanian army, which consists in peace time of 24,000 men eight infantry, two cavalry and three artillery regiments and several motorized battalions. Fifty thousand Shaulis members of a semi-militarized rifle society can also be mobilized for defense.
Polish experts believe that the Lithuanian armys equipment is poor. Lithuania has no war industries and her arms an munitions are of mixed origin and outdated.
The Polish Minister of War, General Tadeus Kasprzycki, is in Vilna and has personally supervised preparations for the troop movements.
The gravity of the situation was indicated to the Polish public in the following brief communiqué this morning:
The Polish Government has taken the necessary steps in connection with the incident provoked by Lithuanians on the Polish-Lithuanian frontier.
The authorities refuse to reveal the nature of these steps.
Nothing has yet been heard from Kaunas, but Warsaw hopes the Lithuanian Government will yield to its demands. Estonia and Latvia have tried to convince the Lithuanians not to reject the ultimatum.
It is felt here that the Soviet Union will not move in support of Lithuania.
It is predicted that should Warsaw order the march on Lithuania a proclamation would be made to the Lithuanians explaining the reasons for the occupation. They would be invited to select a government that would make peace with Poland and conclude a lasting political agreement. The Polish troops would then move out, since Warsaw has no desire to annex Lithuania.
Tomorrow, when the note expires, is Marshal Smigly-Rydzs name day. The vigil of St. Edwards Day was celebrated throughout Poland tonight and a torchlight procession of more than 100,000 marched through Warsaws principal streets to the Marshals house to pay homage to the Commander in Chief of the army.
Anti-Lithuanian speeches were made and a pledge was taken to stand by the army in this hour of emergency. Lead us to Kovno [Kaunas]! the crowd shouted.
WARSAW, March 17 (AP). One hundred thousand persons, massed in Pilsudski Square, clamored tonight for strong action against Lithuania. Posters appeared saying, We dont want normalization of relations, we want annexation we want Kovno.
There were similar demonstrations at Cracow, Lodz, Lwow and Vilna.
KAUNAS, Lithuania, March 17 (AP). The Lithuanian Government has received a note from Poland demanding a reply within forty-eight hours to a demand for settlement of their differences. The note was of ultimative character, it was disclosed tonight.
Earlier in the day Colonel Stasys Dirmantas, the Defense Minister, had told the Diet the government was preparing to close the incident on a legal basis. His statement and the return of a Lithuanian policeman allegedly held by the Poles in a series of border incidents had served to ease tension arising from the situation.
BERLIN, March 17 (AP). The German Government, through its Ambassador at Warsaw, tonight urged Poland to refrain from pressing the Lithuanian issue to a point where forcible measures would become inevitable.
At this time of international tension, it was pointed out, the German Government deemed it inadvisable to aggravate the situation.
It was believed confidentially here that Germanys representations, added to those of France and Great Britain in both Warsaw and Kaunas, would bring about appeasement.
PARIS, March, 17 (AP). Lithuania, through her Minister to Paris, tonight notified Poland that she was ready to discuss settlement of the difficulties between the two nations. The communication was delivered by the Lithuanian Minister, Petras Klimas, to the Polish Ambassador, Jules Lukasiewicz.
Mr. Klimas, acting in the name of the Lithuanian Government, informed M. Lukasiewicz for transmission to Warsaw that Lithuania was ready to designate a diplomatic representative to meet an authorized representative of Poland. The meeting would be held in a neutral city, possibly Paris.
The task of the two men would be first to define clearly the positions of the two nations, and then to discuss a possible means of settlement.
A Lithuanian Legation spokesman said that Mr. Klimas had talked with M. Lukasiewicz at the Polish Embassy and that he expected an answer before Saturday.
It is now up to Poland, he added.
The Polish Embassy declined to make a statement.
Mr. Skirpa told the press that his country would resist any ultimatum with all its forces. He seemed, however, to be less pessimistic than any League circles regarding the future.
