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Conscientious Objection Gone Awry Restoring Selfless Professionalism in Medicine (selfless-not)
New England Journal of Medicine ^ | March 25, 2009 | Julie Cantor, MD, JD

Posted on 03/29/2009 3:36:43 AM PDT by hocndoc

A new rule from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has emerged as the latest battleground in the health care conscience wars. Promulgated during the waning months of the Bush administration, the rule became effective in January. Heralded as a "provider conscience regulation" by its supporters and derided as a "midnight regulation" by its detractors, the rule could alter the landscape of federal conscience law.

The regulation, as explained in its text (see the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org), aims to raise awareness of and ensure compliance with federal health care conscience protection statutes. Existing laws, which are tied to the receipt of federal funds, address moral or religious objections to sterilization and abortion. They protect physicians, other health care personnel, hospitals, and insurance plans from discrimination for failing to provide, offer training for, fund, participate in, or refer patients for abortions. Among other things, the laws ensure that these persons cannot be required to participate in sterilizations or abortions and that entities cannot be required to make facilities or personnel available for them. And they note that decisions on admissions and accreditation must be divorced from beliefs and behaviors related to abortion. On their face, these laws are quite broad.

But the Bush administration's rule is broader still. It restates existing laws and exploits ambiguities in them. For example, one statute says, "No individual shall be required to perform or assist in the performance of any part of a health service program or research activity funded" by DHHS if it "would be contrary to his religious beliefs or moral convictions."1 Here the rule sidesteps courts, which interpret statutory ambiguities and discern congressional intent, and offers sweeping definitions. It defines "individual" as physicians, other health care providers, hospitals, laboratories, and insurance companies, as well as "employees, volunteers, trainees, contractors, and other persons" who work for an entity that receives DHHS funds. It defines "assist in the performance" as "any activity with a reasonable connection" to a procedure or health service, including counseling and making "other arrangements" for the activity. Although the rule states that patients' ability to obtain health care services is unchanged, its expansive definitions suggest otherwise. Now everyone connected to health care may opt out of a wide range of activities, from discussions about birth control to referrals for vaccinations. As the rule explains, "an employee whose task it is to clean the instruments used in a particular procedure would also be considered to assist in the performance of the particular procedure" and would therefore be protected. Taken to its logical extreme, the rule could cause health care to grind to a halt.

It also raises other concerns. In terms of employment law, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which applies to organizations with 15 or more employees, requires balancing reasonable accommodations for employees who have religious, ethical, or moral objections to certain aspects of their jobs with undue hardship for employers. But the new rule suggests that if an employee objects, for example, to being a scrub nurse during operative treatment for an ectopic pregnancy, subsequently reassigning that employee to a different department may constitute unlawful discrimination — a characterization that may be at odds with Title VII jurisprudence.2 As officials of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission remarked when it was proposed, the rule could "throw this entire body of law into question."3

Furthermore, although the rule purports to address intolerance toward "individual objections to abortion or other individual religious beliefs or moral convictions," it cites no evidence of such intolerance — nor would it directly address such intolerance if it existed. Constitutional concerns about the rule, including violations of state autonomy and rights to contraception, also lurk. And the stated goals of the rule — to foster a "more inclusive, tolerant environment" and promote DHHS's "mission of expanding patient access to necessary health services" — conflict with the reality of extensive objection rights. Protection for the silence of providers who object to care is at odds with the rule's call for "open communication" between patients and physicians. Moreover, there is no emergency exception for patient care. In states that require health care workers to provide rape victims with information about emergency contraception, the rule may allow them to refuse to do so.

