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Earth's Core Has Another Layer, Scientists Claim
LiveScience.com ^ | 12/8/10 | Charles Q. Choi

Posted on 12/08/2010 12:01:06 PM PST by NormsRevenge

What may be a new outermost layer of the Earth's core has been found, geoscientists have revealed.

This discovery could help solve mysteries of the planet's magnetic field, researchers say.

The Earth's core is composed mainly of iron, divided into a solid inner center roughly 1,500 miles (2,440 kilometers) wide covered by a liquid outer layer about 1,400 miles (2,250 km) thick. Even though the bulk of the core is iron, researchers also knew it contained a small amount of lighter elements such as oxygen and sulfur. As the inner core crystallized over time, scientists think this process forced out most of these light elements, which then migrated through the liquid outer core.

Now geoscientists think they have detected all these light elements concentrated in the outermost parts of the core.

"Ever since core structure started to be studied, there were hints of structure there — that's why we looked for it," said researcher George Helffrich, a geologist and seismologist at the University of Bristol in England.

Seismic speed changes

To investigate the core, researchers monitored seismic waves that traveled through its outer layer. The waves were generated by earthquakes in South America and the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and were recorded using arrays of seismometers in Japan and northern Europe.

The speeds at which seismic waves traveled through the outer core at different depths suggest that its composition does not remain the same all the way through. Instead, the uppermost 185 miles (300 km) or so is a distinct structure, with the section nearest the boundary consisting up to 5 percent by weight of light elements.

"The seismic structure we found is hard to deny — the signal is obvious to the eye in the data that we used," Helffrich told OurAmazingPlanet.

(Excerpt) Read more at livescience.com ...


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: catastrophism; core; earth; geoscience; jmarvinherndon; layer; magneticfield; magnetism; poleshift; scientists
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1 posted on 12/08/2010 12:01:09 PM PST by NormsRevenge
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To: NormsRevenge

Wow. This could shake the field of Seismology to the... well, CORE.


2 posted on 12/08/2010 12:03:16 PM PST by WayneS (Enlightened statesmen will not always be at the helm. -- James Madison)
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To: P-Marlowe

Come on, we all know the earth is hollow!


3 posted on 12/08/2010 12:04:44 PM PST by Gamecock
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To: NormsRevenge

“geoscientists have revealed”

Ha. Check the premise. Not “have discovered”, but “have revealed”, like “they knew all along, but they just decided to tell you now”.


4 posted on 12/08/2010 12:05:17 PM PST by Christian Engineer Mass (Leftys who zone in on Palin miss the point. America's not about single figures. That's for NK/Cuba.)
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To: NormsRevenge

That would be the creamy vanilla pudding layer.
yumm!


5 posted on 12/08/2010 12:06:14 PM PST by SparkyBass
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To: NormsRevenge; Gamecock
What's this new layer called? Pellucidar?


6 posted on 12/08/2010 12:06:57 PM PST by Alex Murphy ("Posting news feeds, making eyes bleed, he's hated on seven continents")
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To: NormsRevenge
Yet they still are covering up the existence of hollow earth. You can't trust those scientists, always changing what they believe under the guise of 'new discoveries' or 'expanding knowledge'. What has science done for us in the last 100 years? Sadly, a /sarc tag is needed for some.
7 posted on 12/08/2010 12:07:17 PM PST by mnehring
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To: SparkyBass

It would be the (political) science b/s layer. Miles thick.


8 posted on 12/08/2010 12:07:51 PM PST by Jim Robinson (Rebellion is brewing!! Nuke the corrupt commie bastards to HELL!!)
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To: SparkyBass; NormsRevenge

MMmmmm... caramel and nuget...
Mmmmmmmm.


9 posted on 12/08/2010 12:08:43 PM PST by Darksheare (I shook hands with Sheryl Crow and all I got was Typhus and a single sheet of toilet paper.)
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To: NormsRevenge

Just like ‘Tootsie Roll” or in mystic parlance, “As Above So Below”.


10 posted on 12/08/2010 12:09:56 PM PST by de.rm (Bang, bang, . . bang. Shhh=Bush, the elder, E. Howard Hunt, LBJ, Mrs, Edgar Hoover)
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To: WayneS

Oxygen and Sulfur...
Well that stinks.


11 posted on 12/08/2010 12:13:16 PM PST by DannyTN
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To: Jim Robinson

... and impenetrable! :)


12 posted on 12/08/2010 12:13:44 PM PST by SparkyBass
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To: de.rm

I always hated the tootsie roll commercials.
Everything he saw became tootsie roll.
Serious psychological issue theres.
Next thing you know, he’s chewing on someones arm.


13 posted on 12/08/2010 12:14:25 PM PST by Darksheare (I shook hands with Sheryl Crow and all I got was Typhus and a single sheet of toilet paper.)
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To: NormsRevenge

The aliens living inside the hollow earth dispute this hoax.


