Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

How Brilliant Computer Scientists Solved the Bermuda Triangle Mystery
salem-news ^ | 6 Aug 2010 | Terrence Aym

Posted on 08/06/2010 10:38:07 PM PDT by smokingfrog

According to two research scientists the mystery of vanished ships and airplanes in the region dubbed "The Bermuda Triangle" has been solved.

Step aside outer space aliens, time anomalies, submerged giant Atlantean pyramids and bizarre meteorological phenomena ... the "Triangle" simply suffers from an acute case of gas.

Natural gas—the kind that heats ovens and boils water—specifically methane, is the culprit behind the mysterious disappearances and loss of water and air craft.

The evidence for this astounding new insight into a mystery that's bedeviled the world is laid out in a research paper published in the American Journal of Physics.

Professor Joseph Monaghan researched the hypothesis with honor student David May at the Monash University in Melbourne, Australia.

The two hypothesized that large methane bubbles rising from the ocean floor might account for many, if not all, of the mysterious disappearances of ships and aircraft at specific locales around the world.

Researcher Ivan T. Sanderson identified these mystery areas during the 1960s. Sanderson described the actual shape of these regions as more like a lozenge rather than a triangle. Some of the more famous spots include an area in the Sea of Japan, the North Sea, and of course the infamous "Bermuda (or Devil's) Triangle."

Oceanographic surveyors of the sea floor in the area of the Bermuda Triangle and the North Sea region between continental Europe and Great Britain have discovered significant quantities of methane hydrates and older eruption sites.

Because of the correlations and existing data, the two envisioned what would happen when gigantic methane bubbles explode from natural fissures on the seafloor.

The methane—normally frozen at great pressure as gas hydrates embedded within subterranean rock—can become dislodged and transform into gaseous bubbles expanding geometrically as they explode upwards.

(Excerpt) Read more at salem-news.com ...


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: bermudatriangle; gas; methane
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-86 next last

1 posted on 08/06/2010 10:38:09 PM PDT by smokingfrog
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Next: drilling the Bermuda Triangle to get natural gas?


2 posted on 08/06/2010 10:39:12 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (I am in America but not of America (per bible: am in the world but not of it))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Ping


3 posted on 08/06/2010 10:41:54 PM PDT by trailboss800
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

Just tap Michael Moore and Al Gore


4 posted on 08/06/2010 10:41:59 PM PDT by mountn man (The pleasure you get from life, is equal to the attitude you put into it.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

>> methane bubbles rising from the ocean floor

Maybe we can now call it the “British Petroleum Triangle”


5 posted on 08/06/2010 10:42:25 PM PDT by Gene Eric (Your Hope has been redistributed. Here's your Change.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

As long as it’s not BP doing the drilling.


6 posted on 08/06/2010 10:42:27 PM PDT by smokingfrog (freerepublic.com - Now 100% flag free.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog
How Brilliant Computer Scientists Solved the Bermuda Triangle Mystery:

They Discovered It Has 3 Sides.

7 posted on 08/06/2010 10:42:54 PM PDT by bunkerhill7
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

swimming cows farting? LOL


8 posted on 08/06/2010 10:42:54 PM PDT by GOP Poet (Obama is an OLYMPIC failure.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: trailboss800

bttt


9 posted on 08/06/2010 10:43:48 PM PDT by ConservativeMan55
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Not a new theory. Been hearing about this for several years.

IMHO, probably true.

It would explain sinking ships. Planes falling from the sky. Mysterious clouds. Pretty much all of it.


10 posted on 08/06/2010 10:44:08 PM PDT by Cringing Negativism Network (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RR1fDL7x1Sg)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

According to the media, this only happens with blown out oil wells, and is caused only by Man. Furthermore, they say this will end all life on Earth. Since this has been happening in the ocean for millions of years, why are we still here?


11 posted on 08/06/2010 10:44:28 PM PDT by Republic of Texas (Socialism Always Fails)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Burmuda Triangle Mystery solved, THERE WAS NEVER A MYSTERY OR ANYTHING UNUSUAL HAPPENING.

My favorite insight from this author, was that the insurance rates are normal for that area, that was damning evidence.