Recently, the DHHS, now answering to President Barack Obama, took steps to rescind the rule (see the Supplementary Appendix). March 10 marked the beginning of a 30-day period for public comment on the need for the rule and its potential effects. Analysis of the comments (www.regulations.gov) and subsequent action could take some months. If remnants of the rule remain, litigation will follow. Lawsuits have already been filed in federal court, and Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal, who led one of the cases, has vowed to continue the fight until the regulation is "finally and safely stopped."4

This state of flux presents an opportunity to reconsider the scope of conscience in health care. When broadly defined, conscience is a poor touchstone; it can result in a rule that knows no bounds. Indeed, it seems that our problem is not insufficient tolerance, but too much. We have created a state of "conscience creep" in which all behavior becomes acceptable — like that of judges who, despite having promised to uphold all laws, recuse themselves from cases in which minors seek a judicial bypass for an abortion in states requiring parental consent.5

The debate is not really about moral or religious freedom writ large. If it were, then the medical profession would allow a broad range of beliefs to hinder patient care. Would we tolerate a surgeon who holds moral objections to transfusions and refuses to order them? An internist who refuses to discuss treatment for diabetes in overweight patients because of moral opposition to gluttony? If the overriding consideration were individual conscience, then these objections should be valid. They are not (although they might well be permitted under the new rule). We allow the current conscience-based exceptions because abortion remains controversial in the United States. As is often the case with laws touching on reproductive freedom, the debate is polarized and shrill. But there comes a point at which tolerance breaches the standard of care.

Medicine needs to embrace a brand of professionalism that demands less self-interest, not more. Conscientious objection makes sense with conscription, but it is worrisome when professionals who freely chose their field parse care and withhold information that patients need. As the gatekeepers to medicine, physicians and other health care providers have an obligation to choose specialties that are not moral minefields for them. Qualms about abortion, sterilization, and birth control? Do not practice women's health. Believe that the human body should be buried intact? Do not become a transplant surgeon. Morally opposed to pain medication because your religious beliefs demand suffering at the end of life? Do not train to be an intensivist. Conscience is a burden that belongs to the individual professional; patients should not have to shoulder it.

Patients need information, referrals, and treatment. They need all legal choices presented to them in a way that is true to the evidence, not the randomness of individual morality. They need predictability. Conscientious objections may vary from person to person, place to place, and procedure to procedure. Patients need assurance that the standard of care is unwavering. They need to know that the decision to consent to care is theirs and that they will not be presented with half-truths and shades of gray when life and health are in the balance.

Patients rely on health care professionals for their expertise; they should be able expect those professionals to be neutral arbiters of medical care. Although some scholars advocate discussing conflicting values before problems arise, realistically, the power dynamics between patients and providers are so skewed, and the time pressure often so great, that there is little opportunity to negotiate. And there is little recourse when care is obstructed — patients have no notice, no process, and no advocate to whom they can turn.

Health care providers already enjoy broad rights — perhaps too broad — to follow their guiding moral or religious tenets when it comes to sterilization and abortion. An expansion of those rights is unwarranted. Instead, patients deserve a law that limits objections and puts their interests first. Physicians should support an ethic that allows for all legal options, even those they would not choose. Federal laws may make room for the rights of conscience, but health care providers — and all those whose jobs affect patient care — should cast off the cloak of conscience when patients' needs demand it. Because the Bush administration's rule moves us in the opposite direction, it should be rescinded.


TOPICS: Extended News; Government; News/Current Events; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: abortion; agenda; bho44; bhohhs; conscienceclause; ethics; medicine; obama
This is supposed to be available for free online, but you may have to register- again, for free.

For more on the history of this "midnight regulation" that was in the works for 2 years, see my blog: http://www.lifeethics.org/www.lifeethics.org/2008/11/why-we-need-legal-protection-for.html and http://www.lifeethics.org/www.lifeethics.org/labels/conscience.html

or better, still, see "Freedom2Care," an organization of the best minds in the prolife, profamily movement: http://www.freedom2care.org/ Where you can respond to the HHS and those of you in medicine may report incidents of discrimination against you that happened because of your refusal to kill.

1 posted on 03/29/2009 3:36:43 AM PDT by hocndoc
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To: hocndoc

“First: Do No Harm”


2 posted on 03/29/2009 3:38:09 AM PDT by Cringing Negativism Network (Palin / Romney 2012?)
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To: narses; neverdem; socialismisinsidious; MHGinTN; Coleus; cpforlife.org; Brad's Gramma

“Conscience is a burden that belongs to the individual professional; patients should not have to shoulder it.”

