Skip to comments.Native Americans and Philanthropy
Posted on 01/08/2010 10:44:54 AM PST by rocketpreacher
Who is consistently advocating for the Native Americans? No one! Why? Why is it that during the 1900's all other races in the United States were given equal rights? Why is the only face not included in President Obama's Cabinet one from a Native American Tribe? The Native Americans continue to stand apart from real help. They continue in endless litigation processes before the U.S. Congress and U.S. Senate. This whitepaper, written as a partial requirement in a Master's Degree program, was also written to help create a case for civil society by advocating for real justice on behalf of the Native Americans. It was also written to encourage philanthropic efforts on their behalf.
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Arts in Philanthropy and Development Saint Marys University of Minnesota Winona, Minnesota
Charles Albert Cunningham November 1, 2009
Final Research Project for PHDE627 Cross-Cultural Philanthropy: Principles for Success and Community Impact Instructor: Dr. Lilya Wagner, CFRE Abstract Throughout the history of one of the greatest nations on earth there has been a specific peoples group, many times maliciously abused, evilly treated, murdered, raped, enslaved, acted upon with forced relegation, and all resulting still in abject poverty. This peoples group, though now given pseudo-sovereignty considered one under a larger umbrella, perhaps because of continual type casting, is in fact many nations of relatives. Though human beings, they have literally been treated worse than dogs. They have been falsely called Indians and though this branding has never been true, they continue to be forced to accept this branding. The United States Congress sits in their marble gleaming, white-washed chamber, built from the very minerals and stone that once lay under sacred lands which bore the stain of the blood of countless thousands of Native Americans. These same stones remain hearing continually the lies spoken from these hollowed halls and bare witness to the very Congressional Acts that prove to these First Nations Peoples that their sovereign nations remain as conquered and therefore subservient to the master government which slaughtered and conquered their ancestors.
Historically, in treatises and in law, some of the largest of the tribes of the First Nations Peoples have been given back certain inalienable rights, lands and protections, but the actual restoration of these rights has scarcely been realized. Even what has been restored has always been less than what was promised. Promises of water rights have been as dry as the paper they were printed on. Treatises have continually been broken. The so-called promises of land have been mostly mere tripes of waste property and whenever any value has ever been found on these lands they were stolen back through means of land trusts laws. The minerals were then raped from the lands and the profits went to anyone other than the legal owners. In the United States Congress, in 1956, full federal recognition to the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina was abandoned for termination language. Rather than provide any real opportunity for self improved economic stability to this Tribe of First Nations Peoples, they were effectively cut-off from any potential relationship with other Native American Tribes and stripped of all rights to access the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Care (see also http://www.lumbeetribe.com/History_Culture/History_Culture%20Index.html). These proud people are continually forced to stand before Congress and the Senate in endless litigation processes. The Lumbee Tribe of Native Americans is not alone when they intensely feel the weight of poverty and unemployment. They are not alone in their need for adequate health care and funding for education. Yet they remain, to this very day, standing literally alone as a singular tribe without legislation overturning the termination language; all the other tribes that Congress had passed termination language on have been given back their rights to full federal access. This means they continue to stand apart from any hope of support by a government that pretends to understand their needs. They stand alone without any rights to any restoration of any reservation lands. They feel that their voice of only fifty-five thousand tribal members is too small to be heard. The Lumbee Tribal Peoples are not totally alone. There was found some attempt to create a larger national voice from amongst the multi-national tribes: The National Congress of American Indian website discusses the history of their organization, The National Congress of American Indians was founded in 1944 in response to termination and assimilation policies that the United States forced upon the tribal governments in contradiction of their treaty rights and status as sovereigns. Since 1944, the National Congress of American Indians has been working to inform the public and Congress on the governmental rights of American Indians and Alaska Natives (retrieved by Charles Cunningham on October 27, 2009 from the National Congress of American Indians online database). The issues of poverty, unemployment, economic depravity, poor health care, and inequality of education are felt amongst every Native American Tribe and amongst the Alaskan Natives in the United States. Jacqueline Johnson Pata (2009) Testimony for the United States Congress House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform: The Silent Depression: How Are Minorities Faring In the Economic Downturn? The 2000 Census reported the per capita income for American Indians and Alaska Natives living on reservations at $7,942, merely one-third the U.S. average for