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Kissinger: 'Obama Is Like a Chess Player'
presstv.ir ^ | July 6, 2009 | Jan Fleischhauer and Gabor Steingart

Posted on 07/08/2009 12:01:30 AM PDT by ckilmer

Former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, 86, discusses the painful lessons of the Treaty of Versailles, idealism in politics and Obama's opportunity to forge a peaceful American foreign policy.

SPIEGEL: Dr. Kissinger, 90 years ago, at the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles was signed. Is that an event of the past only of interest to historians or does it still shape contemporary politics?

Henry Kissinger: The treaty has a special meaning for today's generation of politicians, because the map of Europe which emerged from the Treaty of Versailles is, more or less, the map of Europe that exists today. None of the drafters understood the implications of their actions, and that the world that emerged out of the Treaty of Versailles was substantially contrary to the intentions that produced it. Whoever wants to learn from past mistakes, needs to understand what happened in Versailles.

SPIEGEL: The Treaty of Versailles was meant to end all wars. That was the goal of President Woodrow Wilson when he came to Paris. As it turned out, only 20 years later Europe was plunged into an even more devastating world war. Why?

Kissinger: Any international system must have two key elements for it to work. One, it has to have a certain equilibrium of power that makes overthrowing the system difficult and costly. Secondly, it has to have a sense of legitimacy. That means that the majority of the states must believe that the settlement is essentially just. Versailles failed on both grounds. The Versailles meetings excluded the two largest continental powers: Germany and Russia. If one imagines that an international system had to be preserved against a disaffected defector, the possibility of achieving a balance of power within it was inherently weak. Therefore, it lacked both equilibrium and a sense of legitimacy.

SPIEGEL: In Paris we saw the clash of two foreign policy principles: the idealism embodied by Wilson who encountered a kind of realpolitik embodied by the Europeans which was above all based on the law of the strongest. Can you explain the failure of the American approach?

Kissinger: The American view was that peace is the normal condition among states. To ensure lasting peace, an international system must be organized on the basis of domestic institutions everywhere, which reflect the will of the people, and that will of the people is considered always to be against war. Unfortunately, there is no historic evidence that this is true.

SPIEGEL: So in your view, peace is not the normal condition among states?

Kissinger: The preconditions for a lasting peace are much more complex than most people are aware of. It was not an historic truth but an assertion of the view of a country composed of immigrants that had turned their backs on a continent and had absorbed itself for 200 years in its domestic politics. Related President Obama's Proverbial Reset Button Obama Faces Two Russian Bears Tapes Reveal Nixon's Watergate Fight

SPIEGEL: Would you say that America inadvertently caused a war while trying to create peace?

Kissinger: The basic cause of the war was Hitler. But insofar as the Versailles system played a role, it is undeniable that American idealism at the Versailles negotiations contributed to World War II. Wilson's call for the self-determination of states had the practical effect of breaking up some of the larger states of Europe, and that produced a dual difficulty. One, it turned out to be technically difficult to separate these nationalities that had been mixed together for centuries into national entities by the Wilsonian definition, and secondly, it had the practical consequence of leaving Germany strategically stronger than it was before the war.

SPIEGEL: Why? Germany was militarily disarmed and geographically decimated.

Kissinger: Territorial expansion and power are relative. Germany was smaller, but more powerful. Before World War I, Germany faced three major countries on its borders: Russia, France, and Britain.After Versailles, Germany faced a collection of smaller states on its eastern borders, against each of which it had a huge grievance but none of which was capable of resisting Germany alone, and none of it probably was capable of resisting Germany even if assisted by France.

So that from a geostrategic point of view, the Treaty of Versailles met neither the aspirations of the major players nor the strategic possibility of defending what had been created, unless Germany was kept permanently disarmed. It would have been correct to include Germany in the international system but that precisely what the victorious powers omitted to do by demilitarizing and humiliating the country.

