“It all started with the founder of Darwinian evolution:”
—What was started by Darwin the idea that blacks are closer to apes? Hardly. The idea of there being different human races, ranking them, and believing that blacks (or other races) are closer to apes was very common before Darwin and goes back centuries.
For example Charles White wrote a popular book in 1799 called “An Account of the Regular Gradation in Man” where he argued that blacks were intermediate between apes and whites (not in an evolutionary sense) and included this famous diagram:
(Darwin himself was rather ambivalent as to whether biology had anything to do with with Europe’s technological superiority and thought it may be purely cultural:
The western nations of Europe, who now so immeasurably surpass their former savage progenitors, and stand at the summit of civilization, owe little or none of their superiority to direct inheritance from the old Greeks, though they owe much to the written works of that wonderful people.)
I meant within the evolutionary movement that was founded by Charles Darwin.