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Chocolate Cake: The New Heroin?
ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | 9 November 2009 | Cassandra Willyard

Posted on 11/15/2009 6:45:13 AM PST by neverdem

Enlarge ImagePicture of rat

High anxiety. Rats "addicted" to sugary food spent less time on the open parts of this maze.

Credit: Pietro Cottone

If you're constantly starting new diets, then breaking them, you may have more in common with a drug addict than you know. A new study suggests that yo-yo dieters experience the same stressful pangs of withdrawal when they go on a diet that addicts experience when they go cold turkey.

The idea that bad food can be addictive is not new. But previous studies have tended to focus on the positive reinforcement side of the equation--for example, the pleasurable "rush" you get from eating chocolate cake. "This is just part of the story," says Pietro Cottone, a neuroscientist at Boston University and a co-author of the new study, which was conducted at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. The brain also has a negative reinforcement system that causes anxiety and stress during withdrawal. Rather than doing drugs for the rush, he says, addicts do drugs to relieve the stress associated with withdrawal. Dieters often follow the same pattern of abstinence and relapse as drug addicts, so Cottone and his colleagues wanted to see whether the same brain circuitry might be involved.

The researchers gave one group of rats unlimited access to regular rat food for 5 days, followed by 2 days of sugary, chocolate-flavored rat chow. ("They like it a lot," says Cottone.) The team repeated this cycle for 7 weeks and compared the rats' food intake and behavior with that of a control group of rats that had access only to standard chow.

The control rats ate roughly the same amount of food every day, but the rats in the experimental group did not: When the junk food arrived, they pigged out. By the fifth week, the experimental rats were eating roughly 20% more food when they had access to chocolate chow than rats in the control group ate. And when it was replaced with normal food, they ate less normal food, approximately 30% less by week 5. As the study progressed, the effect became stronger. What's more, the rats going through chocolate-chow withdrawal spent less time in the exposed parts of a specially designed maze, a measure of increased anxiety. When the chocolate chow was returned, the anxiety disappeared.

The researchers suspected that the anxiety was the result of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a hormone involved in the brain's stress response. Previous studies have shown that this molecule plays a role in drug and alcohol withdrawal. Indeed, when the researchers gave the rats a drug to block their CRF receptors, the animals ate less chocolate chow and more normal chow. They also experienced less withdrawal-associated anxiety. Further experiments revealed that the rats expressed five times more CRF during their withdrawal periods than during their binge periods.

This is the first time the CRF system has been implicated in food addiction, offering a potential drug target, the team reports online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Drugs to block CRF receptors in the brain are currently being developed.

"This is a brilliant study," says Markus Heilig, a psychiatrist at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in Bethesda, Maryland, who has studied the role of CRF in alcohol addiction. "[Intermittent] dieting is not a good idea, this would seem to indicate." In fact, Heilig says, the study suggests that long-term serial dieting may be driving the biology of the brain into a state in which an individual will experience increased cravings for junk food. Whether you're talking about alcohol, drugs, or even junk food, he says, the more times you relapse, the more stress you feel during withdrawal, and the harder it is to stay on the wagon. "That is the vicious circle," says Heilig.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events; Testing
KEYWORDS: addiction; chocolate; stress; sugar; withdrawal
CRF system recruitment mediates dark side of compulsive eating

Chocolate/cocoa is a distraction, and too much sweet garbage from carbhydrates in the diet is the real culprit, IMHO.

1 posted on 11/15/2009 6:45:13 AM PST by neverdem
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To: neverdem; Gabz; T Minus Four; vandy; ssaftler; trussell; fnord; HopeandGlory; HoneysuckleTN; ...
Chocolate is the OLD Heroin. Heroin is the new Heroin. Ping!
2 posted on 11/15/2009 6:49:21 AM PST by Diana in Wisconsin (We have a Pisher in Chief!)
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To: neverdem

.... When they pry it from my cold, dead, gooey-chocolate-covered hands....