SPIEGEL: Despite the failure of Versailles, this Wilsonian idea is remarkably prevalent. Is our affinity to the ideals of democracy perhaps naïve?

Kissinger: The belief in democracy as a universal remedy regularly reappears in American foreign policy. Its most recent appearance came with the so-called neocons in the Bush administration. Actually, Obama is much closer to a realistic policy on this issue than Bush was.

SPIEGEL: You see Obama as realpolitician?

Kissinger: Let me say a word about realpolitik, just for clarification. I regularly get accused of conducting realpolitik. I don't think I have ever used that term. It is a way by which critics want to label me and say, "Watch him. He's a German really. He doesn't have the American view of things."

SPIEGEL: Then it's a way to cast you as a cynic, isn't it?

Kissinger: Cynics treat values as equivalent and instrumental. Statesmen base practical decisions on moral convictions. It is always easy to divide the world into idealists and power-oriented people. The idealists are presumed to be the noble people, and the power-oriented people are the ones that cause all the world's trouble. But I believe more suffering has been caused by prophets than by statesmen. For me, a sensible definition of realpolitik is to say there are objective circumstances without which foreign policy cannot be conducted. To try to deal with the fate of nations without looking at the circumstances with which they have to deal is escapism. The art of good foreign policy is to understand and to take into consideration the values of a society, to realize them at the outer limit of the possible.

SPIEGEL: What if values cannot be taken into consideration because they are inhuman or too expansive?

Kissinger: In that case, resistance is needed. In Iran, for example, you need to ask the question of whether you have to have a regime change before you can conceive a set of circumstances where each side maintaining its values comes to some understanding.

SPIEGEL: And your answer?

Kissinger: It is too early to say. Right now I have more questions than answers. Will the Iranian people accept the verdict of the religious leaders? Will the religious leaders be united? I don't know the answers, nor does anyone else.

Kissinger: I see two possibilities. We will either come to an understanding with Iran, or we will clash. As a democratic society we cannot justify the clash to our own people unless we can show that we have made a serious effort to avoid it. By that, I don't mean that we have to make every concession they demand, but we are obligated to put forward ideas the American people can support.The upheaval in Teheran must run its course before these possibilities can be explored.

"A Unique Chance To Conduct Peaceful American Foreign Policy"

SPIEGEL: So you are calling for a kind of realistic idealism?

Kissinger: Exactly. There is no realism without an element of idealism. The idea of abstract power only exists for academics, not in real life.

SPIEGEL: Do you think it was helpful for Obama to deliver a speech to the Islamic world in Cairo? Or has he created a lot of illusions about what politics can deliver?

Kissinger: Obama is like a chess player who is playing simultaneous chess and has opened his game with an unusual opening. Now he's got to play his hand as he plays his various counterparts. We haven't gotten beyond the opening game move yet. I have no quarrel with the opening move.

SPIEGEL: But is what we have seen so far from him truly realpolitik?

Kissinger: It is also too early to say that. If what he wants to do is convey to the Islamic world that America has an open attitude to dialogue and is not determined on physical confrontation as its only strategy, then it can play a very useful role. If it were to be continued on the belief that every crisis can be managed by a philosophical speech, then he will run into Wilsonian problems.

SPIEGEL: Obama did not only hold a speech. At the same time, he placed pressure on Israel to stop building settlements in the West Bank and to recognize an independent Palestinian state. Related WATCH: March 26, 1975: Kissinger's Peace Plan WATCH: Sept. 19, 1976: South Africa

Kissinger: The outcome can only be a two-state solution, and there seems to be substantial agreement on the borders of such a state. Now, how you bring that about and what phases of negotiation, what issue you start with, that you cannot deduce from one speech.

SPIEGEL: Do concepts like "good" and "evil" make sense in the context of foreign policy?

Kissinger: Yes, but generally in gradations. Rarely in absolutes. I think there are kinds of evil that need to be condemned and destroyed, and one should not apologize for that. But one should not use the existence of evil as an excuse for those who think that they represent good to insist on an unlimited right to impose their definition of their values.

