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How Europe Escaped Speaking Arabic
AEI Online ^ | December 11, 2008 | Michael Novak

Posted on 04/18/2009 5:41:01 PM PDT by Conservative Coulter Fan

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To: muawiyah
You have your history slightly in error. King San Cho Noe I arrived from Cornwall with his knights and baggage and conquered Asturias and Galicia and set up three kingdoms ~ Castile, Leon and Carvajal.

Actually, the Kingdom of Asturias far preceded both the Kingdom of Leon and the Kingdom of Castile.

The Kingdom of Asturias was established in 718 AD and had it's capital in Oviedo.

As the conquest moved south, the city of Leon, originally established by the Roman VII Legion (Legio Septima Gemina) was conquered in 742 AD. Over time, the old Roman name of "Legio Septima" had been corrupted to "Leon". Thus, the old Roman name for "Legion" morphed into "Lion".

As time passed, Alfonso III, King of León, divided his Kingdom into Asturias, Galicia and Leon between three sons, Ordoño, Fruela and Garcia upon his death in 910 AD. Thus began the "Kingdom of Leon" as a separate kingdom when it was inherited by García I of León. In the end, through the deathof Garcia and politics, Ordoño ended up ruling the united Kingdom of Leon, Galica and Asturias with the capital now in Leon.

Castile was originally newly reconquered territory on the eastern frontier of Leon and was just a county of Leon ruled by Counts of Castile that were, legally, vassals of the King of Leon.

With the passage of time, the Counts of Castile became more and more powerful until they were, in effect, independent although they remained, legally, vassals of the Kingdom of Leon. The rulers of Castile remained as "Counts of Castile" until Ferdinand I of León and Castile, Count of Castile, through civil war and marriage, gained control of both Castile and Leon and established the Kingdom of Castile in 1035 AD.

Sancho I of León (the Fat), was the son of King Ramiro II of León who assumed the throne of Leon in 956 AD and died in 966 AD. His reign was rather inglorious, being deposed once by the nobility led by the restless Count of Castile Fernán González.

The tale of knights from Cornwall might make a nice English legend but it is, in the end, just a legend with no basis in historical reality.

51 posted on 04/18/2009 8:51:09 PM PDT by Polybius
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To: GSP.FAN

bump


52 posted on 04/18/2009 9:05:10 PM PDT by tophat9000 ( We are "O" so f---ed)
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan

Europe escaped it throughout history, but they way they're going these days, they could be writing بالعربية in the near future.

(BTW, in the case of the Seljuks and Ottomans, they spoke Turkish, not Arabic. They just wrote in the Arabic alphabet).

Wake up, Europe

53 posted on 04/18/2009 9:11:12 PM PDT by G8 Diplomat (I'm learning Arabic, Farsi, Urdu, Pashtu, and Russian so someday you won't have to)
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To: SunkenCiv

I think this one’s calling you.


54 posted on 04/18/2009 11:25:11 PM PDT by Ultra Sonic 007 (To view the FR@Alabama ping list, click on my profile!)
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To: garjog

bookmark bump


55 posted on 04/19/2009 12:00:45 AM PDT by tophat9000 ( We are "O" so f---ed)
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan

“Wake up, Europe”

Seeming catastrophes can have strange and unpredictable consequences. Due to the loss of Crusader strongholds in the Eastern Mediterranean followed by the fall of Constantinople (and eventually the Balkans) to the Turks, trade between Mediterrranean and the East dried up. Wealthy commercial centers that profited from this trade (e.g., city states Venice, Genoa, Pisa) went into a relentless economic decline. Commerce shifted West and became a bonanza for the Atlantic countries. Portugal and Spain, followed by England, France, and Holland sailed around Africa to colonize India, South East Asia, and the Americas. Europe thereafter rapidly out-distanced the Muslim and East Asian countries Economically and militarily.

Now after a spectacular outburst of technological innovation followed by unimagined standards of living, an inexplicable guilty malaise has set in over Europe and more recently the U.S., and we seem almost determined to throw it all away. We need a good psychiatrist. Or at least a good kick in the A$$.


