Strict constructionism, considering original intent and the most applicable aspects of related legal, historical, and philosophicl context requires that Barack H. Obama II is not allowed to be United States President.
(Starwise, you have a ping list that I am not using.)
It has come to mean anyone who contracts with the federal government for benefits.
Before the 14th Amendment was ratified, the nation only had one class of Citizen -- spelled with a capital "C", who were subject to the jurisidiction of their individual states and not the federal government.
It's no big secret anymore, for practically everyone has traded their free status "Citizenship" in to the federal government and are now referred to as citizens, lower case "c". Check it out. The U.S. Constitution did not mention 'citizen' until the 14th Amendment -- and since then all amendments have used the word spelled with a lower case 'c'.
Sorry, but it's really that simple. And yes, Virginia, there are two classes of people in America. Congress couldn't use the word 'Citizen' to apply to the free slaves, for it was already defined in the Constitution as a white person. So they went for second best and used the lower case spelling for the free slaves, (and any one else who applied for bennies) which denoted federal jurisdiction.
This article states in its second paragraph:
"Perhaps the first most important thing to understand about national birthright is that there was no written national birthright rule until the year 1866. One will look in vain to find any national law on the subject prior to this year, or even any mention of the right to citizenship by birth under the United States Constitution."
Perhaps I misunderstand the meaning of the author regarding "national birthright rule" or "national law"; when I take it as a reference to a definition of who is a citizen at birth, but wouldn't these count?
1790 First Congress, Act of March 26th, 1790, 1 Stat. 103.
"And the children of citizens of the United States that may be born beyond the sea, or out of the limits of the United States, shall be considered as natural born citizens: Provided, That the right of citizenship shall not descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the United States".
1795 Act of January 29, 1795. Section 3, 1 Stat. 414, 415. (Same general provisions as above).
1802 Act of April 14, 1802. Section 4, 2 Stat. 153, 144. (Same general provisions as above).
1855 Act of February 10, 1855. Section 1, 10 Stat. 604.
"All children heretofore born or hereafter born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers were or may be at the time of their birth citizens thereof, are declared to be citizens of the United States; but the rights of citizenship shall not descend to children whose fathers never resided in the United States."
Jurisdiction must - I mean MUST - be understood in terms of the meanings and conditions that the term represents.
Alot of people that used to be part of western civilization and many of the people who came to America were indentured servants.
They were servants. They were under the control and authority of the Lords or whatever who had lent them money or leased them land.
It was common practice for a person to come under total, absolute authority of the king by kissing his ring, or writing his X on a contract, witnessed by another.
JurisDiction means JuratDicti. Jurat is an oath. Dicti means to speak it.
Jurisdiction means an oath spoken.
A free man gives no other man a power over himself by default. He must swear an oath or use some advantage for another to have control over him.
(that’s why contract specifications under the common law must be willingly, voluntarily, and completely knowingly entered into)