all races, which was $21,587. Low average income, coupled with high unemployment, means the poverty rate for Indian families on reservations is 36 percent, which is two and half times the national average (retrieved by Charles A. Cunningham on October 27, 2009 from the National Congress of American Indian online database). These and other statistics of unemployment prove that Native American unemployment rates have remained at over twice the national average ever since the Great Depression. Even during the Great Depression the Native American unemployment was higher than all other peoples groups. Mr. Alex Baker - Public Relations Manager for the Lumbee Tribal Council (2009) during a telephone interview with Charles Cunningham said, Economic development is always a priority issue to our tribal people. Childhood Diabetes and Alzheimers disease is higher amongst Native Americans than amongst other Americans. While the science and technology of America has advanced to a point where the discovery of the causes of many diseases are available, the root cause for these two issues to our Native American Peoples remains without being researched because of a lack of adequate health care research funding. Who will listen? Who will care? Who is watching them through the Diversity Kaleidoscope (see Diversity Discussion Forum called Kaleidoscope of Association of Fundraising Professionals and see also http://mattadamo.com/advanced_regex.html)? What are the dreams that they weave? What mountain is touched? What valley? What river will carry them now? What skyscraper window in cityscape drama will bring someone to pray, hope, cry, dream, and most important feel? These human people lay a blanket out for their dance, for those they see in more need then they (see also http://www.nrfc.org/documents/Comm_Based_Philanthropy.pdf). Yet, who? Who is laying a blanket out for them? Will the pastor or priest? Will the church? Will the televangelist? Will the rich foundations or the pharmaceutical companies which are built out of the forests and minerals of the earth? Will the philanthropists? Where is their infomercial? Where is there a single television and radio host consistently promoting their cause? Their well lit casinos that promise tribal money steal the Native soul and turn the Native daughters into prostitutes. Jesus said, If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness (The Bible, King James Version, Matthew 6:23b). Philanthropy professionals really need not look to books to learn to care, to learn to take up a cause, they simply need to see and hear and feel. Philanthropy professionals have not some new secret that enlightens reality. It is not some mystical cosmic centering that brings people to give. People give when they see, hear and feel a need, especially when the cause effects them personally, and they give because they are asked to give. The goal of the philanthropy professional is to help bring the cause and the donor together in a relationship harmony that brings about positive action. Philanthropy professionals are the blanket carriers and voice at the dance; providing for the dancers in the world who dance around the causes of problems a satisfying means to help towards solving the causes of problems. Whether the dancers are in the skyscrapers, or under the chapel bell, in symphony halls, or lying under a park bench, all have felt needs, hopes and dreams. Where the eagle flies from crested mountains high, to the sailor in the depths of the ocean within a submarine, from the International Space Station; wherever breath of life (The Bible, King James Version, Genesis 1:30) remains, please speak for justice, for civil society, and especially for the Native American cause. Until these sovereign peoples are given full equal rights then injustice remains the only justice. Americans truly need to stop screaming at other sovereign nations for their human rights abuses, while the members of United States Congress and United States Senate enjoy far better education, medical health benefits, economic security, wealth, water, and quality housing, than virtually all of the Native American peoples and the Alaskan Natives. Jefferson Keel, Vice President of the National Congress of Native Americans (2009) Testimony of the National Congress of American Indians on the Federal Tax Treatment of Health Care Benefits Provided by Tribal Governments to Their Citizens United State Senate Committee on Indian Affairs said,
This Committee has noted that the IRS is targeting health care benefits and services provided by tribal governments. This is our chief concern. The federal government has treaty and trust responsibilities to provide health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The Indian Health Service is the federal agency responsible for providing this care, yet the IHS is funded at only 60% of need. Most tribal communities cannot readily access health care services and, even when services are available, they are often subject to decades-old, outdated practices and services. As detailed in the statement submitted by the National Indian Health Board, across every indicator, American Indian and Alaska Natives face massive disparities in health. (Retrieved by Charles A. Cunningham on October 27, 2009 from the National Congress of American Indian online database). Ron Allen, Secretary of the National Congress of American Indians (2009) Testimony of the National Congress of American Indians on the Supreme Court Decision in Carcieri v. Salazar and Executive Branch Authority to Acquire Trust Land for Indian Tribes: United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, said,