“”Larry Kusche
Lawrence David Kusche, a research librarian from Arizona State University and author of The Bermuda Triangle Mystery: Solved (1975) argued that many claims of Gaddis and subsequent writers were often exaggerated, dubious or unverifiable. Kusche’s research revealed a number of inaccuracies and inconsistencies between Berlitz’s accounts and statements from eyewitnesses, participants, and others involved in the initial incidents. Kusche noted cases where pertinent information went unreported, such as the disappearance of round-the-world yachtsman Donald Crowhurst, which Berlitz had presented as a mystery, despite clear evidence to the contrary. Another example was the ore-carrier recounted by Berlitz as lost without trace three days out of an Atlantic port when it had been lost three days out of a port with the same name in the Pacific Ocean. Kusche also argued that a large percentage of the incidents that sparked allegations of the Triangle’s mysterious influence actually occurred well outside it. Often his research was simple: he would review period newspapers of the dates of reported incidents and find reports on possibly relevant events like unusual weather, that were never mentioned in the disappearance stories.

Kusche concluded that:

The number of ships and aircraft reported missing in the area was not significantly greater, proportionally speaking, than in any other part of the ocean.
In an area frequented by tropical storms, the number of disappearances that did occur were, for the most part, neither disproportionate, unlikely, nor mysterious; furthermore, Berlitz and other writers would often fail to mention such storms.
The numbers themselves had been exaggerated by sloppy research. A boat’s disappearance, for example, would be reported, but its eventual (if belated) return to port may not have been.
Some disappearances had, in fact, never happened. One plane crash was said to have taken place in 1937 off Daytona Beach, Florida, in front of hundreds of witnesses; a check of the local papers revealed nothing.
The legend of the Bermuda Triangle is a manufactured mystery, perpetuated by writers who either purposely or unknowingly made use of misconceptions, faulty reasoning, and sensationalism.[11]
Further responses
When the UK Channel 4 television program “The Bermuda Triangle” (c. 1992) was being produced by John Simmons of Geofilms for the Equinox series, the marine insurer Lloyd’s of London was asked if an unusually large number of ships had sunk in the Bermuda Triangle area. Lloyd’s of London determined that large numbers of ships had not sunk there.[12]

United States Coast Guard records confirm their conclusion. In fact, the number of supposed disappearances is relatively insignificant considering the number of ships and aircraft that pass through on a regular basis.[11]

The Coast Guard is also officially skeptical of the Triangle, noting that they collect and publish, through their inquiries, much documentation contradicting many of the incidents written about by the Triangle authors. In one such incident involving the 1972 explosion and sinking of the tanker SS V. A. Fogg in the Gulf of Mexico, the Coast Guard photographed the wreck and recovered several bodies,[13] in contrast with one Triangle author’s claim that all the bodies had vanished, with the exception of the captain, who was found sitting in his cabin at his desk, clutching a coffee cup.[7]

The NOVA/Horizon episode The Case of the Bermuda Triangle, aired on June 27, 1976, was highly critical, stating that “When we’ve gone back to the original sources or the people involved, the mystery evaporates. Science does not have to answer questions about the Triangle because those questions are not valid in the first place... Ships and planes behave in the Triangle the same way they behave everywhere else in the world.”[14]

David Kusche pointed out a common problem with many of the Bermuda Triangle stories and theories: “Say I claim that a parrot has been kidnapped to teach aliens human language and I challenge you to prove that is not true. You can even use Einstein’s Theory of Relativity if you like. There is simply no way to prove such a claim untrue. The burden of proof should be on the people who make these statements, to show where they got their information from, to see if their conclusions and interpretations are valid, and if they have left anything out.”[14]

Skeptical researchers, such as Ernest Taves[15] and Barry Singer,[16] have noted how mysteries and the paranormal are very popular and profitable. This has led to the production of vast amounts of material on topics such as the Bermuda Triangle. They were able to show that some of the pro-paranormal material is often misleading or inaccurate, but its producers continue to market it. Accordingly, they have claimed that the market is biased in favor of books, TV specials, and other media that support the Triangle mystery, and against well-researched material if it espouses a skeptical viewpoint.