SPIEGEL: What does the word "victory" mean to you? After World War I, there was a victor and a victim, the Germans; and the Versailles Treaty was an effort to contain the power that had lost. Do you think it's a smart idea to claim victory over another country?

Kissinger: The important thing after military victory is to deal with the defeated nation in a generous way.

SPIEGEL: And with this you mean not to subdue the defeated nation?

Kissinger: You can either weaken a defeated nation to a point where its convictions no longer matter and you can impose anything you wish on it, or you have to bring it back into the international system. From the point of view from Versailles, the treaty was too lenient with respect to holding Germany down, and it was too tough to bring Germany into the new system. So it failed on both grounds.

SPIEGEL: What would a wise winner do?

Kissinger: A wise victor will attempt to bring the defeated nation into the international system. A wise negotiator will try to find a basis on which the agreement will want to be maintained. When one reaches a point where neither of these possibilities exist, then one has to go either to increase pressure or to isolation of the adversary or maybe do both.

SPIEGEL: Were the Western countries wise in respect to their dealings with the former Soviet Union after their implosion?

Kissinger: There was too much triumphalism on the western side. There was too much description of the Soviets as defeated in a Cold War and maybe a certain amount of arrogance.

SPIEGEL: Not only towards Russia?

Kissinger: In other situations as well.

SPIEGEL: What's the difference between the conflicts in Europe in the early 20th century and the conflicts we are facing in today's world?

Kissinger: In previous periods, the victor could promise itself some benefit. Under the current circumstances,that no longer applies. A clash between China and the United States,for example, would undermine both countries.

SPIEGEL: Would you go so far as to say what we are seeing is end of major wars?

Kissinger: I believe that Obama has a unique chance to conduct a peaceful American foreign policy. I do not see any conflicts between suchmajor countries, China, Russia, India, and the U.S., which will justify a military solution. Therefore, there is an opportunity for a diplomatic effort. Moreover, the economic crisis does not permit countries to devote a historic percentage of their resources to military conflict. I am structurally more optimistic than a couple of years ago.

SPIEGEL: The situation in Iran doesn't make you fearful?

Kissinger: Fear is not a good motivation for statesmanship. It could be that some kind of at least local conflict will happen, but it does not have to happen. Iran is a relatively weak and small country that has inherent limits to its capabilities. The relationship of China with the rest of the world is a lot more important in historic terms than the Iranian issues by themselves.

SPIEGEL: Mr. Kissinger, we thank you for this interview.

Interview conducted by Jan Fleischhauer and Gabor Steingart.


TOPICS: Foreign Affairs; Government
KEYWORDS: iran; kissinger; versailles

1 posted on 07/08/2009 12:01:30 AM PDT by ckilmer
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To: ckilmer

I know there a lot of folks here who are no fans of kissinger. I’m not really one myself.

However, I thought he did a good job here of explaining the problem posed by the treaty of versailles.


2 posted on 07/08/2009 12:02:54 AM PDT by ckilmer (Phi)
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To: ckilmer

bookmark


3 posted on 07/08/2009 12:08:11 AM PDT by GOP Poet
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To: ckilmer
It's interesting that the used a quote that, especially in it's truncated form, seems very flattering of Obama.

A quote more reflective of Kissenger's premise would have bee taken from this paragraph...

"If it were to be continued on the belief that every crisis can be managed by a philosophical speech, then he will run into Wilsonian problems."

People will just read the headline and assume that Kissinger is heaping fawning praise on Obama, he's not.

4 posted on 07/08/2009 12:09:08 AM PDT by OldDeckHand (No Socialized Medicine, No Way, No How, No Time)
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To: ckilmer
"Obama is like a chess player..."

Yeah, like a pawn. But whose pawn?