He said his government had informed him that the German population of Memel was quiet and unlike the German minorities in other countries had not sent Chancellor Hitler felicitations on his Austrian coup.
[The police in Vienna announced the arrest of several clericals, The Associated Press reported, after Heinrich Himmler, chief of all Germanys police, had ordered the seizure of persons belonging to certain clerical quarters, whom he accused of spreading false rumors.]
There are constant house searches for individual suspects. This afternoon, for example, this correspondent noticed large crowds around a block of houses on the Schottenring surrounded by a cordon of German Elite Guards with rifles, while other guards searched the apartments and offices inside.
Cars requisitioned by the Elite Guards, bearing in huge figures the number of the standards that have appropriated them, and escorting motor trucks with prisoners, constantly drive up and discharge their loads in various prison courtyards.
Reports have been sent out that Dr. Sigmund Freud has been arrested, but the writer is able to state authoritatively that they are untrue. The eminent psychologist remains in his home, having refused all suggestions to flee the country until it was too late and the border was rigidly closed to all Jews.
Princess Fanny Starhemberg, mother of Prince Ernst Ruediger von Starhembert, former Vice Chancellor and Heimwehr leader, was arrested yesterday, but after telephone inquiries from her son, who is in Davos, Switzerland, she was released from prison today and placed under house arrest.
What the Nazi press calls the great Spring cleaning in other words, a wholesale dismissal of Jews from the various employments and professions continues at high speed. It was announced today that theatres and vaudeville housed had been entirely cleansed of Jews and that those that were Jewish-owned had been placed under Aryan commissars.
All directors of the postal and telegraph services have been replaced by Nazis. Representatives from the German Postal Ministry are in Vienna, arranging to incorporate the Austrian system into the German.
Eight judges of the criminal courts and nine judges of the civil courts have been dismissed because they have Jewish blood.
In the Jewish quarter of Leopoldstadt tonight all Jewish shops and cafes were compelled to display huge placards in their windows reading Jewish concern. Non-Jewish-owned shops display the swastika; those belonging to adherents of former Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg who fail to do so voluntarily are visited by the police and forced to comply.
In Viennas fashionable center Jewish-owned stores have not yet been labeled; presumably this is being reserved to celebrate Julius Streichers anticipated visit.
Dr. Franz Hueber, Field Marshal Hermann Goerings Austrian brother-in-law, who is Minister of Justice in the present curious government of a non-existent Austria, announced that work had already begun on the assimilation of the Austrian legal system by the German.
The first German laws to come into effect almost immediately are the Nuremberg race pollution laws and those forbidding marriages of Jews with non-Jews.
The introduction of these laws will certainly cause innumerable personal tragedies in a country where there are large numbers of non-Jews married to persons with Jewish blood who have been Catholics for one or two generations. An increase in the already heavy daily rate of Jewish suicides is expected to result.
A number of officials of the German Ministry of Justice will be exchanged with their colleagues in the corresponding Vienna Ministry in order to speed up the coordination of the legal system.
There have been many cases of men in Storm Troop and Elite Guard uniforms entering Jewish-owned shops and carrying off whatever goods they fancied as well as money, and going into private houses and demanding large sums of money or, in default of personal jewelry, other valuables.
In other cases not only are automobiles removed but their owners are also asked to hand over money for gasoline. The Jews are too terrified to resist or protest.
The police, however, today explained that the persons carrying out these outrages against property were not Storm Troops or Elite Guards, as had appeared, but Communists who in some unexplained manner had managed to get themselves disguised in Nazi uniforms.
The police stated that these Communists were making illegal seizures of property in house searches and arrests. The police announced that sharp measures would be taken to deal with such offenders.
Josef Buerckel, the German commissar whom Chancellor Hitler appointed to supervise the plebiscite April 10 and the reorganization of the whole Austrian Nazi party, announced that in order to poison public opinion and damage the name of the National Socialist movement contributions were being extorted by evil elements for Nazi fronts.