3 posted on 11/15/2009 6:49:23 AM PST by Uncle Ike (Rope is cheap, and there are lots of trees...)
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To: neverdem

Excuse me.
Everyone knows that the old sayings”to much of a good thing”, were said for a reson.
When Americans and others used COMMON SENSE, everyone knew that sweets were to only be a special treat. NOT a stapple of your diet.
GEEZ.


4 posted on 11/15/2009 6:50:46 AM PST by Marty62 (former Marty60)
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To: neverdem

Chocolate is not a drug. It’s one of the basic, necessary food groups.


5 posted on 11/15/2009 6:51:21 AM PST by ktscarlett66 (Face it girls....I'm older and I have more insurance....)
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To: neverdem

You will take chocolate...from my cold dead fingers!


6 posted on 11/15/2009 6:55:18 AM PST by 668 - Neighbor of the Beast (LIBERTY)
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To: Marty62

NOT a stapple of your diet.

I always knew there was a name for an apple on a stick!


7 posted on 11/15/2009 6:55:41 AM PST by tet68 ( " We would not die in that man's company, that fears his fellowship to die with us...." Henry V.)
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To: Uncle Ike

GMTA!


8 posted on 11/15/2009 6:55:48 AM PST by 668 - Neighbor of the Beast (LIBERTY)
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To: neverdem
Chocolate cake IS A DRUG ... a good one to relieve the trials and tribulations of the day.


9 posted on 11/15/2009 6:58:37 AM PST by CapnJack
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To: ktscarlett66

“Chocolate is not a drug. It’s one of the basic, necessary food groups.”

Yep! Every woman knows that.


10 posted on 11/15/2009 7:02:09 AM PST by alice_in_bubbaland (Markets and Marxists Don't Mix! Audit the FED NOW!)
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To: Marty62
When Americans and others used COMMON SENSE, everyone knew that sweets were to only be a special treat. NOT a stapple (sic) of your diet.

What? . . . . . What? . . . . . What?

So what are you saying?

;-)

11 posted on 11/15/2009 7:07:51 AM PST by savedbygrace (You are only leading if someone follows. Otherwise, you just wandered off... [Smokin' Joe])
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To: neverdem
A new study suggests that yo-yo dieters experience the same stressful pangs of withdrawal when they go on a diet that addicts experience when they go cold turkey.

Funny how this comes out during the healthcare takeover. Guess what they'll be taxing/regulating under 0bamacare.

12 posted on 11/15/2009 7:14:10 AM PST by RedStateGuyTrappedinCT
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To: neverdem
"This is a brilliant study,"

Should there not have been a 3rd group - one that was given, after the normal food, a choice of normal or sweet?

With only a choice of the less nutritious sweet food, might they have eaten more to get the nutrition? (I have a little 'house mouse' now 5 yrs old. As long as he has a choice, he will pass up the 'bad' food for the 'good' stuff. He's loves Brussels Sprouts and dandelion - and salted pumpkin seeds and cashews.)

Anyway, if they're serious about discovering why someone yo-yo's, study Oprah.

Good grief. She has all the money in the world. She can/does hire the best of personal chefs - and she still can't keep the weight off more'n a week.

13 posted on 11/15/2009 7:19:17 AM PST by maine-iac7 ("He has the right to criticize who has the heart to help" Lincoln)
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To: Uncle Ike
"sugary, chocolate-flavored rat chow"

That's the problem. Should have tested the rats with good quality dark chocolate, not the sugary junk. REAL chocolate is medicinal!
14 posted on 11/15/2009 7:19:53 AM PST by NewCenturions
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To: neverdem

The people at Overeaters Anonymous have known about this stress for a long time. They just don’t have any chemical solution for it. They have to do it the hard way— by building character to resist the cycle. Unfortunately, because it’s hard, a lot of people don’t succeed in getting the better of this self-destructive pattern.

A prayer for struggling obese people might help, if you can spare it.


