The 9th amendment has nothing to do with state sovereignty. The 10th amendment is the one in question:
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
The key phrase is "powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution." Who decides what that means? The Supreme Court. The federal beast decides for itself. And as we know, the "general welfare" clause, the implied powers of the necessary and proper clause, the various and ever growing "commerce clause" power give the fedzilla almost unlimited scope. And all that was teed up and in place at ratification.
The POTENTIAL for problems was definitely there, which is why I agree that the Constitution failed in its purpose. But a Supreme Court decision or two could have derailed the whole thing (proper interpretation of the "commerce clause" for instance). But I do not see the result as having been inevitable by any means.