Finally, if the Triangle is assumed to cross land, such as parts of Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, or Bermuda itself, there is no evidence for the disappearance of any land-based vehicles or persons.[citation needed] The city of Freeport, located inside the Triangle, operates a major shipyard and an airport that handles 50,000 flights annually and is visited by over a million tourists a year.”””””


12 posted on 08/06/2010 10:45:24 PM PDT by ansel12 (Mitt: "I was an independent during the time of Reagan-Bush. I'm not trying to return to Reagan-Bush")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

I don’t think this theory hols water...


13 posted on 08/06/2010 10:46:28 PM PDT by BigCinBigD (Northern flags in South winds flutter...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

This theory is decades old.


14 posted on 08/06/2010 10:47:00 PM PDT by Moonman62 (Politicians exist to break windows so they may spend other people's money to fix them.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: BigCinBigD

holds ^. Oops...


15 posted on 08/06/2010 10:47:03 PM PDT by BigCinBigD (Northern flags in South winds flutter...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

lol


16 posted on 08/06/2010 10:50:17 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (I am in America but not of America (per bible: am in the world but not of it))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

Drill baby, drill.


17 posted on 08/06/2010 10:53:07 PM PDT by GVnana (I'm a Mama Grizzly)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: BigCinBigD

A stream of bubbles from beneath a ship might be expected to upset the ship, but a bubble large enough to fly intact into the air and strike an aircraft enough to jar it would also generate pretty awesome concentric waves coming out I’d think. If anyone still wonders about it, why not put a satellite or buoys there to watch the water.


18 posted on 08/06/2010 10:54:33 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (I am in America but not of America (per bible: am in the world but not of it))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Oh, the huge manateefarts!


19 posted on 08/06/2010 10:58:30 PM PDT by Attention Surplus Disorder ("No longer can we make no mistake for too long". Barack d****it 0bama, 2009, 2010, 2011.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

Well, the article stated that there was evidence aplenty in the sea floor that such eruptions had happened many times in the past.


20 posted on 08/06/2010 11:00:00 PM PDT by sinanju
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

This theory’s been around long enough I watched a program a couple years ago, where they conducted a test replicating the effect of a (relatively low) percentage rise in the proportion of methane into the air intake to an internal combustion aircraft engine.

The effect was immediate. The engine simply stopped.

A prop airplane flying into a methane cloud rising from the ocean, would simply fall like a stone into the sea.


21 posted on 08/06/2010 11:00:12 PM PDT by Cringing Negativism Network (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RR1fDL7x1Sg)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog
The two hypothesized that large methane bubbles rising from the ocean floor might account for many, if not all, of the mysterious disappearances of ships and aircraft at specific locales around the world.

I'm convinced/s.

22 posted on 08/06/2010 11:01:13 PM PDT by SoldierDad (Proud Papa of two new Army Brats! Congrats to my Soldier son and his wife.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Cringing Negativism Network

Same thing I was going to post. I remember watching a program about this theory almost 10 years ago, and it made sense at the time that I watched it.

Some computer model certainly isn’t more “proof” to me, though.


23 posted on 08/06/2010 11:02:42 PM PDT by Carling (Remember November)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Um, I read about this explanation over 10 years ago is some obscure science journal. Went, “well yeah, duh.”


24 posted on 08/06/2010 11:03:57 PM PDT by piytar (Those who never learned that peace and freedom are rare will be taught by reality.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Republic of Texas

You forgot: And it’s GW Bush’s fault...


25 posted on 08/06/2010 11:05:19 PM PDT by piytar (Those who never learned that peace and freedom are rare will be taught by reality.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck
Maybe a large enough amount of natural gas escaping from the ocean surface in a concentrated area. Could cause aircraft engines to stall or perhaps loose lift and cause crashes? Or maybe even...Explode! There I want a grant to study this some more... ;O)
26 posted on 08/06/2010 11:07:45 PM PDT by BigCinBigD (Northern flags in South winds flutter...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Attention Surplus Disorder

errth fahrts....

so much for cow methane....

either way, its all methane to me.


27 posted on 08/06/2010 11:09:18 PM PDT by himno hero
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: Cringing Negativism Network

The window of combustibility for methane is pretty narrow for concentrations in air (got that factoid from my gas company). If a bit too rich or too lean, just won’t burn. So could see how it might put out an engine.