All such contributions already made must be reported to Herr Buerckel, the giver as well as the receiver being punishable if this is not done.
Dr. Victor Kienboeck, the Austrian financial genius who has been president of the National Bank for so many years, has resigned, being replaced by a Nazi, Dr. Joas.
At a press conference to which Austrian and foreign Aryan correspondents were invited, the newly appointed Nazi Mayor, Hermann Neubacher, said he and his aides would administer Vienna on National Socialist lines and lead it on to a future that would defy all criticism.
He declared he was convinced that before the end of the year unemployment for Vienna would be merely an evil memory. He called Vienna the Hamburg of the east.
As the first measure to court popularity he announced the abolition of the existing small tax on bicycles.
The German Labor Front has invited 10,000 Austrians to visit Germany free of charge, and they will soon leave on this trip.
Daily Vienna loses something more of its status as a capital. Yesterday the Hungarian Legation ceased to exist and became a consulate general. Today the Italian Legation closed and the Italian Minister left for Rome.
Admission to the Austrian Nazi party has been closed until after the plebiscite and until then no appointments to permanent posts will be made. It is announced that the question of subsequent admission to the party and the allotment of good jobs will depend on the amount of propaganda work done to obtain satisfactory results at the plebiscite.
Vienna, March 17 (AP). The police today announced the arrest of several clericals for disseminating disturbing rumors.
The arrests were announced after Heinrich Himmler, chief of all Germanys police, had ordered the seizure of persons belonging to certain clerical quarters, whom he accused of spreading false rumors about the new National Socialist Austria.
Their object, he said, was not only to sow unrest within, but also to disturb the Reichs good foreign relations. He mentioned no names but warned that an immediate clean-up was in store.
Among rumors laid to these clericals by Herr Himmler was one that he said had Premier Mussolini of Italy giving Germany South Tyrol, formerly a part of Austria.
The new administration threw its propaganda machine into high gear to turn out a heavy vote in favor of Austrias union with Germany in the April 10 plebiscite.
A branch of Dr. Joseph Goebbelss Propaganda Ministry was set up in a section of the old Austrian Parliament building, the Nazi headquarters, to carry out the job. One of the initial steps was to order 20,000 radio receiving sets form Germany for distribution to remote localities.
A spokesman for the plebiscite campaign organization warned against overestimating Nazi strength.
We are sure we will have a most impressive majority of the people with us, he said, but it would be a mistake to contend that we will have such a fabulous figure as 95 per cent or more.
We realize we are in a region where the opposition press has been lambasting Nazis for a long time. We know we will have to work hard for an impressive percentage of yes votes.
But there will be a most satisfactory majority.
Josef Buerckel, former Commissioner of the German Saar, who is in charge of the plebiscite campaign, said there would be only one multiple question to be answered April10:
Are you German, do you belong to your Germany and its Adolf Hitler, or have you nothing to do with us?
The Nazi administration disclosed plans for development of the Danube, through which German builders envisage a ship-canal route from the North Sea to the Black Sea by way of the Danube and the Rhine.
The Reich war flag was raised ceremoniously over the old Austrian War Office, in the presence of General von Bock of the Eighth Amy Corps, which now includes Austria.
A rumor widely circulated was that accidents had resulted in the death of several German soldiers as they entered Austria. It was reported officially that seven had been killed when a truck slid from an icy highway near Radstadt, a town close to Salzburg.
These forces are locally believed to have been directed toward the border of Czechoslovakia, although another suggestion is that some have been deflected southward to the Yugoslav frontier.
Yesterday uncountable thousands of men arrived and went by truck, by horse, afoot and by plane. Airplanes of all the latest types landed and picked up soldier passengers fully equipped. Many of the men seemed to be about 35 years old and upward.
The steady stream of military vehicles and troops tied up Linz traffic all day long. There were many light cannon and some heavy artillery and a good many armed motor boats carried on trucks a form of armament that seems unnecessary for conducting a plebiscite.