5 posted on 07/08/2009 12:16:07 AM PDT by meyer ( "The world is a beautiful place and worth fighting for. But not without Freedom.")
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To: ckilmer

Anyone with half a brain can figure out why Versailles failed. Big deal.

What this interview does is reveal some of Kissinger’s major failings. One, he doesn’t seem to realize that free states do not attack each other, so when he sets out to create peace through a balance of power, he’s basically ensuring a future war, much like how the pre-WW1 system of alliances ensured that particular war. Two, when he says that there have to be certain conditions in place in order to conduct foreign policy, it never enters his head to influence those conditions, because again, he doesn’t realize that free states don’t attack each other. So to use his Iran example, he doesn’t seem to care whether or not the mullahs are overthrown, he just cares whether or not there’s a negotiating partner.

Good grief and good riddance.


6 posted on 07/08/2009 12:19:19 AM PDT by Terpfen (Ain't over yet, folks. Those 2004 Senate gains are up for grabs in 2 years.)
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To: meyer

“Obama is like a chess player...”

They misspelled checkers...


7 posted on 07/08/2009 12:21:28 AM PDT by ltc8k6
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To: ckilmer
Iran is a relatively weak and small country that has inherent limits to its capabilities. The relationship of China with the rest of the world is a lot more important in historic terms than the Iranian issues by themselves.

This is true only because Kissinger puts the proposition in relative terms. Yes, China is more important in historic terms than Iran because China is bigger and economically more robust and has a bigger if not a brighter future. But, in contriving in American foreign policy one cannot the content with relative judgments if the harm caused crosses an absolute line.

In other words, Iran is now possessed of two of the most important assets in power-play politics and will soon be possessed of the third. Iran is already strategically located a place where it can control the Straits of Hormuz and a vast percentage of the world's flow of oil. Iran is possessed of perhaps the second-largest reserves of oil in the world and with the proper exploitation can become a major player. Third, Iran is very likely soon to have the bomb and with that bomb it can exploit its control over the Straits of Hormuz without much fear of retaliation; it can intimidate its neighbors like Saudi Arabia and vicariously control the world's largest producer of oil; possessed of the bomb, Iran can intimidate its Muslim neighbors into active opposition to America and the West.

These three factors make Iran an absolute problem even if it is, in historic terms, relatively less important that China. Obama's Cairo speech as an opening ploy, knight to King 4, is defensible. As a goal for policy it will be disastrous. There is nothing in Obama's personal history to justify Henry Kissinger's generous wait and see attitude.


8 posted on 07/08/2009 12:32:54 AM PDT by nathanbedford ("Attack, repeat, attack!" Bull Halsey)
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To: OldDeckHand

Certainly, from the headline you’d think that he was jumping on the Zero bandwagon; when in reality he only offered a measured appraisal of the situation. I have no real disagreements with anything he said.


9 posted on 07/08/2009 12:37:56 AM PDT by eclecticEel (The Most High rules in the kingdom of men ... and sets over it the basest of men.)
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To: ltc8k6

“They misspelled checkers...”

Shell game is more like it.


10 posted on 07/08/2009 12:38:30 AM PDT by Names Ash Housewares
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To: ckilmer
"I see two possibilities. We will either come to an understanding with Iran, or we will clash."

WOW! This is why he gets paid the big bux! ;)

11 posted on 07/08/2009 12:41:05 AM PDT by BossLady ("WE are the origin of all coming evil" ~~ Carl Jung~~)
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To: eclecticEel
"Certainly, from the headline you’d think that he was jumping on the Zero bandwagon; when in reality he only offered a measured appraisal of the situation. I have no real disagreements with anything he said."

Yes, I don't either. I meant to include in my original post, that the appropriate headline could have easily been written...

Obama's Wilsonian Problem

12 posted on 07/08/2009 12:44:09 AM PDT by OldDeckHand (No Socialized Medicine, No Way, No How, No Time)
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To: nathanbedford

How can Kissinger imply this from Zer0?

This is Zer0’s first full time job.