Section 5: Legislation designed to implement the fundamental principle that all tribes in all circumstances need a tribal homeland that is adequate to support tribal culture and self-determination. As noted by one of the IRAs principal authors, Congressman Howard of Nebraska, the land was theirs under titles guaranteed by treaties and law; and when the government of the United States set up a land policy which, in effect, became a forum of legalized misappropriation of the Indian estate, the government became morally responsible for the damage that has resulted to the Indians from its faithless guardianship, and said the purpose of the IRA was to build up Indian land holdings until there is sufficient land for all Indians who will beneficially use it.(78 Cong. Rec. 11727-11728, 1934). (Retrieved by Charles A. Cunningham on October 27, 2009 from the National Congress of American Indians online database). To this date, when President Barack Obama set up his Cabinet, which is the most diverse Cabinet in the history of the United States of America, one face has yet been left out; the face of the Native American. Why? The proposal is for philanthropy and development professionals to become a positive voice for civil society and intentionally take up the cause of the Native American Peoples and the Alaskan Natives within the nonprofit organizations and communities in which they serve. Any professional can do this as their respective organizations discuss issues of diversity and inequality. Whenever nonprofit organizations are considering specific program changes, seeking foundation grants, communicating their need to a broader society, adding employees, these are all times where diversity should come into the planning and into the discussion. What is the face of diversity at the organization? Does the organization represent the broader society? Is the face of the Native American included at the table? As philanthropy professionals, that constantly build networks and collaborative relationships, perhaps the discussion should also consider including the for-profit sector as they consider where to build their next factories, fulfillment distribution centers, training centers, and etcetera. Why not speak up in ones broader community to take the proposal of that new expansion for a corporation to the nearest Native American Tribal Council Headquarters, to see where they might wish that expansion to be built? And, why not add one new mailing piece to a nonprofits regular donors? Why not add a few extra pages to the organizations website? Create and online forum? Add a newsletter perhaps? Anything that better informs stakeholders and constituents of the issues that face the Native American Peoples that ones organization serves. Perhaps asking them to assist the organization and the broader society by contacting their respective Senators and Congressman to demand equality for the Native Americans? Why not seek at least one grant that will pay for advocacy for Native Americans from one of the largest corporations in ones community? Imagine the freedom cry around the dance when someday these Native American Peoples will stand shoulder to shoulder as equals with all other human beings on this great land. Imagine the sparks floating up into the night sky on the evening when the United States Congress and the United States Senate does the right thing on their behalf; the smoke from their fires carrying all of their prayers of thanks, laughter, and tears of joy.
References Baker, Alex. (2009) Native Americans in Philanthropy: A telephone interview with Charles A. Cunningham. The idea for all the follow-up research for this paper came directly from the telephone interview with Mr. Alex Baker, who says, I prefer the title Public Affairs Director over Public Relations Manager of the Lumbee Tribal Council. See also, Lumbee Tribal Council online database at URL: http://www.lumbeetribe.com/History_Culture/History_Culture%20Index.html Allen, Ron. Testimony of the National Congress of American Indians on the Supreme Court Decision in Carcieri v. Salazar and Executive Branch Authority to Acquire Trust Land for Indian Tribes: United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs May 21, 2009. Retrieved by Charles A. Cunningham on October 27, 2009 from the National Congress of American Indians online database at URL: http://indian.senate.gov/public/_files/Allentestimony.pdf. Keel, Jefferson. Testimony of the National Congress of American Indians on the Federal Tax Treatment of Health Care Benefits Provided by Tribal Governments to Their Citizens United State Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, September 17, 2009. Retrieved by Charles A. Cunningham on October 27, 2009 from the National Congress of American Indians online database at URL: http://indian.senate.gov/public/_files/JeffersonKeelCORRECTEDtestimony.pdf National Congress of American Indians online database at URL: http://www.ncai.org/Testimony-Before-Congress.434.0.html and at URL: http://groc.edgeboss.net/download/groc/fullcommittee/testimony-jacquelinejohnsonpatancai.pdf). Pata, Jacqueline Johnson. Testimony for the United States Congress House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform: The Silent Depression: How Are Minorities Faring In the Economic Downturn? 2009. (Retrieved on October 27, 2009 by Charles A. Cunningham from the National Congress of American Indians online database at URL: http://groc.edgeboss.net/download/groc/fullcommittee/testimony-jacquelinejohnsonpatancai.pdf The Bible, King James Version, Genesis 1:30 The Bible, King James Version, Matthew 6:23b The Blanket Dance. http://www.nrfc.org/documents/Comm_Based_Philanthropy.pdf The Diversity Kaleidoscope. Advanced REGEX Language Platform. This title and language platform is discussed by Matt Adamo at URL: http://mattadamo.com/advanced_regex.html. It has been adapted as the title for the Association of Fundraising Professionals Diversity Forum (see also www.afpnet.com).