At 1 oclock this morning long lines of cavalry were passing through the streets.
So far as can be gathered, most of the troops swung eastward toward the Moravian border of Czechoslovakia, but another rumor current in Linz is that others are on their way south to the Yugoslav frontier, where they might be extremely useful in protecting Italy from attack there in case that country should be engaged elsewhere.
The affairs of the Austrian general staff were taken over today by the German general staff and General von Bock, German officer commanding all the troops in Austria, welcomed Austrian staff officers into the German army.
It is announced that the main road over Pyrn Pass from Spittal to Lienz in East Tyrol will be closed to all traffic until Sunday presumably for troop movements. [Lienz, a town in Carinthia, is only a little more than ten miles from the Italian border. Spittal, some thirty-five miles to the east, is also close to the frontier.]
Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels issued a proclamation today saying:
The Greater German Reich has risen. Seventy-five million Germans are united under the banner of the swastika cross. The longings of all Germans for a thousand years have been fulfilled. All national comrades must listen to the Fuehrers speech over the radio.
Simultaneously, Deputy Gauleiter Artur Goerlitzer issued another proclamation urging all Berliners to line up in the streets through which Hitler will drive on the way to the Reichstag.
There, says the proclamation, you will be able to greet the Fuehrer once again. Your jubilation and your joy shall be renewed thanks for everything the Fuehrer has done for Germanys world prestige and for the security of the German peace.
Hitlers speech will be transmitted, of course, over all German and Austrian radio stations, and preparations are being made for community receptions in special halls, restaurants and streets. The speech, which may take two hours, will begin at 8 P. M. [2 P. M. New York time.]
There is no hint, however, of what the speech itself may contain beyond the topic Austria, although speculations still proceed along the lines outlined in these dispatches yesterday.
But for the first time in a long time, the Reichstag will not be merely an audience to listen and applaud; it will also be admitted to an actual piece of legislation. The Essener National Zeitung, Field Marshal Hermann Goerings own organ, declares that the Reichstag will be called upon to adopt a resolution permitting the Austrian stock to send its representatives of like National socialist persuasion into the Reichstag of United Greater Germany.
Lest this be misunderstood as an act of parliamentary sovereignty, however, the newspaper hastens to assure that creative initiative has not been given to this Reichstag because the liberating task has already been completed by the German people united in National Socialism under their Fuehrer, Adolf Hitler.
Hitler issued today several decrees for Austrias incorporation into the Reich. They are effective immediately and apparently designed to complete the incorporation before the April 10 plebiscite. The decrees provide as follows:
The German mark is made legal tender in Austria at a ratio of 1.5 schillings for one Reichsmark. The previous exchange rate was 2 schillings to a mark, so the new rate represents a considerable cash subsidy for the Austrians.
The Reich Finance Ministry is authorized to admit Austrian goods to Germany partly or wholly duty free.
The administration of the Austrian National Bank, which is being liquidated, is turned over to the Reichsbank.
The Austrian Federal Railways are turned over to the Reich Railway Administration.
The Four-Year Plan is introduced into Austria a fact of which Marshal Goering specifically gave notice in a telegram to Dr. Arthur Seyss-Inquart. Reich Statthalter [Governor] for Austria.
All Reich laws decreed henceforth are effective in Austria as well and the following laws already effective in the Reich are introduced into Austria: the Reich flag law establishing the swastika flag as the national ensign and forbidding Jews to display it; the law forbidding the formation of new parties, and the law for the unity of the State and the party.
At the same time another law apparently puts a Reich supervisor even over Dr. Seyss-Inquart. This supervisor, bearing the title Reich Commissar for Austria, will supervise the actual execution of all the before-mentioned measures in Austria under the direction of Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick. According to reliable information the Commissar will be Wilhelm Keppler, Hitlers former economic adviser.