My hunch is Kissinger knows we’re in deep doo-doo
with Zer0. To proclaim Zer0 as a moron is not productive
for our security. HK’s bluff may buy some time for Zer0.


13 posted on 07/08/2009 12:55:44 AM PDT by ChiMark
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To: meyer

No, we’re the pawns, and he sacrificed us all. Now he’s turning the board around to play for the other side.


14 posted on 07/08/2009 1:01:49 AM PDT by AZLiberty (Yes, Mr. Lennon, I do want a revolution.)
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To: AZLiberty
The world is the chessboard. We are the pawns. The Illuminati are the engineers of the global political chess game and they decide the winner.
15 posted on 07/08/2009 1:04:09 AM PDT by myknowledge (F-22 Raptor: World's Largest Distributor of Sukhoi parts!)
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To: ckilmer
"Obama Is Like a Chess Player"

Obama-Putin, Russia, 2009: Final Position

Photobucket

16 posted on 07/08/2009 1:09:03 AM PDT by decal ("Never allow a nervous female to have access to a pistol, no matter what you're wearing.")
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To: nathanbedford

SPIEGEL: But is what we have seen so far from him truly realpolitik?

Kissinger: It is also too early to say that. If what he wants to do is convey to the Islamic world that America has an open attitude to dialogue and is not determined on physical confrontation as its only strategy, then it can play a very useful role. If it were to be continued on the belief that every crisis can be managed by a philosophical speech, then he will run into Wilsonian problems.


17 posted on 07/08/2009 1:12:04 AM PDT by ckilmer (Phi)
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To: ckilmer
Obama is like a chess player... Now he's got to play his hand....

Henry is mixing up his metaphors.

18 posted on 07/08/2009 1:17:53 AM PDT by Lancey Howard
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To: decal

Not bad, except the colors should be reversed.


19 posted on 07/08/2009 1:19:25 AM PDT by Lancey Howard
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To: ckilmer

I don’t remember, how does a teleprompter move?


20 posted on 07/08/2009 1:29:54 AM PDT by rawcatslyentist (<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajsov1M4h50"> Thank You Satan</a><P>Rev13:3)
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To: ckilmer
Point taken.

Let me put it this way, Obama's personal history and his pronouncements all indicate that Obama sees the process remarks of his Cairo speech to be an end in themselves. Alternatively, Obama's radical associations and evident chumminess with dictators like Chavez, suggest that Obama's speech in Cairo was a step in a realignment of America with the Islamicists and leftist dictators.

In view of these realities, Kissinger should have said that the jury is not in but that the rebuttable presumption should run against Obama.


21 posted on 07/08/2009 1:30:08 AM PDT by nathanbedford ("Attack, repeat, attack!" Bull Halsey)
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To: Lancey Howard
ckilmer - "Obama is like a chess player... Now he's got to play his hand...." "Henry is mixing up his metaphors. "

Either that or he's being "subtle Henry" like he was in lectures and letting you know he doesn't think The One is a chess player in spite of his trying to be one.

Regards

22 posted on 07/08/2009 1:45:48 AM PDT by Rashputin (blif)
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To: ckilmer
But I believe more suffering has been caused by prophets than by statesmen.

All suffering has been caused by criminals and the greatest amount is when they run, seize, control a state. Who caused the suffering, Henry? Identify them.

23 posted on 07/08/2009 2:16:12 AM PDT by PGalt
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To: ckilmer

And Kissinger is like a bad pizza. He keeps repeating.

I wish this overrated foreigner would just go the hell away and shut his damn mouth. I can’t stand him and didn;t like his weird boss either.


24 posted on 07/08/2009 2:27:13 AM PDT by ZULU (God guts and guns made America great. Non nobis, non nobis Domine, sed nomini tuo da gloriam.)
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To: ckilmer

Opions can sometimes be useful, but to a certain extent diplomacy is only one part of the necessary ingredients to peace.