56 posted on 04/19/2009 12:58:05 AM PDT by haroldeveryman
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To: G8 Diplomat

I intended to address that you also. I stole your punch line.


57 posted on 04/19/2009 1:00:17 AM PDT by haroldeveryman
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan
Sadly it looks like the title should read:

How the West Delayed Speaking Arabic".
58 posted on 04/19/2009 1:16:33 AM PDT by Kozak (USA 7/4/1776 to 1/20/2009 Requiescat In Pace)
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan

“The Western world has never taken Islam with the full seriousness it has earned!!!”

BUMP!


59 posted on 04/19/2009 4:52:21 AM PDT by Diana in Wisconsin (Save The Earth. It's The Only Planet With Chocolate.)
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To: Polybius

You are leaping ahead a couple of centuries after King San Cho I


60 posted on 04/19/2009 5:54:13 AM PDT by muawiyah
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To: Polybius
BTW, Cornwall IS NOT ENGLISH, it is Cornish. At the moment it's conquered territory under the brutal heal of the Anglo-Saxon invaders, but in the past it was part of NON-English Celto-Romantic Brittain!

But, I digress, we can go back to 700 BC or thereabouts when the Lords of Galicia departed the Dead Coast and invaded the British Isles taking with them their Basque and Celt-Iberian slaves.

They founded the lines of kings in all of Britain down to the days of Boadica. After the departure of the Romans the Britons raised back up their own kingdoms ~ Alba, Brittain, Cornwall, Wales, Scotia ~

They returned to Spain just on the heels of the Moslem advance into the Iberian peninsula.

So, no, there's no "English" fairy tale. On the other hand, there is Galician history, and their own sources clearly denote the Cornish invasion which began the Reconquista.

Later history written in the rough tongue of Roman slaves is the part that's questionable.

61 posted on 04/19/2009 6:01:30 AM PDT by muawiyah
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan; Salvation

OUTSTANDING article by Michael Novak! Thanks for posting. Thanks for the ping, Salvation.


62 posted on 04/19/2009 6:15:10 AM PDT by PGalt
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To: muawiyah
BTW, Cornwall IS NOT ENGLISH, it is Cornish.

Well, it is a county of England today but, if you mean it has retained it's Celtic roots, you are correct.

At the moment it's conquered territory under the brutal heal of the Anglo-Saxon invaders, but in the past it was part of NON-English Celto-Romantic Brittain!

Which was a similar status as Galicia, whose Roman name, Gallaecia, literally means "Land of the Celts", which the Celtic tribe or tribes of the region being given the collective name of the "Gallaeci" or "Callaeci" in Latin and "Calaicos" in modern Galician.

But, I digress, we can go back to 700 BC or thereabouts when the Lords of Galicia departed the Dead Coast and invaded the British Isles taking with them their Basque and Celt-Iberian slaves.

Care must be taken as these stories of the Milesian Invasion come from the Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) which was an 11th Century compilation of Irish mythology. Mythology is wonderful and often has an underlying core of historical fact but it cannot be taken without a grain of salt.

Modern genetic studies have shown that today's Irish and Scots are genetically related to the Galician Celts.

Scots' Celtic roots are linked to northwest Spain

That, however, does not imply an indirect route to Ireland and Scotland by way of Galicia. The migration of that particular Celtic wave would have started in Central Europe and spread, like the ripples of a rock thrown in a pond, in an arc that eventually reached both Iberia and the British Isles and even into what is now Turkey (the "Galatians" of the New Testament). Further invasion by other people would then have isolated these Celtic "cousins" into the geographic corners they had been backed into.

They founded the lines of kings in all of Britain down to the days of Boadica. After the departure of the Romans the Britons raised back up their own kingdoms ~ Alba, Brittain, Cornwall, Wales, Scotia ~

Although certainly distant cousins with the Celts in Galicia, the route to the British Isle was much more direct.

The resulting geographic distribution ended up looking like this:

They returned to Spain just on the heels of the Moslem advance into the Iberian peninsula. So, no, there's no "English" fairy tale. On the other hand, there is Galician history, and their own sources clearly denote the Cornish invasion which began the Reconquista. Later history written in the rough tongue of Roman slaves is the part that's questionable.