The suicides, arrests and other tragedies now occurring in Austria naturally are kept out of the German press, although the experienced German reader will know what is happening from the glowing accounts of how Jews are being cleaned out of Austria.
But the press is full of the measures taken for Austrias benefit. Especially stressed are the money donations, the free vacations for Austrian children, the donations for radio sets so that Austrians can hear the Fuehrer, the cheap Strength Through Joy vacations for Austrian worker, the subsidies for students and, most important, the program of public works and unemployment relief, comprising particularly the immediate extension to Austria of the Reichs motor roads, which proved so valuable in throwing troops into that country.
In short, no bet is overlooked to make Anschluss as palatable as possible to the non-Nazi Austrians, so as to roll up as big a vote at the forthcoming plebiscite as was rolled up in the Saar.
The expected message, the informant said, would be in line with a policy to load our shotguns and stay in our own back yard.
It was learned also that the War Departments regular supply bill, which is to be reported by the Appropriations Committee within a few days for possible House action late next week, had been cut somewhat under budget estimates, but would be about $39,000,000 above the amount voted for the current year.
Meanwhile, the House in preliminary tests on the $1,120,000,000 Naval Construction Bill decisively voted down attempts to eliminate the new battleship provisions or delay the measure pending attempts to bring about a disarmament conference.
A further revelation of the temper of the House was a statement made by Representative Rayburn, the majority leader, in debate, that Congress may be asked within the next few months to authorize an outlay for defense greater than the pending naval measure.
At the same time Representative Vinson, chairman of the Naval Affairs Committee, forecast a message from President Roosevelt as soon as the Naval Bill is passed calling for an emergency appropriation to begin construction of two of the three battleships authorized by the measure. This would mean, he explained, that the United States would have under construction six of the greatest battleships in the world.
In regard to the expected message on army funds, the War Departments original estimates to the Budget Bureau were several million dollars above what were allowed and sent to the Appropriations Committee. It was understood that the additional amount expected to be sought would provide the department with funds it considered necessary to bring the nations land fighting forces up to peak efficiency and equipment.
No figures were available as to the proposed increase, but the estimates ranged form $16000,000 to $40,000,000.
President Roosevelts supplemental message asking for more army funds would partly make up for Budget Bureau cuts, but it was understood that in drafting the regular Supply Bill the House Appropriations Subcommittee did not include $450,000 asked by Mr. Roosevelt to finance the re-establishment of the Regular Army Reserve.
This was for the reason that, although both branches of Congress have reported out bills authorizing the re-establishment of the reserve, the Appropriations Committee members held to their established rule not to include items not already authorized by existing law.
The War Department declined to reveal what items had been rejected by the Budget Bureau, but it was understood that the department would welcome funds for additional modernization of artillery, for more anti-aircraft guns, more automatic rifles and for greater mobility of guns. It was said unofficially that the expected increased sum would generally extend the armys equipment to a greater degree of completeness and that some of it would go to furnishing 75-millimeter guns, greatly improved , to some ten batteries that do not now have them or others which were left out of previous estimates.
Army officials were declared generally satisfied with the present strength of the regular army, which is 165,000 and with its Air Corps personnel and equipment. But the need for trained reserves has been felt since the reservoir of the 4,000,000 men trained during the World War has gradually diminished until it is practically non-existent.
By starting with 18,000 regulars who leave the service every year, the army expects within four years to bring its reserve to 75,000 men who can be relied upon in an emergency to report at once to their old organizations. This reserve will give the nation 240,000 trained men, plus the National Guard and Organized Reserves.
The cost of the Regular Reserve is not expected to exceed $1,800,000 a year after the full 75,000 retiring regulars are enrolled. Each reservist would get $2 a month pay, and, if called into service, would receive a further compensation of $3 for each month served in the reserve, but not in the aggregate more than $150 per man.
An influential member of Congress said that the proposed increase in the armys appropriation had been considered solely with the thought that this nation should be prepared to keep the peace by informing the world that it was in a position to protect its rights.