14 posted on 12/08/2010 12:16:56 PM PST by Iron Munro (This is our culture; fight for it. This is our flag; pick it up. This is our country; take it back.)
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To: NormsRevenge

It’s hidden in moochie’s caboose.


15 posted on 12/08/2010 12:17:29 PM PST by Carley (ISRAEL.......NOT SO ALONE!!!)
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To: Darksheare
"How about a nice Hawaiian punch?"
16 posted on 12/08/2010 12:17:42 PM PST by de.rm (Bang, bang, . . bang. Shhh=Bush, the elder, E. Howard Hunt, LBJ, Mrs, Edgar Hoover)
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To: Jim Robinson

LOL


17 posted on 12/08/2010 12:18:00 PM PST by Constitution Day
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To: NormsRevenge
Earth's Core Has Another Layer, Scientists Claim

Well obviously, that's where our Global Warming went.

18 posted on 12/08/2010 12:20:15 PM PST by meadsjn (Sarah 2012, or sooner)
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To: NormsRevenge
Whoa, look at the X-Rays.


19 posted on 12/08/2010 12:21:07 PM PST by USS Alaska
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To: NormsRevenge

In foot note 436,it was noted that seismospectographic analysis of the new layer strata strongly hinted at a band of gold interspersed with silver and rubidium.


20 posted on 12/08/2010 12:21:12 PM PST by bert (K.E. N.P. N.C. D.E. +12 .....( History is a process, not an event ))
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To: NormsRevenge
The Earth's core is composed mainly of iron

Probably. But I'd like to know how it got there, from the swirling clouds of hydrogen that sort of clumped together to form the proto-planets I mean.

ML/NJ

21 posted on 12/08/2010 12:25:24 PM PST by ml/nj
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To: ml/nj

From the millions of degrees of heat down there, heat turns hydrogen into iron, just ask Al “baby doc” Gore, it’s just releasing it’s inner Chakra........


22 posted on 12/08/2010 12:31:37 PM PST by sniper63 (Did you plug the hole in the border yet daddy........)
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To: sniper63
Where does all the heat come from?

ML/NJ

23 posted on 12/08/2010 12:38:21 PM PST by ml/nj
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To: ml/nj
From the exploded Super Nova that created our part of this end of the galaxy.

They always have a supply of the heavier elements.

That stuff comes in the form of tiny dust particles in and amongst the gas clouds.

Eventually gravity pulls it back together; it all heats up; the dust particles melt from the heat of gravitational compaction; and suddenly it all settles out with most of the heaviest stuff at the bottom (uranium, gold, iron), and the lighter stuff at the top (silicon, carbon, nitrogen).

From that point on it just takes a bit of time to resettle more of these materials until you get a hard surface crust.

We get the rest of our iron and other heavy metals through collisions with smaller bodies ~ small planets, meteors, moons, space junk, and so on.

24 posted on 12/08/2010 12:39:04 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: NormsRevenge

ping


25 posted on 12/08/2010 12:41:08 PM PST by Wuli
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To: muawiyah
it all heats up

Sure it does!

You don't really beleive this stuff, do you?

ML/NJ

26 posted on 12/08/2010 12:41:21 PM PST by ml/nj
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To: ml/nj

memo to self: Use spell checker even for small posts.


27 posted on 12/08/2010 12:42:29 PM PST by ml/nj
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To: bert
So, the "footnote" ~ does that appear anywhere but at the Nature site?

The accessibility of those bands may well ultimately affect the value of gold and totally debase the stuff.

28 posted on 12/08/2010 12:47:51 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: ml/nj
Of course. Didn't God "look up on the face of the deep" and then He said "Let there be light" ~ that is, electromagnetic radiation of all frequencies ~ and we know if you produce such radiation you can heat stuff up pretty good ~ whether it's at a campfire, a home stove, a giant iron ore smelter, a thermonuclear bomb......

There are so many ways we can take simple "light" to torch stuff I can't begin to list them all.

Now, do you dispute the Bible? Do you doubt that God can make galaxies, suns, planets, layers of post collision melt in the bowels of the Earth?

29 posted on 12/08/2010 12:53:05 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: NormsRevenge

Yes, it does. Fire ants. A very thick layer too.


30 posted on 12/08/2010 12:57:29 PM PST by NonValueAdded (Palin 2012: don't retreat, just reload)
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To: USS Alaska

I suddenly have a craving for Scotch.


31 posted on 12/08/2010 1:01:11 PM PST by Oratam
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To: NormsRevenge

http://paranormal.about.com/od/hollowearth/a/aa022206.htm

Aluminum, Super-sonic, Nazi-hell creatures from the center of the hollow Earth are gonna eat us all...

Ok, maybe not. I just thought I’d throw that out there. ;-)


32 posted on 12/08/2010 1:01:44 PM PST by Dead Corpse (III, Alarm and Muster)
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To: SparkyBass

Now we know where nougat REALLY comes from.