Charles, is that you?
I thought they wanted to be left alone?
“Native American” is a misnomer.....Native people is correct because we were here BEFORE there was ever an America...
Proud member of the Ani-yun-wiya nation...
Lunacy. What indian today suffers from *anything* other than the socialism of the tribal govermental system? Indians deserve not an iota of help as long as they hold the tribal land in common. THAT is why they are poor.
Imagine if the city of Denver owned EVERY bit of property for 50 miles in every direction. Every house, business, etc,, all sat on communally owned land that could not be bought or sold.
It’s the sole reason modern indians are broke. No sympathy here,,, none. Live with the USSR private property rules, reap the benefits.
Unfortunately for the poster, the polemic in the first paragraph may turn off enough readers on FR so that they don’t see the rest of his post.
If they’d built casinos in 1491, they’d have all the land and all the money.
There is an actor/historian that is on the Discovery channel once in awhile that dresses in historic garb and plays the part of someone in history. Tells the story in the first person. He does Lewis (or Clark?) quite a bit.
At the end of one of his “shows” he is asked the question about what he finds so amazing about the modern day compared to when he was exploring. He said something like: “That there are still Indians. I would have thought they would have be exterminated. And not only are they still here, they have adapted to the White Man’s culture and are working in stores and businesses.”
It's the white man's fault.
you joined today to post this????
Is it a coincidence that these three are among the best-run and prosperous tribes in the country?
“Who will listen? Who will care? Who is watching them through the Diversity Kaleidoscope (see Diversity Discussion Forum called Kaleidoscope of Association of Fundraising Professionals and see also http://mattadamo.com/advanced_regex.html)?"
The first two sentences of this excerpt seem to be his points. Buried in the middle of some long paragraph. And then followed by a third sentence(??). (My son was using the little footnote number thingys in 6th grade!)
It says because some of their ancestors were treated bad or cheated 150-200 years ago,, we should all give indians free stuff. He seems to not have much of an understanding of capitalism. He also thinks that racial identity is more beneficial than joining into the American mainstream. Then theres a lot of hocus pocus scattered in,,, such as the “white stones of the capital” were ripped from mother earth underneath the “lands where indians bled”. Not sure what he meant by that,, (he want the limestone and marble back?)
Sounds like one of those angry college kids.
“This whitepaper, written as a partial requirement in a Master’s Degree program, was also written to help create a case for civil society by advocating for real justice on behalf of the Native Americans. It was also written to encourage philanthropic efforts on their behalf.”
The first thing you need to learn is that ALL Indians (that’s what my ancestors called themselves) were not all culturally or politically the same. The second thing is that no ‘nation within a nation’ has ever worked. The Indian tribes need to get over their self pity...they wrongs done were to their ancestors...they are ALL dead!
You, I or no other American owes me or any Indian anything.
The best thing is for this tribal division/identity/victim status to stop and become Americans and save this country.
Good material here in Episode 3 “Trail of Tears’ to really understand that the “indian’ did himself as much harm as the US government did.
And you can find what really happened to some Indians, told in their own words here:
To begin, I will tell you that I am atrue American..I served two tours in SE Asia in 1968 and 1969 and am proud to have served MY country.
I am also a native people of this land...a member of the Ani-yun-wiya nation (known as Cherokee).
With this in mind, I ask you...If China or Russia or any other country for that matter landed on our shores to take over...would you fight them? Would you try to adapt? Would you slowly give up where you lived and what you had experienced for your lifetime?
Please answer my questions and think about what you say....
O’Reilly would be proud. That is “pithy”. LOL
Get over it.