There has to come a time when we determine that diplomacy has failed and decide what to do about it. If we say we’re only going to use diplomacy as a tool for peace, then we are destined for failure.

Putting someone else in place, another diplomat or another president to put a different spin on diplomacy is not going to change the outcome, but merely perpetuate failure. It is simply like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic, and why we have so many serious unresolved problems from many decades past.

If we have no interest in any war at all then we need to just keep to ourselves and build up our defenses so that if anyone wants to mess with us they will face destruction if diplomacy fails.


25 posted on 07/08/2009 2:58:25 AM PDT by dajeeps
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To: ckilmer

More a wood pusher than a grandmaster.


26 posted on 07/08/2009 3:02:47 AM PDT by Lonesome in Massachussets (AGWT is very robust with respect to data. All observations confirm it at the 100% confidence level.)
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To: ckilmer

Obama is like a Chess Player.

Yes: and in Chess there is a winner and a loser. Why did we get the loser?


27 posted on 07/08/2009 4:09:38 AM PDT by Venturer
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To: ckilmer

America is not now nor has it ever held a confrontational posture towards Islam.

Kissinger thinks this is all role playing and posturing.

As for Obama, it is now and will always be capitulation to America’s enemies, both at home and abroad.

He wants to see America weak and dependent. He does not have idealistic goals, his goals are to destroy the America we were and remake us into his image.


28 posted on 07/08/2009 4:11:28 AM PDT by Carley (OBAMA IS A MALEVOLENT FORCE IN THE WORLD)
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To: ckilmer

bookmark


29 posted on 07/08/2009 4:21:31 AM PDT by mmanager (It is time to prune the tree.)
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To: ckilmer
Notice how he never actually mentions Islam. He skirts it by saying more problems are caused by prophets, but still never seems to get to the unmentionable.

We can never have lasting peace in parts of the world because of a religion...not because of policies or governments.

30 posted on 07/08/2009 4:26:22 AM PDT by DainBramage
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To: ckilmer
kissinger is like a pile of dog crap... only he smells worse.

LLS

31 posted on 07/08/2009 4:34:29 AM PDT by LibLieSlayer (hussein will NEVER be my President... NEVER!!!)
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To: ckilmer

Kissinger has always been about Kissinger. He disguises what he says with an array of verbiage (much like Greenspan) but he is either stating the obvious, mouthing useless platitudes, enhancing his role in some previous conflict, or positioning himself for a role in the next one.

This is the unaltering theme that has run throughout his career.

In the 1968 election he was playing both sides against the middle - acting as an “advisor” to both Nixon and Humphrey to make sure he had a seat at the table when the dust settled.

I wonder if the final historical verdict of watergate was a coup of Nixon by Kissinger.

I detest this man.


32 posted on 07/08/2009 4:34:59 AM PDT by 2 Kool 2 Be 4-Gotten
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To: ZULU

Amen!

LLS


33 posted on 07/08/2009 4:37:08 AM PDT by LibLieSlayer (hussein will NEVER be my President... NEVER!!!)
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To: nathanbedford

I agree with your take but those pointed assessments likely would have made more sense to american conservatives than they would to center right germans —the audience — I presume — to whom he was speaking.


34 posted on 07/08/2009 6:31:07 AM PDT by ckilmer (Phi)
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To: ckilmer
You are quite right about the Germans. I live in Germany and if I even attempt to explain Barack Obama in anything other than adulatory terms I am met with uncomprehending stares.


35 posted on 07/08/2009 6:41:29 AM PDT by nathanbedford ("Attack, repeat, attack!" Bull Halsey)
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To: ckilmer
Kissinger: The belief in democracy as a universal remedy regularly reappears in American foreign policy. Its most recent appearance came with the so-called neocons in the Bush administration. Actually, Obama is much closer to a realistic policy on this issue than Bush was.

.... so long as you define having a 'realistic policy' as embracing communist dictators and abandoning democracies.

Kissinger can kissinger my a&&.

