In the caste system, it doesn't matter how qualified the person is, they are not allowed to compete unless there is intervention.
Indian affirmative action is even more blatent than ours. Many government jobs are explicitly reserved for Dalits. A percentage of admissions are reserved for them in schools, similiar to the defacto rules in America. More qualified Indians are passed over routinely so that the Dalits can get the slots.
I believe there are many examples, in India, of unqualified Dalits screwing things up.
So, yes, pretty similar to here.
There is also affirmative action in Malaysia for Malays and against Indians and Chinese. It was supposed to be temporary, but is now apparently permanant. Entire job classifications are reserved for Malays only, such as taxi driver. It’s not that big a deal because not too many Chinese want to be taxi drivers.