15 posted on 11/15/2009 7:24:12 AM PST by married21
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To: neverdem

My son (at age 9) did a science project. We got 4 mice and built a maze for them. Two of them we fed “mouse food” (the approved stuff!) But the other two we fed junk food (Cheetos, M&Ms, etc). We let them mess around in the maze once a week. A few weeks later, we had MANY more mice in the two control groups, so got a lot more data. The amazing conclusion from the data was that the mice eating the junk food had MUCH slower times through the little maze. We actually demonstrated what this author is talking about above in “kid’s” experiment. A lot of fun, great father/son project, and some pretty amazing results. It also gave my son and I some second thoughts about junk food.


16 posted on 11/15/2009 7:24:49 AM PST by ThePatriotsFlag (The Patriot's Flag (http://www.thepatriotsflag.com) - Taxation without Representation)
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To: neverdem

Forget the chocolate CAKE, I’m into mainlining it directly from a Hershey w/almonds bar!

“...I need a fix, cause I’m goin’ down...”


17 posted on 11/15/2009 7:39:04 AM PST by joethedrummer
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To: Diana in Wisconsin

“Dad is Great!!! He gives us chocolate cake!!!”


18 posted on 11/15/2009 7:40:12 AM PST by dfwgator
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To: neverdem
Excellent. Now we can justify taxing processed sugar and corn syrup like tobacco and alcohol are taxed. I would suggest $3 per ounce...that would help pay for national health care...for the children of course.

Oh, and (/sarc) for the slow freepers.

19 posted on 11/15/2009 7:42:24 AM PST by eldoradude (Let's water the tree of liberty with THEIR blood...)
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To: dfwgator

“Save the earth. It’s the only planet with chocolate.”


20 posted on 11/15/2009 7:43:12 AM PST by savedbygrace (You are only leading if someone follows. Otherwise, you just wandered off... [Smokin' Joe])
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To: dfwgator

Love that Cosby bit!
http://www.icomedytv.com/Comedy-Videos/ID/975/Bill-Cosby-Chocolate-cake-with-transcript-0927.aspx


21 posted on 11/15/2009 7:45:35 AM PST by libertarian27 (Land of the FEE, home of the SHAMED)
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To: libertarian27

“And we had a ball.....until...”


22 posted on 11/15/2009 7:50:02 AM PST by dfwgator
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To: neverdem; Quix

Sigh sigh sigh sigh sigh sigh

Pretty much describes my behavior too, sadly.

Scary, isn’t it?


23 posted on 11/15/2009 7:52:31 AM PST by Joya (Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior, have mercy on me, a sinner!)
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To: neverdem

Mr G tells the g-kids not to touch the chocolate....

it’s Grammy’s medicine.


24 posted on 11/15/2009 7:59:18 AM PST by Grammy (The Lord is the Alpha and Omega. ObamaA has it backwards.)
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To: ThePatriotsFlag

Fascinating. TFS.


25 posted on 11/15/2009 7:59:18 AM PST by Joya (Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior, have mercy on me, a sinner!)
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To: Diana in Wisconsin; Girlene
Chocolate is the OLD Heroin

Exactly!! See Girlene? Diana KNOWS!!!

Just what I was telling you!:

This madness for chocolate has been going on for a LONG time.

Back during the Exodus and that whole thing with the Golden Calf. It was really a Chocolate calf covered in gold foil. Worshiping Chocolate got those people in a LOT of trouble. So abhorrent was the SIN, they don’t even mention Chocolate in the Bible, ANYWHERE!

You remember the Epic of Gilgamesh. Searched “the world over” for the “elixir of life”. The iconic depictions of him fighting 2 lions with his bare hands? Just to get chocolate!

Then the pyramids. The people looked at that project and said NO WAY! It’s going to take 120 years! Fay Rowe said “We’ll give you chocolate when you finish!”. And it only took them 10.

Alexander the Great. “Conquered” the world in a mad lust for power and glory? Yep, you guessed it!

The Stand of The 300. “There’s no way those filthy Persians are going to get our chocolate!”