Yes, this woman really says this.


3 posted on 03/29/2009 3:43:54 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: hocndoc
Here the rule sidesteps courts, which interpret statutory ambiguities and discern congressional intent, and offers sweeping definitions. It defines "individual" as physicians, other health care providers, hospitals, laboratories, and insurance companies, as well as "employees, volunteers, trainees, contractors, and other persons" who work for an entity that receives DHHS funds.

This guy is an absolute moron. So Bush is evil because he tried to define ambiguities in the law??? According to this guy, the law is suppose to be ambiguous so no one knows what the law is, so the courts can do their thing and arbitrarily decide what the law means? What a moron.

4 posted on 03/29/2009 3:46:40 AM PDT by Always Right (Obama: more arrogant than Bill Clinton, more naive than Jimmy Carter, and more liberal than LBJ.)
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To: Cringing Negativism Network

That’s the old “burden” that lawyer Dr. Cantor is writing against.
No more judgment on the part of individual doctors.
Although we won’t do it because our conscience tells us to, we can be trusted to follow the law and do whatever it is that patients demand:

Want your daughter lobotomized or circumcized? Sure!

Want your sick parent euthanized? Oh, well that’s government policy and my license is more important than doing the right thing.


5 posted on 03/29/2009 3:48:10 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: hocndoc; Salvation; NYer; GonzoII
... health care providers — and all those whose jobs affect patient care — should cast off the cloak of conscience when patients' needs demand it.

It's ironic that the date of publication should be the day when some Christians observe that the Incarnation of God took place not when he was born but when he was conceived.

And one of the deaths implicit in this document is the death of conscience. Another is the death of reason. What this guy is saying is that one SHOULD do not what one thinks one should, but what the law says one may. But the next step is one should do not what one thinks one should do but what the writer thinks one should do.

That is he says health care types shouldn't follow their conscience but what he MEANS is they should reform their conscience, they should change their opinion of right and wrong.

And the truly vicious aspect of this (or ONE of many truly vicious aspects) is that he implicitly characterizes being true to one's principles as being selfish. To abandon conscience is to be selflessly professional.

Let's review: The argument comes down to: you should not be guided by what you think is right or wrong; you should be guided by what the writer thinks is right or wrong, because his moral vision is better than yours. There is a moral imperative to abandon YOUR moral imperative. Your conscience should tell you not to follow what your conscience tells you.

It's nihilism of the most absurd kind cloaked as liberal selflessness.

6 posted on 03/29/2009 3:50:12 AM PDT by Mad Dawg (Oh Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee.)
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To: hocndoc
Patients rely on health care professionals for their expertise; they should be able expect those professionals to be neutral arbiters of medical care.

Being neutral in providing an abortion is to abstain! If you provide the abortion, you are siding with the women's selfish interest over the best interest of the child to live.

7 posted on 03/29/2009 3:50:55 AM PDT by Always Right (Obama: more arrogant than Bill Clinton, more naive than Jimmy Carter, and more liberal than LBJ.)
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To: Mrs. Don-o

ping


8 posted on 03/29/2009 3:53:03 AM PDT by don-o (My son, Ben - Marine Private First Class - 1/16/09 - Parris Island, SC)
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To: hocndoc
This is a throwback to Nazi Germany. As a physician you are ordered to perform atrocities under the iron law of the regime.

These monsters want a civil war.

9 posted on 03/29/2009 3:54:32 AM PDT by NoControllingLegalAuthority
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To: hocndoc

The ever despicable Julie Cantor is NOT identified as the Planned Parenthood spokesperson that she is.

This was an evil totalitarian commentary by a monster.


10 posted on 03/29/2009 3:55:11 AM PDT by FormerACLUmember (Chains you can believe in)
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To: Mad Dawg

Bravo!


11 posted on 03/29/2009 3:56:03 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: don-o

Thank you. (I have got to write and save a ping list someday.)