36 posted on 07/08/2009 6:46:23 AM PDT by Lazamataz (Too sick for words!)
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To: nathanbedford
Let me put it this way, Obama's personal history and his pronouncements all indicate that Obama sees the process remarks of his Cairo speech to be an end in themselves.

Precisely.

37 posted on 07/08/2009 7:52:24 AM PDT by r9etb
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To: ckilmer; All

Great thread/commentary. Thanks to all posters.


38 posted on 07/08/2009 9:10:37 AM PDT by PGalt
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To: ckilmer

I know this is a serious thread but every time I think about Kissenger I can’t get this song out of my head. I’m forever ruined that way.


Henry Kissenger (Performed by Monty Python)

Henry Kissenger
How I’m missing yer,
You’re the doctor of my dreams.
With your crinkly hair
And your glassy stare
And your Machiavellian schemes
I know they say that you are very vain
And short and fat and pushy
But at leats you’re not insane.
Henry Kissenger
How I’m missing yer
And wishing you were here.
Henry Kissenger
How I’m missing yer
You’re so chubby and so neat
With your funny clothes
And your squishy nose
You’re like a German Par-o-quet.
All right so people say that you don’t care
But you’ve got nicer legs than Hitler
And bigger tits that Cher
Henry Kissenger
How I’m missing yer
And wishing you were here.


39 posted on 07/08/2009 9:17:35 AM PDT by freedomlover (Make sure you're in love - before you move in the heavy stuff)
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To: nathanbedford

The Germans won’t change much until they rediscover Luther & Calvin. Probably same goes for much of blue state USA. These things take time.


40 posted on 07/08/2009 9:58:14 AM PDT by ckilmer (Phi)
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To: Lancey Howard

Can’t get there in two moves if you reverse the colors.


41 posted on 07/08/2009 3:38:19 PM PDT by Lonesome in Massachussets (AGWT is very robust with respect to data. All observations confirm it at the 100% confidence level.)
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To: ckilmer

Kissinger probably SIGNED the Treaty.


42 posted on 07/08/2009 3:39:28 PM PDT by tet68 ( " We would not die in that man's company, that fears his fellowship to die with us...." Henry V.)
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To: AdmSmith; Berosus; bigheadfred; Convert from ECUSA; dervish; Ernest_at_the_Beach; Fred Nerks; ...
Any international system must have two key elements for it to work. One, it has to have a certain equilibrium of power that makes overthrowing the system difficult and costly. Secondly, it has to have a sense of legitimacy. That means that the majority of the states must believe that the settlement is essentially just. Versailles failed on both grounds. The Versailles meetings excluded the two largest continental powers: Germany and Russia. If one imagines that an international system had to be preserved against a disaffected defector, the possibility of achieving a balance of power within it was inherently weak. Therefore, it lacked both equilibrium and a sense of legitimacy...

The American view was that peace is the normal condition among states. To ensure lasting peace, an international system must be organized on the basis of domestic institutions everywhere, which reflect the will of the people, and that will of the people is considered always to be against war. Unfortunately, there is no historic evidence that this is true...

The preconditions for a lasting peace are much more complex than most people are aware of. It was not an historic truth but an assertion of the view of a country composed of immigrants that had turned their backs on a continent and had absorbed itself for 200 years in its domestic politics...

The basic cause of the war was Hitler. But insofar as the Versailles system played a role, it is undeniable that American idealism at the Versailles negotiations contributed to World War II. Wilson's call for the self-determination of states had the practical effect of breaking up some of the larger states of Europe, and that produced a dual difficulty. One, it turned out to be technically difficult to separate these nationalities that had been mixed together for centuries into national entities by the Wilsonian definition, and secondly, it had the practical consequence of leaving Germany strategically stronger than it was before the war.
Never have much liked the guy, but have never had any question that he always knows what he's talking about in his area of expertise.
43 posted on 07/10/2009 7:56:23 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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