The best thing we can do, he said, is to load our shot-guns and stay in our own back yard.
I believe, and I am confident a great majority of members of Congress believe, that the surest way for us to keep out of any conflict that might develop is to let the bad boys of the world know that we pack a wallop. Then, and only then, will they let us alone.
A reminder that just because the Poles were eventually victims of German aggression, it does not mean that they were themselves unwilling to use aggression against a weaker nation when convenient.
We have a modern tendency to assume that all victims are saints. Just not true.
Asked by a Social Credit member whether his government, in view of the fact that Germany and Italy, allegedly were throwing large resources into Spain to help the Insurgents, would repeal its embargo on the shipment of munitions to Spain, Mr. King declared that in imposing the embargo Canada has followed the example set by other members of the Non-Intervention Committee.
We are witnessing momentous events on the continent of Europe, added the Prime Minister, and momentous events on the continent of Asia. Canada is a part of the continent of North America.
Wireless to THE NEW YORK TIMES. GENEVA, March 17. In a dispatch yesterday it was said that the League of Nations had never accepted the Swiss Governments declaration in the early years of the League that Switzerland was not bound by the military sanctions of Article XVI of the covenant, including the obligation to allow troops of powers upholding the covenant to traverse a League members territory. In correction of this it should be stressed that in 1920 the council did admit this declaration.
Some questioned whether the council was legally empowered to grant this exception to the Covenant, but the accepted view in the secretariat here is that the councils action does free Switzerland from the military side of Article XVI. Consequently it would be safer to treat Switzerland as a special case and exclude her form the list of countries that might automatically be obliged to let French troops attack through their territory in the event of a German attack on Czechoslovakia.
Certainly the right of France and Russia to force their way, if need be, through League members territory in such an event which right is clear as regards all members except Switzerland is at least very debatable in Switzerlands case.
VATICAN CITY, March 17 (AP). Three new saints were recognized by the Secret Consistory today in the presence of Pope Pius.
They were the Rev. Father Andre Bobola, a Polish Jesuit who was martyred in Russia in the seventeenth century; Salvador da Horta, an eighteenth century Spanish lay Franciscan and professor, and Giovanni Leonardi, Italian priest who founded the Clerics of the Mother of God.
Twenty-five Cardinals attended the ceremony. Plans have been announced for a semi-public consistory March 31 and a solemn ceremony in St. Peters April 18.
OTTOWA, Ont., March 17 (Canadian Press). Virginia C. Gildersleeve, dean of Barnard College and president of the International Federation of University Women, urged the university women of Canada to carry on the ideals of the federation in promoting understanding, friendship, and cooperation among nations.
There is a dreadful sort of madness that seems to be affecting the minds of men, she said in an address at the annual dinner of the Ottawa University Womens Club.
This, she said, is a bad moment in the progress of professional women in the world. Women in some countries are less keen in their scholarly pursuits, perhaps because it is no longer a novelty, and there is no particular stimulation in proving that women can take their place among men in the professions, Dean Gildersleeve asserted.
The federation, which represents thirty-three countries, can do much to keep the avenues of communication and understanding open among the nations, she said, and, by tolerance and friendship in an inside way, we can all combine and ultimately accomplish something for humanity at this critical time.
SAN DIEGO, Calif., March 17 (AP). A naval scouting bomber plunged 2,500 feet to earth, exploded and burned today, killing its occupants, Herbert W. Younkman of Jersey City, aviation cadet, and Junius D. Murry of Puyallup, Wash., a machinists mate.
Prime Minister Chamberlain and President Roosevelt need to push the peace process forward, or else the German people could rise up in an Intifada!
Yeah, just like our invasions of Panama, Iraq, Kuwait, Vietnam, Mexico. Oh, when the Saints go marching in!
Turn off the carousel.
Don't even go there, as I am Polish!