Against that seems to stand the failure of insurance companies, who actually get and pay claims and know what has been lost and where, to notice the area as any worse risk than the rest of the ocean. Maybe those ocean fissures are very old, as in centuries if not millennia? And Mother Earth has gotten over her Bermuda burps, at least for now?


28 posted on 08/06/2010 11:09:57 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (I am in America but not of America (per bible: am in the world but not of it))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog
Saw a documentary on this about a year ago that said the same thing. As the doc explained it, a large amount of bubbles rise up and there is a resulting lack of buoyancy. The ship drops in the water, the water rushes in and down she goes.
29 posted on 08/06/2010 11:10:23 PM PDT by gunsequalfreedom (Conservative is not a label of convenience.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

Japan is actually working on this. There is a massive deposit of methane hydrate within their territorial waters.

One problem is safely mining the hydrate without dislodging huge chunks of it. As in ENORMOUS chunks. There are other problems. But if the problems can be cracked, there are quadrillion of cubic feet of natural gas available from this source. Actual, hundreds of quadrillions of cubic feet.

PS Yes, really, as in about 300,000,000,000,000,000 cubic feet of know reserves.


30 posted on 08/06/2010 11:11:37 PM PDT by piytar (Those who never learned that peace and freedom are rare will be taught by reality.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: ansel12

I have to stand in the Loyd’s of London circle on this one. They also reported there are other areas with significant losses but all investigated and explainable. But I do believe, geologically speaking, in ocean farts.


31 posted on 08/06/2010 11:13:04 PM PDT by forest153 ("There's a snake in my boot!")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: piytar

So what risks would a methane hydrate-berg pose? Would it proceed to blanket huge areas with gaseous methane near the ground/sea surface?


32 posted on 08/06/2010 11:14:00 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (I am in America but not of America (per bible: am in the world but not of it))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

The ‘eastern’ most point of the triangle sits ‘exactly’ on top of my old watering hole in Fort Lauderdale .. The Elbo Room.

After Years of serious study.. sitting on my favorite stool .. I never noticed any ‘methane bubbles’ but Did see a lot of strange happenings!


33 posted on 08/06/2010 11:16:02 PM PDT by plinyelder ("I've noticed that everybody that is for abortion has already been born." -- Ronald Reagan)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: BigCinBigD

Actually, what it does is lower the density of the water (and further disrupt the surface tension), so the ship simply goes under. The underlying physics is well understood, and frankly pretty basic.


34 posted on 08/06/2010 11:16:23 PM PDT by piytar (Those who never learned that peace and freedom are rare will be taught by reality.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: plinyelder

After thinking it over once more .. Whereas I never saw any of these ‘methane bubbles’ .. I gotta admit .. I May Have smelled a few!


35 posted on 08/06/2010 11:18:44 PM PDT by plinyelder ("I've noticed that everybody that is for abortion has already been born." -- Ronald Reagan)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

The version of the theory I heard, wasn’t methane from “fissures”, rather that the undersea geography specific to that area within the triangle - deep mounds of shallow water sediment, on steep declines from the continental shelf down to the depths - were in effect perfect for generating the undersea equivalent of an avalanche.

The sediment, due to organic matter in the runoff it’s comprised of, sits perched at the edge of that undersea slope - saturated with methane bubbles. A suspension of sorts.

When one of the periodic “avalances” occurs, it released large amounts of methane all at once. Whatever happens to be sailing, or flying immediately above that spot at the moment it happens.

Will for all intents and purposes - vanish. All hands lost, because the water pressures involved in a ship or plane first dropping through low-density gaseous bubble saturated sea water, which then at some point immediately resumes its full density. Would be catastrophic for any humans who went through that.

IMHO the theory is sound. It’s a good explanation for the mysteries. And probably not just theoretical.

Probably happens. Just like the stories say.


36 posted on 08/06/2010 11:19:33 PM PDT by Cringing Negativism Network (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RR1fDL7x1Sg)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck

Well, for one thing, if dislodged, it might melt, resulting in the same type of methane gasses rising to the surface and causing any ships over a wide area to simply sink due to the decrease in buoyancy. We’re not talking a small area, either - think square kilometers. Lots of ‘em.