12 posted on 03/29/2009 3:57:09 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: hocndoc

Trying again on those url’s

http://www.lifeethics.org/www.lifeethics.org/2008/11/why-we-need-legal-protection-for.html
and http://www.lifeethics.org/www.lifeethics.org/labels/conscience.html

or better, still, see “Freedom2Care,” an organization of the best minds in the prolife, profamily movement: http://www.freedom2care.org/

where you can respond to the HHS and those of you in medicine may report incidents of discrimination against you that happened because of your refusal to kill.


13 posted on 03/29/2009 3:59:05 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: Always Right

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Ethics Statement - the action that instigated the ruling -
says that we should all provide abortion, but if we don’t, we must refer.

Even worse:
http://www.lifeethics.org/www.lifeethics.org/2009/01/acog-abort-or-refer.html

the Ethics Statement #385 says that if we don’t believe that abortion is a great service to offer our patients, we should not practice where there isn’t any abortionist. Instead we should practice in close “proximity” to an abortionist who doesn’t share our views.

There goes quite a few OB/Gyns who won’t sign their Ethics statement and a lot of rural OB/Gyns, Family Physicians, Pediatricians, and Internal Medicine docs who find themselves at a new risk of malpractice and loss of license.


14 posted on 03/29/2009 4:07:07 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: hocndoc
Federal laws may make room for the rights of conscience, but health care providers — and all those whose jobs affect patient care — should cast off the cloak of conscience when patients' needs demand it.

I wonder how such a blatant and blunt bombshell as this made the final edit.

15 posted on 03/29/2009 4:09:26 AM PDT by don-o (My son, Ben - Marine Private First Class - 1/16/09 - Parris Island, SC)
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To: don-o

How about this complete change in the way the world works:

“As is often the case with laws touching on reproductive freedom, the debate is polarized and shrill. But there comes a point at which tolerance breaches the standard of care.”


16 posted on 03/29/2009 4:14:18 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: don-o

For years, the “bioethicists” have been telling us that conscience is just another personally held belief that gets in the way of what they want us to do.

The irony, as Mad Dawg has pointed out, is that the author puts on a moral, “right thing,” “ought” argument, herself.

We “ought” to do something — but what is the basis of “ought”?

Law? law varies by region, local preferences and customs, and sometimes by the whim of a dictator, someone with a gun or an oligarchy representing itself as the judiciary.


17 posted on 03/29/2009 4:18:51 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: hocndoc

If PCR is rescinded and is unambiguous in intent, scope and penalty, the path the conscientious objector must take is clear.

The only path is resistance. The only choice is defiance. The Socialist government that is now so infatuated with murdering our progeny must be forced to put up or shut up. The ball must be placed squarely in their court.

What was true for the Continental Congress is also good “medicine” for us in the present; If we do not hang together, we shall surely hang separately. Organized and unwavering resistance is the only Rx for such tyranny. If these Socialists close hospitals and suspend licenses to practice, this bit of treachery will be short-lived. Americans will not stand for this for very long.

When citizens see their local hospital close and their choices for medical professionals dwindle, the pitch forks and torches will come out rather quickly. The key is a united front and Life Ethics and others will be seminal in the success of this fight.


18 posted on 03/29/2009 4:26:40 AM PDT by WildcatClan (Iam fimus mos ledo ventus apparatus)
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To: hocndoc

At Obama’s last presser, he was asked to explain how his morality enabled him to overturn the ban on federal funding for embryonic stem cell research. He completely failed in his answer, which boiled down to, “It’s the right thing to do.”

Bob Dylan sang about this a long time ago

“They say what’s up is down
They say what isn’t is.
They put ideas in his head, he thought were his.
They took a clean cut kid
And they made a killer out of him
Is what they did.”


19 posted on 03/29/2009 4:27:48 AM PDT by don-o (My son, Ben - Marine Private First Class - 1/16/09 - Parris Island, SC)
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To: hocndoc

Thank ‘ee kindly. I’m off to celebrate Him who did not abandon either me or His principles.