Well, this is where British Isles Celtic folklore and the Galician history diverge.

By the time the Moors came in 712 AD, Galicia had been part of Roman civilization since the time of Augustus and had later had it's own barbarian invasions. The Cornish were faced with the Germanic Anglo-Saxon tribes and the Galicians were faced with the Germanic Suevi and the Visigothic tribes.

In the 700's, when Cornwall had it's hands full dealing with Wessex, the locals in Asturias and Galicia not only had the local population in them but also had Christian refugees from the south and the military remnants of the defeated Visigothic Kingdom. Prior to this time, Galicia and Asturias had been relatively resistant to Christian influence. After the Islamic Moors came, Christianity became the rallying point against the Islamic Moors.

As far as "Galician history" is concerned, I can assure you that no mention is made of any "Cornish invasion".

My family roots are in Galicia and Asturias. I can read Galician (Gallego). I belong to Galician genealogy and history internet forums whose members are almost exclusively Galicians currently living in Galicia. I correspond regularly with many Galicians, including Galician history professors, about topics relating to Galician history and genealogy . I have an extensive library on Galician history topics in English as well as Castillian as well as Gallego. The "Cornish invasion" may be part of Cornish folklore but it is simply not a part of Galician history.

The history of the founding of the Kingdom of Leon and the Kingdom of Castile are not a matter of folklore. These events occurred during eras of written history and their history as as well documented as the history of Norman invasion of England. They were not founded by "Cornish knights" in the Eighth Century AD.

Castile

63 posted on 04/19/2009 9:12:13 AM PDT by Polybius
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To: dennisw

>>Yes the Muslims are obsessed with re-conquering all territory lost such as Spain and Israel but Jihad means Jihad doesn’t end until the whole world is Muslim. This is the Muslim version of peace<<

How long until they demand their territory “back” with the promise of peace and how soon until the leaders of Europe agree to the Faustian bargain which will spell their own destruction?

Some in Europe would probably think that if their gave them back their former borders they would be “at peace”. The forget the only peace that these savages can ever be in, is eternal peace 6ft below ground.


64 posted on 04/19/2009 1:25:23 PM PDT by GraceG
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To: Polybius
The modern language in Galicia is a brand of Spanish with lots of Portuguese variants in it. The original Celtic language (otherwise a cognate of Cornish) became extinct in the 16th or 17th Century. Cornish itself is essentially extinct, although both versions (Cornish and Galician) are understood and studied by specialists in Celtic languages.

Now, regarding whether or not we can "trust" so-called Irish mythologies, the earliest claims that they were simply "mythologies" were adbanced by Anglo-Saxon interests at a period of time when the Irish were poverty stricken and weak.

The Galician versions of the same materials clearly indicate a very ancient source, and this is backed up by DNA studies that demonstrate that the modern Irish are identical to the modern Basques.

At the same time the Celtic speakers who brought their version of Celtic languages to Ireland originated in the Volga. They are known from references made to them by ancient Greeks regarding a revolution by the German speaking tribes over whom they used to rule (a typical warrior class fed and supported by a tributary tribe situation).

The English continue to make claims that neither DNA nor written records support, and I'm prone to discount any English claims regarding Celtic speaking peoples when the DNA suggests otherwise, and it does.

65 posted on 04/19/2009 1:32:18 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: Polybius
BTW, I have found that "history" in Spain and its related regions frequently depends on whether or not you support Franco or the Republicans.
66 posted on 04/19/2009 1:34:54 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan

Give it a few years....


67 posted on 04/19/2009 1:36:37 PM PDT by airborne (If I'm a right wing extremist, does that make FreeRepublic a terrorist training camp?)
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan
Bump while I continue the search for the 12th Imam.
68 posted on 04/19/2009 3:20:01 PM PDT by SuperLuminal (Where is another agitator for republicanism like Sam Adams when we need him?)
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To: Conservative Coulter Fan

It might also have something to do with the 4 Khazar-Arab wars fought between 649/50 and 758CE.


69 posted on 05/13/2009 11:42:37 PM PDT by rmlew ( The SAVE and GIVE acts are institutioning Corvee. Where's the outtrage!)
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