The White Man
James Watt was correct. The tribal system is the engine of indian poverty. It’s a relic of the 1800s. Reservations need to be broken up save for a SMALL area for cultural reasons. The tribe should collectively own no more than a city does inside it’s city limits.
If indians AS INDIVIDUALS owned their own houses, property, fields, and minerals,,,and could sell them to ANYONE, they would be wealthy. Their poverty is self inflicted under the guise of culture. Thats their choice to make,, but don’t come to me when culture impoverishes.
The tribal system treats individual indians as children. And the mere fact that one can run home to the res when life gets tough, acts as an anchor to indian achievement. Americans of Euro descent have nowhere to run back to where they will be given a place to live. It’s quite an incentive.
If you were a stone age people that was merely a tribe of people instead of being an actual country like a Sweden or Egypt or Peru, then you would probably resist at first just like you did when other tribes tried to move in, or the way they resisted you when you were taking their land from them.
In the end you would deal with the daily reality of Indian life for thousands of years, you took if you were stronger, and you abandoned when you were weaker.
“With this in mind, I ask you...If China or Russia or any other country for that matter landed on our shores to take over...would you fight them? Would you try to adapt? Would you slowly give up where you lived and what you had experienced for your lifetime?”
But Boonie, no ‘country’ invaded the Indians. It was done a bit at a time, one group of immigrants at a time, until the Indian was overwhelmed, his culture and beliefs destroyed, his land taken. It took decades. History IS repeating itself. We are the current indigenous tribe. Granted, it’s not being done at the point of a military gun as was done to our Cherokee ancestors, yet.
I wouldn’t know where to look it up, but wasn’t recognition of the Lumbees blocked by the other native nations? I read somewhere that if the Lumbees were recognized, there would be more of them than all the other native peoples combined.
One may even become "first dude" in 2012.
“James Watt was correct. The tribal system is the engine of indian poverty. Its a relic of the 1800s. Reservations need to be broken up save for a SMALL area for cultural reasons. The tribe should collectively own no more than a city does inside its city limits.”
Agreed. The government has learned one thing. Poor, uneducated, victimmentality folks are easier to control...bribes, etc. In fact, in the 1800’s, some Indians saw it and wanted nothing more than to become a US constitutional state with rights of any other ‘Americans’.
They wanted equality. Today’s tribes don’t, they want handouts and pity.
You know what,, and God love em. But it’s way obvious. Chinese in the west were treated horribly. But they were abandoned. Today they prosper.
If an indian family could own property instead of holding in common, they could build equity, they could live the American dream. They are denied the single greatest engine of wealth, home ownership.
The res should be large enough for cultural preservation. Not to dominate all the real estate. Tribal governments are corrupt, and the Feds treat them like children. The system was designed in the 1870s to imprison and control a population an keep them out of mainstream society. Big surprise, it’s doing PRECISELY that.
The sad thing though, is that most indian activists push for more extreme journeys into “ward” status.
The Lumbees are recognized now...They are a small tribe in the sandhills of central North Carolina...
No, they aren’t more than all others combined...
“I wouldnt know where to look it up, but wasnt recognition of the Lumbees blocked by the other native nations?”
Actually that happened often. My family settled in Texas, but the Cherokee tribe/US government has always refused to recognize them. During the Dawes census rolls near the turn of the century, they had to go back to Oklahoma to live to be counted as Cherokee. Tribal governments are among the worst, most corrupt on earth.
And i recently heard an 80 year old Texan say something that stopped me cold. He commented on the illegal Mexican flood, saying something along the lines of how it is nothing more than the resurgence of the Indians. (Mexican culture being basically almost nothing but American Indian)
Thanks for the clarification. I just know that if you go to Lumberton, you can’t swing a cat without hitting someone named Oxendine or Locklear.
My ancestors worked very hard to accept the Europeans that came here...
Oconstata, Attakullakulla, and five other elders of the Ani-yun-wiya spent a year in England meeting with the King and other European leaders in the early 1700’s...
Agreements were worked out and they returned...
Yet more and more was taken...Look up the Wautauga Convention and Nolichuckey Jack (John Sevier)
Check out the “Removal” by Andrew Jackson...who, BTW, won the battle of Horseshoe Bend in the Creek Indian War BECAUSE of the Ani-yun-wiya who came to his aid...