37 posted on 08/06/2010 11:20:33 PM PDT by piytar (Those who never learned that peace and freedom are rare will be taught by reality.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 32 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Well I’ll be pull my finger..


38 posted on 08/06/2010 11:29:57 PM PDT by rolling_stone
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Interesting as a theory, but if giant methane bubbles actually did sink ships caught in their updraft, there should be at least one or two cases where ships *close* to one of those bubbles noticed something odd happening, even if they weren’t directly in the line of fire.

The gas bubbles can’t aim at passing ships, so if they pop up randomly, there should be at least as many “near misses” as “direct hits”.

The existence of methand hydrate concentrations deep in the ocean is well established, but until I hear of a report of somebody on a ship experiencing such an eruption, I’m dubious as regards their relevance to the sinking of ships.


39 posted on 08/06/2010 11:39:45 PM PDT by Stosh
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

This doesn’ explain compasses going crazy, pilots getting lost and disoriented etc.


40 posted on 08/06/2010 11:40:35 PM PDT by LukeL (Yasser Arafat: "I'd kill for a Nobel Peace Prize")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog
While it sounds plausible, there's an even better explanation for the Bermuda Triangle: the ocean currents.

Remember, this part of the ocean is where the Gulf Stream starts, and the waters east of Florida is where the ocean currents sharply curve from going directly west to going northeast. It is this "curve" in the ocean currents that can rile up strange waves and also cause the weather to go from calm to stormy in a very short period of time, and because of the fast weather and wave changes, small wonder why there has been a lot of mysterious airplane and ship disappearances.

41 posted on 08/06/2010 11:42:04 PM PDT by RayChuang88 (FairTax: America's economic cure)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Cringing Negativism Network
It would explain sinking ships. Planes falling from the sky. Mysterious clouds. Pretty much all of it.

Photobucket

Scoff. But Fester knows better.

42 posted on 08/06/2010 11:44:57 PM PDT by Hardraade (I want gigaton warheads now!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

This has been the accepted theory for about 40 years IIRC. What the hell is new about this story?


43 posted on 08/06/2010 11:48:32 PM PDT by lefty-lie-spy (Stay metal. For the Horde \m/("_")\m/ - via iPhone from Tokyo.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog

Old, old theory...


44 posted on 08/06/2010 11:59:42 PM PDT by TXnMA
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: HiTech RedNeck
the actual shape of these regions as more like a lozenge rather than a triangle

Geometry was not my greatest class but I don't recall a "lozenge" shape. I have had many cough lozenges in my life but they all were different shapes. Squares, rectangles, circles, etc.

Does anyone have a picture of the "lozenge" shape?
45 posted on 08/07/2010 12:01:15 AM PDT by JSteff ((((It was ALL about SCOTUS. Most forget about that and HAVE DOOMED us for a generation or more.))))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Cringing Negativism Network

If they know where these eruption sites are, where are all the wrecks on the bottom?


46 posted on 08/07/2010 12:01:43 AM PDT by TXnMA
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog
Finally we can dispose of all of the other flatulent hearsay.
47 posted on 08/07/2010 12:20:12 AM PDT by oyez (The difference in genius and stupidity is that genius has limits.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog
Aircraft falling victim to these methane bubbles will lose their engines-perhaps igniting the methane surrounding them-and immediately lose their lift as well, ending their flights by diving into the ocean and swiftly plummeting

Methane gas is obviously lighter than water. But is it lighter than air?

My recollection is that a natural gas leak will sink to the floor -- being heavier than air. Thus, there would be no reason whatsoever for an airplane to lose its lift.

48 posted on 08/07/2010 12:34:18 AM PDT by okie01 (THE MAINSTREAM MEDIA: Ignorance on Parade)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: JSteff
"Does anyone have a picture of the "lozenge" shape?"

Diamond shape -- as the red suit in cards...

(1st hit when you Google "lozenge".)

49 posted on 08/07/2010 12:40:20 AM PDT by TXnMA
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 45 | View Replies]

To: smokingfrog
If the Relief Wells on the Maconda Bp well fail, I would like to suggest that we call the new methane spot in the Gulf of Mexico, the Obama Triangle.
50 posted on 08/07/2010 12:43:07 AM PDT by justa-hairyape
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-86 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson