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U.S. Military Report on Use of Blogs in Warfare Credits Free Republic
Tuesday, April 1, 2008 | Kristinn

Posted on 04/01/2008 7:04:03 PM PDT by kristinn

An unclassified 2006 report by the Strategic Studies Department of the U.S. military's Joint Special Operations University relates the story of how Freepers, followed by others in the blogosphere, took down Dan Rather over the forged Killian memos as a way to demonstrate the growing ability of individuals using the Internet to influence the world at large.

The report also discusses the feasibility of "clandestinely recruiting or hiring prominent bloggers" for information warfare and of the reticence the military has toward using the Internet for disinformation campaigns.

The report was authored by Maj. James Kinniburgh and Dr. Dorothy Denning. The authors demonstrate an incomplete knowledge of the facts in some areas of the report (to put it gently), but they are reasonably accurate in the telling of how Free Republic exposed Rathergate.

Link to PDF file of 50 page report at City Pages.

If you prefer to download it from a DOD server, that can be done here.

Link to City Pages article on report.

Link to Wired.com article on report.

The first mention of this report was found on Blogger News Network last Friday. Curiously, that article has been pulled. However, it can be found in Google cache.

The moonbats are starting to howl, of course.

Wired.com's Danger Room is faslely getting credited with breaking this story. Blogger News Network's pulled story appeared three days before Wired noticed it. (Note: I saw the Blogger News network story the day it came out. Computer problems prevented me from posting about it then.)

The introduction to the report:

September, 2004: The 2004 presidential campaign is in full swing and the producers of the television news show 60 Minutes Wednesday, at CBS, have received a memo purporting to show that the sitting President, George W. Bush, had used his family connections to avoid his service obligations. The story, given the controversy and ratings it will generate, is just too good not to run. On cursory inspection, the documents and their source appear legitimate. On September 8th, 60 Minutes producer Mary Mapes and anchorman Dan Rather decide to air it …

Within minutes of airtime, posted discussion participants at the conservative Web site FreeRepublic.com posited that the documents were faked. Bloggers at Power Line1 and Little Green Footballs (littlegreenfootballs.com) picked up these comments and posted them and their associated hyperlinks on their own blogs. The clues to the now infamous Killian memo forgeries, the bloggers pointed out, were the superscript ‘th’ and the Times New Roman font; both indicated the use of modern word-processing programs rather than a 1972-era typewriter. The signatures on at least two of the documents appeared to have been forged, and some with experience called into question the very format of the memo, purported to show orders issued to then-Lieutenant Bush. The story was given even greater attention after noted pundit, Matt Drudge, posted a link to the Free Republic thread on his own Web site, The Drudge Report (www.drudgereport.com).,

What followed initially was what is known as a “blogswarm,” where the story was carried on multiple blogs, and then later a “mediaswarm.” As a result of these phenomena and CBS’ inability to authenticate the documents, several CBS employees, including producer Mary Mapes, were asked to resign. Within a month, Dan Rather announced his own retirement.

What garnered considerable interest afterward was how a group of nonprofessional journalists was able to outperform and “bring down” two icons of the traditional media, CBS and Dan Rather. CBS executive Jonathan Klein said of the bloggers, “You couldn’t have a starker contrast between the multiple layers of checks and balances (at 60 Minutes) and a guy sitting in his living room in his pajamas writing.” 2

Some columnists, like Corey Pein at the Colombia Journalism Review, explained the spread of the story (a.k.a., “Memogate,” or “Rathergate”) as the result of journalistic haste and the rapid coalescence of popular opinion, supported and enhanced by a blogging network of Republican story spinners.3

CBS offered its own explanations for the problems surrounding the story in its final report on the matter. The CBS reviewers found four major factors that contributed to the incident: weak or cursory efforts to establish the documents’ source and credibility, failed efforts to determine the document’s authenticity, nominal efforts at provenance, and excessive competitive zeal (the rush to air).4

Despite the fact that the initial questions about the CBS story were posted on a discussion forum instead of a blog, the partially erroneous attribution of the entire “Memogate” incident, and other stories that followed, to “bloggers” likely increased public awareness of blogs and blogging, and their potential power to influence. Governments have noticed this potential, and many authoritarian governments censor blogs believed to threaten their regimes. Iran has imprisoned bloggers who offended the ruling mullahs. At the same time, however, Iranian officials recognized the value of blogs to information strategy, holding the Revolutionary Bloggers Conference to promote pro-regime blogs in February 2006.5

The rise of military bloggers from deployed areas such as Iraq has raised concerns with U.S. Department of Defense officials that information posted in a blog could compromise operations security (OPSEC). Stars and Stripes, a newspaper that caters to the overseas military personnel, quoted a recent memo from the Army Chief of Staff, General Peter Schoomaker:

“The enemy aggressively ‘reads’ our open source and continues to exploit such information for use against our forces,” he wrote. “Some soldiers continue to post sensitive information to Internet Web sites and blogs. … Such OPSEC violations needlessly place lives at risk and degrade the effectiveness of our operations.” 6

This paper explores the possibility of incorporating blogs and blogging into military information strategy, primarily as a tool for influence. Towards that end, we examine the value of blogs as targets of and/or platforms for military influence operations and supporting intelligence operations. Influence operations are a subset of information operations (IO) that includes the core capabilities of Psychological Operations (PSYOP) and Military Deception (MILDEC), and the related capabilities of Public Affairs (PA), Military Support to Public Diplomacy (PD) and Civil Affairs/Civil-Military Operations (CA/CMO). To evaluate the IO potential for blogs, we seek answers to two questions:

1. Are blogs truly influential, and if so, in what manner?
2. Does the information environment support blogging as part of an information campaign?