You are very welcome...:)
Desrt Rhino....If an indian family could own property instead of holding in common, they could build equity, they could live the American dream. They are denied the single greatest engine of wealth, home ownership———
Check out an Ani-yun-wiya man named Major Ridge...He OWNED a large plantation in Georgia as did several other Ani-yun-wiya families...
Andrew Jackson took their homes and lands during the “Removal”
Look up George Gist...better known as Sequoyah...He created the ONLY alphabet and written language of the native people.
He started a newspaper called the Phoenix for my ancestors...
“And i recently heard an 80 year old Texan say something that stopped me cold. He commented on the illegal Mexican flood, saying something along the lines of how it is nothing more than the resurgence of the Indians. (Mexican culture being basically almost nothing but American Indian)
Interesting, but wrong. The reconquista crowd would like you to believe that Mexicans and USA Indians were ‘all the same’. In the 1800’s, when my relatives lived at Mt. Tabor, Rusk county, Texas, they had plantations,
beautiful homes,were wealthy & Christian, were educated better than most Americans and wanted nothing but to be under the laws of the Constitution like anyone else in this nation.
In another post, you said: “If an indian family could own property instead of holding in common, they could build equity, they could live the American dream. They are denied the single greatest engine of wealth, home ownership.”
Absolutely correct! One group of Cherokees tried for decades to do away with the tribal land system, and most of them were killed for it...by other Cherokees.
From the book, “Jesus Wept” An American Story, Chapt. 16
“Boudinot and Bell were leading advocates for the abolition of the tribal land system of the Indians. They and others wished to have the lands owned in severalty, which is ownership of real property by an individual as an individual; the same right to property as other Americans. They also championed the establishment of United States Courts in Indian Territory, and the abandonment of the tribal governments.
What is a Mexican but an American Indian. They are one and the same.
That has nothing to do with my post, please don’t go down the liberal path of black and women’s history where you start telling us the names of individuals that did wondrous things like starting a newspaper or choosing the colors for traffic lights.
“If you were a stone age people that was merely a tribe of people instead of being an actual country like a Sweden or Egypt or Peru, then you would probably resist at first just like you did when other tribes tried to move in, or the way they resisted you when you were taking their land from them.”
I was refering
to this section of your post,ansell2.
The history I told was to explain to you that my ancestors weren’t exactly “stoneage” people
I don’t think I have been in the least sarcastic with any of my posts so I don’t understand the reason for yours....
“My ancestors worked very hard to accept the Europeans that came here...
Oconstata, Attakullakulla, and five other elders of the Ani-yun-wiya spent a year in England meeting with the King and other European leaders in the early 1700s...
Agreements were worked out and they returned...
Yet more and more was taken...Look up the Wautauga Convention and Nolichuckey Jack (John Sevier)
Check out the Removal by Andrew Jackson...who, BTW, won the battle of Horseshoe Bend in the Creek Indian War BECAUSE of the Ani-yun-wiya who came to his aid...”
Absolutely true, on all counts.
More from the book:
Chapter 2 Law, Law Understood, Law Executed
“The Cherokee National Council, on November 12, 1819 was held at New Echota, Cherokee Nation, where now exists modern day Northwest Georgia. They resolved that any white man who should marry a Cherokee woman is required to be married legally by a minister of the Gospel or some other legally authorized person and obtain a legal license from the national clerk. During this time, the Cherokee often took ‘American’ names and named their children after founding fathers and ancient world heroes who they particularly admired. The tribe functioned under a constitutional form of government.
No society has been known to make such a dramatic cultural shift as the Cherokee accomplished in Northern Georgia between 1794 and 1825. During this time they not only created and learned to read and write their own language, but learned English as well. They not only converted, voluntarily bringing in many of the missionaries themselves, but embraced the practice of Christianity. These progressive Cherokees simply elected not only to accept ‘the white man’s ways’, but to be better at it than anyone. Political powers of the time led by President Andrew Jackson did not let the Cherokee progress stop his Indian removal act of 1830.
Elias Boudinot, son of OOWatee and brother of Stand Watie, had been educated at a school established by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions at Cornwall, Connecticut. Here he took the name of a rich colonial benefactor, a citizen of New Jersey and a friend of George Washington who had served as a president of the Continental Congress.”