20 posted on 03/29/2009 5:07:27 AM PDT by Mad Dawg (Oh Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee.)
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To: Always Right
Dittos to your post. It's incredible to me that interpreting a rule exactly makes Bush evil. Of course, everything Bush did was evil to the left, including breathing.

the rule could cause health care to grind to a halt.

When I see quotes like the above in a "science" journal, I realize that the article isn't about science - it's about politics. They posited a worst case scenario which has already empirically been shown to not have happened - did the health care system grind to a halt under this ruling? No - posit disproved based on empirical evidence. But what's empirical evidence to such an august journal as the NEJM, (that also ran a gun control article with logical flaws in it big enough to drive a tectonic plate through)? Believe, peasant - we're the authority.

21 posted on 03/29/2009 5:27:08 AM PDT by Hardastarboard (The Fairness Doctrine isn't about "Fairness" - it's about Doctrine.)
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To: Mad Dawg
"they should change their opinion of right and wrong."

They can change their "opinion" until Kingdom come, that won't change a silly thing because:

"Right is right if nobody is right, and wrong is wrong if everybody is wrong. " -Bp,Fulton J. Sheen

22 posted on 03/29/2009 6:13:27 AM PDT by GonzoII ("That they may be one...Father")
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To: hocndoc

The medical profession had better start bracing for the next round of government control.

Your fee schedule will be mandated by Obama, and you will embrace it or: lose you license to practice and/or lose all government payments.


23 posted on 03/29/2009 6:17:47 AM PDT by chainsaw (If you think health care is expensive now, wait until you see what it costs when it's free! -- P.J..)
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To: WildcatClan

I agree. I’m predicting an underground life-centered (and likely religious) medical community. One willing to go to jail for the First Principles (and for the First Cause).


24 posted on 03/29/2009 6:29:02 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: GonzoII; Mad Dawg; don-o; Mrs. Don-o; Always Right

The question should be whether what we are doing is good medicine: The right medicine, procedure or advice for the patient’s condition? Then it is the right thing. Elective abortion is never the right thing.

Remember last summer when we all thought we weren’t going to be paid for seeing Medicare patients for a while? We kept going to work and took care of these patients.

Infact, doctors take care of people we *don’t like* all the time: patients with borderline personality disorders and even lawyers. If the first told us that an event didn’t happen until we wrote it down or that right is wrong, we’d look into prescribing antipsychotics for them. And yet we let the latter change how we follow our calling when *they* say tell us how to practice.


25 posted on 03/29/2009 6:37:03 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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To: chainsaw
This is just the preparation for legalized euthanasia. They won't call it that. They will slip in a rule here, a rule there. At one point medical people will say “We don't want to kill peopel”. they will say “Too bad, it's the law”
26 posted on 03/29/2009 7:07:06 AM PDT by lynn4303
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To: Mad Dawg

#6: Flawless, deep insight.


27 posted on 03/29/2009 7:09:15 AM PDT by FormerACLUmember (Chains you can believe in)
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To: lynn4303
This is just the preparation for legalized euthanasia. They won't call it that. They will slip in a rule here, a rule there. At one point medical people will say “We don't want to kill people”. they will say “Too bad, it's the law”

Absolutely! Brilliant point!

The target is to eliminate ethical/religious physicians. The National Socialists did exactly the same in Germany 1933-1939. This evil NEJM article is transparent propaganda for the socialists who just seized power in the USA, and who plan to (cost-effectively) murder vast numbers of elderly government health insurance victims by neglect or by active euthanasia.


28 posted on 03/29/2009 7:17:05 AM PDT by FormerACLUmember (Chains you can believe in)
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To: hocndoc; Mad Dawg
Concerning abortion, every ob-gyn knows he or she has two patients, the pregnant mom and the unborn baby. How could it be "in the patient's best interest" to kill one patient at the demand of another?

Concerning euthanasia, every doctor knows he or she is morally obliged to act in favor of the health of the patient. How could a patient be healthier dead?