Related articles posted as replies:
Repy 2 - Troops on Border (Poles ready to march on Kaunas)
Reply 3 - Action By Himmler (Scary stuff, round 'em up)
Reply 4 - Reich Troops Pour Through Austria
Reply 5 - Roosevelt to Ask More For Defense
Reply 7 - Miscellaneous short articles
And thus begins the story of how I married my Lithuanian wife.
For your list.
And thus begins the Kaunas/Vilnius rivalry that persists to this day.
“And thus begins the Kaunas/Vilnius rivalry that persists to this day.”
The spin I get from the in-laws is that Vilnius is too “big city” and filled with gangsters (always Russians) while Kaunas is more tranquil.
Of course, Palanga is the place to go during the summer. My wife was in Palanga last year, and damned if she didn’t turn and see a guy wearing a White Sox cap. He was an Irishman from Bridgeport, Chicago city employee, and there with his wife. We’re originally from Bridgeport too so she thought this was pretty funny to meet another Bridgeporter on the Baltic.
Most people don’t realize this, but historically speaking, once upon a time, the Catholic Kingdom of Poland was a real powerhouse, and even dominated Russia at one point before geography (no natural barriers between Russia and Germany) finally caught up to it.
Toddlin, anyone else your wife sees in Lithuania wearing a Sox cap is probably one of my friends.
*some one-horse (if even) village on a small two-lane somewhere between Alytus and Trakai.
“We have a modern tendency to assume that all victims are saints”
True, but it’s way beyond that of course.
We are totally and abjectly ignorant of real history in this country.
We base our understanding solely upon the propaganda which ultimately proved the most successful and thus has been repeated exponentially and accepted as fact.
You must be Polish. The Lithuanians saved the Poles from themselves by marrying into the royal family and keeping the Polish dukes from destroying each other. The “dynasty” was Lithuanian until the Lithuanians became Polish gentry. The huge swatch of Europe of which you speak is labeled as you can see here. Note WHO is between Poland and Russia: the Duchy of Lithuania.
BTW: If I didn’t say this, my Lithuanian wife would kill me. There is still “bad blood” between the Poles and the Lithuanians and it didn’t start in 1939! It has gone on for centuries.
Yeah, and we all know how well that worked out....
In 1938 the US Army had very little wallop. It was something like 20th in the world.
The US Navy packed a world-class wallop, which prevented anybody from even thinking of launching a surprise attack.
Except for the Japanese...
Which just goes to show how dangerous it is to suppose that one's own beliefs and ideals are also what drives the actions of others.
That was Chamberlain's mistake during the timeframe of these articles. Later on, it would also infect the thinking of the peaceniks who opposed American actions during the Cold War.
And it most definitely shows up in the thinking of many with regard to the current war in the Middle East.
Once again, Homer, you've provided some outstanding history that is relevant to our situation today. I'm loving this stuff!
My comment was intended satirically.
We misunderestimated the Japanese severely.
They misunderestimated our response even worse.
“There is still bad blood between the Poles and the Lithuanians and it didnt start in 1939! It has gone on for centuries.”
The world and Lithuanian Polish relations have changed dramatically since Lithuania reasserted it independence from Communist Russia in 1990. When the Russian tanks were running over Vilnius citizens in January of 1991, it was Poland’s government that opened up to accept Algirdas Saudargas, Lithuania’s then foreign minister to represent the possible Lithuanian Government in Exile. When it came time for Lithuania to join NATO it was Polish American’s who strongly supported and lobbied Congress and the military to support this. The supposed rivalry is more like that between siblings. When the situation is tough the Poles and Lithuanians are of like mind and purpose. Russia on the other hand has been weaving all kinds of intrigues for decades now in attempts to cause splits between the Baltic states themselves as well as with Poland.
That “bad blood” you speak of? It’s like the bad blood between the University of Michigan and Ohio State University. Just a natural rivalry that goes back, oh, six more centuries.
I would like to think that our country has learned from the lesson of that attack. Some of us have, at least...there are others who truly frighten me with their level of stupidity. I refer mainly to the peace at any price crowd here...