Before addressing these questions, however, we first review the nature and structure of the blogosphere.


TOPICS: Foreign Affairs; Front Page News; News/Current Events; War on Terror
KEYWORDS: dod; fr; freepers; infowar; pajamahadeen; pajamahadien; pajamapatrol; rathergate
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Nice to see FR get credit where credit is due, to coin a phrase :-)
1 posted on 04/01/2008 7:04:03 PM PDT by kristinn
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To: Buckhead; Jim Robinson

Congrats!


2 posted on 04/01/2008 7:04:56 PM PDT by kristinn
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To: Cannoneer No. 4; intenseracer; 2ndDivisionVet; Lurker; roaddog727; MizSterious; Tainan; ...

Important story ping.

We’re still behind the curve in the Information Warfare battlespace.


3 posted on 04/01/2008 7:07:32 PM PDT by FreedomPoster (<===Typical White American)
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To: kristinn

LOL! And the DOD even knows that FreeRepublic is not a blog!

I have to find that FoxNews credit where credit is due image now.


4 posted on 04/01/2008 7:08:10 PM PDT by Incorrigible (If I lead, follow me; If I pause, push me; If I retreat, kill me.)
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To: kristinn; 91B; HiJinx; Spiff; MJY1288; xzins; Calpernia; clintonh8r; TEXOKIE; windchime; ...

Check this out!!!


5 posted on 04/01/2008 7:08:29 PM PDT by SandRat (Duty, Honor, Country. What else needs to be said?)
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To: kristinn

The MSM always loved “watchdog groups” until they found out that they were the bone the “watchdogs” were eyeballing 24/7. Free Republic does a lot to keep the “media” bozos honest. The “media” can’t get away with their shenanigans like they used to.


6 posted on 04/01/2008 7:08:46 PM PDT by FlingWingFlyer (How many more "scientists and researchers" can the taxpayers afford to support with Federal grants?)
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To: kristinn

I blogged from the war zone, right here on FR. All my posts were vetted.

So there. Come and get me, copper.


7 posted on 04/01/2008 7:09:41 PM PDT by Old Sarge (CTHULHU '08 - I won't settle for a lesser evil any longer!)
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To: Incorrigible

 

 

8 posted on 04/01/2008 7:11:36 PM PDT by Incorrigible (If I lead, follow me; If I pause, push me; If I retreat, kill me.)
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To: kristinn

Thanks for the Bump.

They don’t need to run influence operations on bloggers - the bloggers have a position, and argue it every day, and this influences public debate. As if Wretchard and Bill Roggio and Michael Yon (1) needed prompting to support the war effort and (2) could be manipulated in any event.


9 posted on 04/01/2008 7:11:47 PM PDT by Buckhead
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To: kristinn; Jim Robinson

Wow,Congrats .This is so nice.


10 posted on 04/01/2008 7:13:37 PM PDT by fatima
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To: kristinn

Information Operations (IO)

IO | Shift | Power

FR is ahead of the curve again!


11 posted on 04/01/2008 7:13:42 PM PDT by Natty Bumppo@frontier.net ("The facts of life are conservative!" Margaret Thatcher)
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To: kristinn
"clandestinely recruiting or hiring prominent bloggers" for information warfare and of the reticence the military has toward using the Internet for disinformation campaigns.

Hey,I'm a prominent blogger;)

12 posted on 04/01/2008 7:16:59 PM PDT by mdittmar (May God watch over those who serve,and have served,to keep us free)
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Military is being quite wise to explore this. And think about doing exactly this. The expertise, on all sides, is there, has been done in the past (using other methods) and with good success in purpose.

Of course Academic Lefties will howl in outrage.

And they will be inclined to vent their most cherished true beliefs and goals: what they *really* think. Would fit right in with their Dem Candidates in the here and now.

It is currently being proposed by a CA Dem to overturn laws against "being a member of the Communist Party" in CA. Obviously, liberals are taking a step into the "private" propaganda wars.

13 posted on 04/01/2008 7:17:31 PM PDT by Alia
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To: kristinn; All

Free-swarm?

Freep-swarm?

e-swarm?

like those better


14 posted on 04/01/2008 7:18:14 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
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To: Buckhead
Image hosted by Photobucket.com Buckhead Bump...
15 posted on 04/01/2008 7:20:40 PM PDT by Chode (American Hedonist )
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To: FlingWingFlyer

I think it is VERY cool that we humble posters are viewed as more valuable than the delusional divas of the Drive By Media.


16 posted on 04/01/2008 7:21:49 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
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To: longtermmemmory

In lots of ways I believe the MSM are a greater threat to our National Security than the known terrorist thugs and communist rats.


17 posted on 04/01/2008 7:26:37 PM PDT by austinaero
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To: kristinn
Thanks for posting this, Kristinn.

Cheers!

18 posted on 04/01/2008 7:27:32 PM PDT by grey_whiskers (The opinions are solely those of the author and are subject to change without notice.)
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To: Allegra
Like, *PING*, there.

Do your posts conform to OPSEC requirements?

Cheers!

19 posted on 04/01/2008 7:28:06 PM PDT by grey_whiskers (The opinions are solely those of the author and are subject to change without notice.)
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To: FlingWingFlyer
Indeed, remember these gems.

Photobucket

Photobucket

Photobucket

Photobucket

Or this series of photos.

Photobucket

Photobucket

Photobucket

20 posted on 04/01/2008 7:31:48 PM PDT by mware (mware...killer of threads.)
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