Concerning physician-assisted suicide, everyone who has paid attention to the record in the Netherlands, Oregon and elsewhere, knows that most suicide-requests are occasioned, not be intractable pain, but by fear of pain, fear of degrading dependency, and the depression inevitably associated with chronic fear. Why would an ethical physician not attack the pain, the fear, and the depression, and instead collude in an attack the patient?

Hippocrates had this all covered in the 5th century BC.

This author, no doubt with the most impeccable academic and professional credentials, would drag us so far below the ethical standards of the ancient pagans, down the the level of the witch-dctor, who could be depended on to serve up life or death, a remedy or a poison, thriving childbirth or sterility and stillbirth, a blessing or a curse, sanity or madness, depending on who was paying.

And as you said so well,Mad Dawg, this attack on conscience is in fact an attack on reason. Conscience itself is simply reason in its capacity to assess evidence and experience, logic and sensible inference, and make a sound moral judgment. This is a judgment which is equally accessible the minds of Jews, Christians, Buddhists, agnostics, pagans (e.g Hippocrates) --- all ---because of our shared nature as rational beings.

Indeed, when Gentiles,
who do not have the law,
do by nature
things required by the law,
they are a law for themselves,
even though they do not have the law.
They show that the requirements of the law
are written on their hearts,
their consciences also bearing witness,
and their thoughts now accusing,
now even defending them.

Romans 2:14-16

29 posted on 03/29/2009 7:26:11 AM PDT by Mrs. Don-o ("He who is not angry when there is a just cause for anger, sins." St. Augustine.)
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To: don-o

Mine at 29.


30 posted on 03/29/2009 7:26:35 AM PDT by Mrs. Don-o ("He who is not angry when there is a just cause for anger, sins." St. Augustine.)
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To: Mrs. Don-o

#29 ANOTHER great post on this tiny thread.


31 posted on 03/29/2009 7:30:32 AM PDT by FormerACLUmember (Chains you can believe in)
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To: hocndoc
Wow.....

So I should leave my conscience at the "view from the door"...

32 posted on 03/29/2009 7:36:38 AM PDT by Osage Orange (Our constitution protects aliens, drunks and U.S. Senators. -Will Rogers)
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To: Osage Orange; All

Evidently, the editors at the NEJM believe that your conscience is a selfish burden on your patients and interferes with the desires of both the editors and patients, everywhere. There is no objective right and wrong, only what your patient desires and what is legal.

How soon will the government declare that the only limit is what is legal?

Note that there is no pretense of objectivity or of publishing any opposing view. This has been the policy of the editorial staff of the NEJM for as long as I’ve been reading it. Case in point, Alta Charo’s “Celestial Fire of Conscience” commentary in 2005. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/extract/352/24/2471 (Let me know if you want a copy and can’t access it.)

The Rule is dismissed as a last ditch effort by the Bush Administration, and an arbitrary one, at that. However, in 2005, ACOG proposed a Bill requiring all doctors to refer for abortion. http://www.lifeethics.org/www.lifeethics.org/2005/09/mandatory-abortion-referral-bill.html We have multiple other examples of rulings and laws that impose new requirements to violate the integrity and conscience of professionals.

Our problem is that this administration claims to be transparent and responsive, but has proven not to be. We have no assurance that we can affect this rescission or prevent the “review” of the Church, Dickey and Hyde Amendments.
http://www.freedom2care.org/learn/page/faq


33 posted on 03/29/2009 9:27:29 AM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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BUMP!!!


34 posted on 03/29/2009 10:14:38 AM PDT by BlessedBeGod (PO_ _S Obama -- the federal Blagojevich.)
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To: hocndoc

thanks, bfl


35 posted on 03/29/2009 10:58:44 AM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi minh oi)
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To: BlessedBeGod; neverdem

Thanks for the bumps!


36 posted on 03/29/2009 12:46:31 PM PDT by hocndoc (http://www.LifeEthics.org (I've got a mustard seed and I'm not afraid to use it.))
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