33 posted on 12/08/2010 1:02:34 PM PST by Dead Corpse (III, Alarm and Muster)
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To: ml/nj
Probably. But I'd like to know how it got there, from the swirling clouds of hydrogen that sort of clumped together to form the proto-planets I mean.

The planets weren't formed from 'swirling clouds of hydrogen'. If you are serious you can google and find some nice resources on star and planet formation. Really quite interesting.

34 posted on 12/08/2010 1:02:51 PM PST by SeeSac
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To: NormsRevenge


Frowning takes 68 muscles.
Smiling takes 6.
Pulling this trigger takes 2.
I'm lazy.

35 posted on 12/08/2010 1:04:34 PM PST by The Comedian (Government: Saving people from freedom since time immemorial.)
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To: muawiyah

True.

We are literally made from the dust of stars.


36 posted on 12/08/2010 1:05:20 PM PST by agere_contra (...what if we won't eat the dog food?)
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To: ml/nj
You don't really beleive this stuff, do you?

It's the best explanation so far.

37 posted on 12/08/2010 1:05:27 PM PST by SeeSac
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To: muawiyah
Do you doubt that God can make galaxies, suns, planets, layers of post collision melt in the bowels of the Earth?

I don't pretend to know, unlike most people.

ML/NJ

38 posted on 12/08/2010 1:09:58 PM PST by ml/nj
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To: SeeSac
It's the best explanation so far.

Yeah. Sort of like wondering what keeps airplanes up in the air. One possibility is that the tooth fairy does it; and the other is that planes harness the gravitation forces of extraterestial bodies. One of those is best too.

ML/NJ

39 posted on 12/08/2010 1:13:51 PM PST by ml/nj
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To: ml/nj
Yeah. Sort of like wondering what keeps airplanes up in the air. One possibility is that the tooth fairy does it; and the other is that planes harness the gravitation forces of extraterestial bodies. One of those is best too.

Actually it is because airplane wings deflect particles of the air in a downward motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

40 posted on 12/08/2010 1:16:20 PM PST by SeeSac
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To: ml/nj
Hmmm ~ "pretend to know" ~ all of this comes to me in dreams. I draw on the Overmind ~ don't you?

(I also read books and study, and the whole idea seems to have something to do with gravity and melting temperatures )

41 posted on 12/08/2010 1:21:06 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: mnehring
What has science done for us in the last 100 years?

"But apart from the sanitation, the medicine, education, wine, public order, irrigation, roads, the fresh-water system, and public health, what have the Romans ever done for us?"

42 posted on 12/08/2010 1:22:46 PM PST by antiRepublicrat
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To: SeeSac
"Actually it is because airplane wings deflect particles of the air in a downward motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."

Well, that blows my theory of the wings creating a low pressure bubble that creates lift...
43 posted on 12/08/2010 1:28:30 PM PST by jaydubya2
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To: muawiyah
I also read books and study

Gee. Wow. You read books and study.

Have you ever been asked by any scholars to write papers about this stuff? I have, and it's not my field.

ML/NJ

44 posted on 12/08/2010 1:30:48 PM PST by ml/nj
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To: jaydubya2

I used to believe that too. But winged-flight comes from air displacement, not because of the Bernoulli effect on a shaped wing. This is e.g. why planes can fly upside down.


45 posted on 12/08/2010 1:34:09 PM PST by agere_contra (...what if we won't eat the dog food?)
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To: ml/nj

That was answered about a hundred years ago: from decay of radio active elements in the earth’s core. There’s very little of them, but the core is exceptionally well insulated.


46 posted on 12/08/2010 1:35:07 PM PST by Lonesome in Massachussets (Socialists are to economics what circle squarers are to math; undaunted by reason or derision.)
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To: NormsRevenge

The outer gore where temperatures reach 10 gazillion degrees.


47 posted on 12/08/2010 1:35:38 PM PST by Gene Eric (Your Hope has been redistributed. Here's your Change.)
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To: SeeSac
Actually it is because airplane wings deflect particles of the air in a downward motion.

Some of the lift comes from the air having to run a farther distance over the top of the wing, than the bottom. This creates a low pressure area above the wing, while a higher pressure area is below the wing.

At least in theory, and according to MOST wing design.

I have flown Piper Cherokee's and the wing is symmetrical. So... it's kind of like the Bee can't fly theory.

48 posted on 12/08/2010 1:36:18 PM PST by UCANSEE2 (Lame and ill-informed post)
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To: ml/nj
Hmm ~ and your credentials for wiseacre are....., and .......!

My word ~ a veritable Genius.

We are blinded by your shining brilliance, and say hi to your mom for me ~ tell her NO MORE NOONERS ~

49 posted on 12/08/2010 1:38:14 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: SeeSac
Actually it is because airplane wings deflect particles of the air in a downward motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Well, ...that'll just have to be your little secret. And to think you were bad mouthing others about the missle.

50 posted on 12/08/2010 1:39:35 PM PST by ResearchMonkey (Holding Conservative Country in California.)
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