Chapter8 War and more war
“To understand the dynamics of the players and the loyalties they held at this less known battle at Hominy Creek, we have to return to another conflict in the 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend. In the war of 1812, the Cherokee supported the United States government against England. On March 27th, Cherokee leader, The Ridge with eight hundred volunteers fought the Creeks to submission beside General Andrew Jackson and his militia. A Cherokee brave, Junaluska, was said to have saved Jackson’s life from the knife of a Creek during battle and the title of ‘Major’ was bestowed to Chief Ridge by Jackson.”
Chapter 3 The Trail where they cried
“The legendary “Trail” was actually a series of land routes and water routes Some went only by land, others only by water. Some combined the two. Because of the large numbers traversing the same landscape over such a short period of time during severe drought, vegetation was scare to feed the livestock and beasts of burden, making alternate routes necessary. Most routes covered nine hundred to one thousand miles. Within a decade of passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, it is estimated sixty thousand Indians, African slaves, white spouses and missionaries crossed through North West Arkansas. Sixteen thousand were Cherokee as well as other tribes from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee.
The Bell Contingent managed to shorten their journey to only seven hundred miles, taking advantage of military roads and Jack Bell’s years of scouting and trading between the old nation and their new lands. Along with them from the Army was Lieutenant Edward Deas, who was well known to the Indians and allowed the Bells to oversee the trip. The group led by Cherokee John Benge took a bit longer route north of the Bell Route, but also faired better than the majority who were transferred entirely by the Army.
According to the dates in her dairy, Mrs. Releaf Mason of Little Rock observed the Bell Contingency nearing the end of it’s journey. On December 13, 1838 she wrote, “Heard of the unexpected death of a young lady of the Cherokee Nation.” A few days later she notes, “When we came to the river our horses took fright at some Indians encamped near the road and came very near precipitating us into the stream.” Her December 18th entry reflects, “Today the Indians, amounting to 700 passed off, which for several days have been encamped near us. Many of them very interesting, some Christians.”
PS! Don’t buy the book from the website, I have a special at cost offer for freepers.
They were at the level of still using stone tools.
Did you know there is a rose called the Cherokee Rose???
It has only seven petals...each representing one of the seven clans of the Ani-yun-wiya...
It is rumored to only grow along the trails used during the removal...Legend has that it was sprouted by the tears of the Ani-yun-wiya....
90% of the Indians do want left alone to keep their society intact, they don't want to become White People; but they do have an intense anger at what they have had stolen from them over the last 100 years by our government. Govt took all their kids off them, wouldn't give them back until they give up the land. Once the govt got the Indians and all theiir cousins to move into villages, not small bands that seasonally had fish camps, hunting camps, lands that they guarded on threat of death from other Indians & especially Whites; they lost their rights to the land. This happened up through the 1950's.
You will always see Whites who prey on Indians over the govt money & grants. Our village finally fired a local preacher & his wife who have been robbing the Indians blind on grant money, supposed to be an accounting but I doubt it will occur. You always have crooked white lawyers & native leaders who are blinded by the big bucks too.
Best thing that could be done is to give back alot of the BLM, govt, park lands to villages, let the Indians run fish & game ect,be better off over long term. All kinds of anger over how they lost the land as they didn't have political or financial where-with-all to stop it back then.
Alot of the alcohol problems & related problems are a direct result of the hopelessness & pain and no future improvement seen in the cards. Just more govt sponsered genocide thru BIA, and bits of govt money.
Just remember, they ain't White People, don't even think like we do; don't judge them and expect them to live and aspire to what we think is success. Greed is viewed somewhat like child abuse to most the Indians I know.
Don't mean to go on, guess I'd think like most others do too if I hadn't lived around them.
“, please dont go down the liberal path of black and womens history where you start telling us the names of individuals that did wondrous things like starting a newspaper or choosing the colors for traffic lights.”
Ansel12, don’t start with what someone should or shouldn’t post. What’s the matter? Are you terrified you might actually learn some REAL history that might not fit your agenda?
It wasn’t meant as sarcasm, it said just what it was meant to say.
The Oneidas were the only tribe that fought on OUR side during the RevWar...just to set the record straight.
You need to do a little research and, if you can find time, visit the Qualla reservation in North Carolina stay away from the touristy traps and see the historical aspects there...You may learn a lot...
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