ROTFL! Yeah, I know! Whenever the Mrs. meets a Pole who sez that "Lithuania is just like a province of Poland, don't cha know!" I have to step in front of her really fast.
I never asked her if there is a tuba player who dots the "i" in "Lietuva" after the national anthem, though!
As long as Ireland brews Guinness, I don't have any feuds with anyone. Well, now that I think of it...
For your list (lizol appears to be away).
i was doing odd jobs to pay the bills in college and I came across about seven years of newspapers starting in 1938. There was a lot of this stuff in there along with other history that was probably lost.
There is nothing in being oppressed that makes the oppressed virtuous, just the reverse.
I am pretty well informed about history, but this piece of Polish aggression seems to have been whitewashed right out of the history books.
This crisis doesn’t get much mention in the history books. I guess few people care to remember Poland going after Lithuania while ignoring the real danger.
Freud and his family were allowed to leave Austria in June. They went to England, where he died the following year.
Sox fan? Disown him...
This military buildup should have rung all kinds of alarm bells.
Thanks, Homer_J_Simpson, for the ping.
All: please ping me to threads that are relevant to the MilHist list (and/or) please add the keyword “MilHist” to the appropriate thread. Thanks in advance.
Which aggression ? The war didn’t happen.
(and the hell would anyone attack own province...)
Another is that before the war, Poland was only marginally less antisemitic than Nazi Germany of that time. And after the war picked up where they left off with the few Jews who tried to return.
That I had heard about.
In 1938, US defense spending was about the same as today = 4% of GDP, as was the US Army of around 500,000. If I remember, it was ranked 16th (20th?) in the world of that time.
During W.W.II, defense spending rose to about 40% of a much larger GDP, and total military to over 12 million, or about 10% of the population.
US deaths in W.W.II were around 400,000 (depending on how you count), which seems inconceivable to us today. But total deaths are said to have been 35 million in Europe, and another 20 million in Asia.
Today we can't even begin to imagine the high cost of failing to act before things spiral out of control.
When Hitler took the rest of Czechoslavakia, Poland and Hungary took pieces of the country with German acquiescense.
The Hungarians continued as German allies till late in the war.
The Poles didn’t have that option, for reasons of geography and Nazi racial ideology. It’s quite possible the Polish government would have been glad to collaborate if they’d been allowed to. They might have been quite happy to invade USSR along with Germany, as the Romanians and Hungarians, among others, did.
Actually, the Germans offered the Poles a junior partnership in the Axis. The price? The Corridor, Danzig, and free passage for the Wehrmacht to the Soviet Union.
Whether or not the Poles would have considered it, Chamberlain’s [and France’s] guarantee of their borders stiffened their spine, and they turned the Germans down. Bad miscalculation on their part.
I doubt it would have made any difference in the long run. Nazi ideology made alliance with inferior Slavs, especially the Poles, a real problem.
Although they did manage to rub along well enough with Slavic puppets/allies in Croatia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, etc.
Once I read that they used to add Jewish blood to the sausage.
It’s as bad as that? Yikes.
Pure propaganda, no doubt.
Things were bad enough — but discrimination and pogroms were the worst of it. There was nothing I know of going on in Poland before the war that even remotely resembled the horrors of the Holocaust.
Indeed, some have argued (I don't agree) that Jews before the war were treated no worse than Blacks in America at the same time. But the point is: that's the level of mistreatment we're talking about.
Now, further east, in the Soviet Union, Stalin had long established every element of the Holocaust, except the actual gas chambers. Of course, Stalin was more than happy to see millions die in his gulags, but he didn't want to gas them. Instead, he wanted to be sure he'd extracted the last possible work out of them, before they gasped their last breaths. And of course, Stalin was not particularly concerned with Jews, but with anyone who opposed him.
Historians estimate that before Hitler even got started on his “final solution to the Jewish question,” Stalin had already murdered six million of his own people.