MADNESS! CRAZINESS!

Patrick Henry. “Give me chocolate or give me DEATH!” They couldn’t get him to the gallows fast enough! (Don’t EVEN TRY to bore me with “facts” on this one!)

26 posted on 11/15/2009 8:03:03 AM PST by bigheadfred (Be who you are and say what you feel: Those who mind don't matter.Those who matter don't mind.)
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To: savedbygrace
Try common sense..Why is everyone so dependent on the Government to tell them how to eat, sleep, raise your children.
Unless ofcourse the American IQ has dropped 50 point to the idiot level.
27 posted on 11/15/2009 8:34:06 AM PST by Marty62 (former Marty60)
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To: bigheadfred
lol, bhfred. Well done. Here's your prize.


28 posted on 11/15/2009 9:05:59 AM PST by Girlene
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To: married21

My health had gotten so bad I had to take on my weight this past July, and lost 38 pounds. Fried foods were hard enough to give up, but the chocolate...agh.

But now my health is good and I sleep better than at any time in my plus fifty years. I actually like snacking on pears, green apples, and bananas when the night munchies come, and they usually do.


29 posted on 11/15/2009 9:06:25 AM PST by Luke21
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To: Girlene

I love it!

There’s just one little thing.

Whats with the chocolate fudge “okies”? I thought we weren’t gonna go there? :-))))


30 posted on 11/15/2009 9:25:18 AM PST by bigheadfred (Be who you are and say what you feel: Those who mind don't matter.Those who matter don't mind.)
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To: Marty62

Was that reply meant for someone else?


31 posted on 11/15/2009 9:44:56 AM PST by savedbygrace (You are only leading if someone follows. Otherwise, you just wandered off... [Smokin' Joe])
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To: neverdem

Okay, how do you safely mainline chocolate cake?


32 posted on 11/15/2009 9:47:43 AM PST by RichInOC (No! BAD Rich! (What'd I say?))
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To: neverdem

While I have been successful at maintaining my weight loss, I do have a problem with carbs. Cookies, pasta, biscuits, other sweets; ok, I need to stop before I make myself hungry. lol


33 posted on 11/15/2009 9:54:35 AM PST by mysterio
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To: Diana in Wisconsin

Hello! I thought I would find you here!


34 posted on 11/15/2009 11:26:43 AM PST by Pete from Shawnee Mission (The forces of reaction demand chocolate!)
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To: Girlene

You two are so cute. :)


35 posted on 11/15/2009 3:29:43 PM PST by Diana in Wisconsin (We have a Pisher in Chief!)
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To: Pete from Shawnee Mission

You can count on it. :)


36 posted on 11/15/2009 3:31:12 PM PST by Diana in Wisconsin (We have a Pisher in Chief!)
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To: savedbygrace

No
.......
Sunday, November 15, 2009 9:07:51 AM · 11 of 36
savedbygrace to Marty62
When Americans and others used COMMON SENSE, everyone knew that sweets were to only be a special treat. NOT a stapple (sic) of your diet.
What? . . . . . What? . . . . . What?

So what are you saying?

;-)


37 posted on 11/15/2009 6:25:57 PM PST by Marty62 (former Marty60)
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To: Marty62

I still don’t understand. BTW, my 1st post was 100% a joke. Apparently, you didn’t get it.


38 posted on 11/15/2009 6:49:40 PM PST by savedbygrace (You are only leading if someone follows. Otherwise, you just wandered off... [Smokin' Joe])
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To: savedbygrace

No it’s no biggie.
I thought everyone was having problems because of my typos.
I got it after I reread it, sorry. didn’t mean to be a problem.


39 posted on 11/15/2009 6:59:31 PM PST by Marty62 (former Marty60)
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To: Marty62

I am very relieved. Thank you. No worries.


40 posted on 11/15/2009 7:23:16 PM PST by savedbygrace (You are only leading if someone follows. Otherwise, you just wandered off... [Smokin' Joe])
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