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Genetic Origin of Cultivated Citrus Determined: ...Evidence of Origins of Orange, Lime, et al
www.sciencedaily.com ^ | 01-26-2011 | Staff

Posted on 01/26/2011 5:47:23 AM PST by Red Badger

Citrus species are among the most important fruit trees in the world. Citrus has a long history of cultivation, often thought to be more than 4,000 years. Until now, however, the exact genetic origins of cultivated citrus such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (C. limon), and grapefruit (C. paradisi) have been a mystery. A team of researchers from China has published a study in the Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science that provides genetic evidence of the origins of a variety species of today's cultivated citrus.

The research team, led by Zhiqin Zhou from Southwest University, analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints -- a technique that has been used successfully to assess the origin of potato cultivars -- with chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence analysis and nuclear internal transcribed spacer. "The combination of nuclear DNA and cpDNA data allowed us to identify the exact genetic origin of the cultivated citrus," they wrote.

The results proved that bergamot and lemon were derived from citron and sour orange, and grapefruit was a hybrid that originated from a cross between pummelo and sweet orange. The data demonstrated that sweet orange and sour orange were hybrids of mandarin and pummelo, while rough lemon was a cross between citron and mandarin. The evidence also confirmed that bergamot was a hybrid of sour orange and citron, with sour orange as the maternal parent and citron as the paternal parent.

"Our molecular evidence presented more convincing data than all other previous studies in supporting the origin of lime," noted the scientists. The data confirmed a species of Papeda to be the female parent and C. medica as the male for mexican lime.

(Excerpt) Read more at sciencedaily.com ...


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; US: Arizona; US: California; US: Florida; US: Texas
KEYWORDS: agriculture; animalhusbandry; gardening; godsgravesglyphs; grapefruit; helixmakemineadouble; huntergatherers; lemon; lime; orange
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IOW, they are or may be man-made................You put the lime in the coconut and dink 'em both up.....
1 posted on 01/26/2011 5:47:27 AM PST by Red Badger
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To: Red Badger

I’d like to know what was the hybridizing technique. Grafting?


2 posted on 01/26/2011 5:52:57 AM PST by decimon
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To: Red Badger

And my favorite meyer lemon.


3 posted on 01/26/2011 5:53:30 AM PST by doodad
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To: decimon

Probably direct stamen to pistil cross pollination............


4 posted on 01/26/2011 5:55:39 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: decimon

Grafting doesn’t mix genes AFAIK. You have to pollinate flowers of one with pollen from the other.


5 posted on 01/26/2011 5:56:56 AM PST by coloradan (The US has become a banana republic, except without the bananas - or the republic.)
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To: coloradan

Hey don’t you think it’s a little early in the morning to be talking about cross pollination.........


6 posted on 01/26/2011 6:03:12 AM PST by Lockbox (`)
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To: Red Badger; coloradan

Don’t bees do that?


7 posted on 01/26/2011 6:03:48 AM PST by decimon
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To: coloradan

Correct.
In fact, you can grow multiple types of citrus fruit on one tree..............


8 posted on 01/26/2011 6:04:56 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: decimon

Only if there are large numbers of both types of fruit near each other.
But then the seeds of the cross pollinated fruit have to be planted, cultivated and matured to fruit bearing age, approximately 7-10 years, so wild cross pollination is seldom “brought to fruition”..........


9 posted on 01/26/2011 6:07:33 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: Red Badger

So in other words, Noah didn’t have to take all varieties of citrus with him on the ark. He only needed 2, one male, one female.


10 posted on 01/26/2011 6:10:10 AM PST by faucetman (Just the facts ma'am, just the facts)
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To: decimon

And that’s why birds do it, bees do it
Even educated fleas do it
Let’s do it, let’s fall in love


11 posted on 01/26/2011 6:10:20 AM PST by ClearCase_guy
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To: faucetman

I consider evolution to be a fairy tale. The concept of “kind” really has great value in explaining how the diversity of life arose after the flood.


12 posted on 01/26/2011 6:12:36 AM PST by ClearCase_guy
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To: ClearCase_guy

This really isn’t “evolution” in the classic sense, it’s plant breeding at it’s finest................


13 posted on 01/26/2011 6:21:40 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: faucetman

I don’t think he took any plants or cultivars other than what was necessary to feed themselves..............


14 posted on 01/26/2011 6:31:36 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: Red Badger

I got interested in this whole topic about the time the orange evolved into the Screwdriver.


15 posted on 01/26/2011 6:34:27 AM PST by Stosh
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To: Red Badger

Are you trying to tell me that citrus wasn’t invented in Anderson’s grocery store in my little home town?


16 posted on 01/26/2011 6:37:00 AM PST by tubebender (The coldest winter I ever spent was a summer in Eureka...)
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To: tubebender

Sorry, ‘bout that chief....................


17 posted on 01/26/2011 6:38:54 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: Stosh

...and the lime evolved into a Margarita...........


18 posted on 01/26/2011 6:39:59 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: decimon
Don’t bees do that?

Birds do it, bees do it,
even monkeys in the trees do it...

19 posted on 01/26/2011 6:49:53 AM PST by null and void (We are now in day 736 of our national holiday from reality. - 0bama really isn't one of US.)
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To: decimon

They do, but with a little less certainty of which pollen goes into which flower than if a person does it. Bees typically go from flower to flower on the same tree, rather than back and forth from tree to tree every time. So they are much less efficient at cross pollination than is a person bent on hybridizing a particular set of strains.


20 posted on 01/26/2011 7:07:45 AM PST by coloradan (The US has become a banana republic, except without the bananas - or the republic.)
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To: Red Badger

Blimey!


21 posted on 01/26/2011 7:13:52 AM PST by bunkerhill7
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To: SunkenCiv

Pollination ping!


22 posted on 01/26/2011 7:28:00 AM PST by FrogMom (No such thing as an honest democrat!)
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To: Red Badger
Probably direct stamen to pistil cross pollination...

Hey, watch the language pal. This is a family forum.


Frowning takes 68 muscles.
Smiling takes 6.
Pulling this trigger takes 2.
I'm lazy.

23 posted on 01/26/2011 8:49:31 AM PST by The Comedian (Obama is just the cherry on top of the $hit sundae of fraud the democrats have become.)
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To: The Comedian

When you’re an angiosperm you have to...............


24 posted on 01/26/2011 8:55:01 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: doodad

Meyer Lemon bump... best, biggest, easiest to grow, for me.


25 posted on 01/26/2011 9:08:45 AM PST by Hop A Long Cassidy
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To: Red Badger
When you’re an angiosperm you have to...


Frowning takes 68 muscles.
Smiling takes 6.
Pulling this trigger takes 2.
I'm lazy.

26 posted on 01/26/2011 9:23:36 AM PST by The Comedian (Obama is just the cherry on top of the $hit sundae of fraud the democrats have become.)
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To: The Comedian

Reminds me of those goats that just drop over.


27 posted on 01/26/2011 9:32:27 AM PST by MHGinTN (Some, believing they can't be deceived, it's nigh impossible to convince them when they're deceived.)
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To: The Comedian

You must be a gymnosperm............


28 posted on 01/26/2011 10:19:45 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: Red Badger
I was going to say something about wood, but decided against it.


Frowning takes 68 muscles.
Smiling takes 6.
Pulling this trigger takes 2.
I'm lazy.

29 posted on 01/26/2011 10:51:16 AM PST by The Comedian (Obama is just the cherry on top of the $hit sundae of fraud the democrats have become.)
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To: Red Badger

While this may not be an example of evolution through natural selection of genetic variation, it is an example of evolution through human selection (and creation) of genetic variation.

The model that they used to derive this ancestry is the same model used to show common ancestry of closely related species.


30 posted on 01/26/2011 10:55:09 AM PST by allmendream (Tea Party did not send the GOP to D.C. to negotiate the terms of our surrender to socialism.)
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To: coloradan
Cross pollination also doesn't “mix genes” (i.e. swap out genes along the chromosome to produce reproductive cells).

Plants are strange in that most successful crossbreeds do not have one half of the DNA of their mother and half of the DNA of their father, but ALL of the DNA of their mother and ALL of the DNA of their father. This allows them to avoid the infertility often associated with crossbreeds; for example a Tigon and/or a Lyger has problems producing viable reproductive cells because when it tries to ‘mix and match’ mom and dads genes along the chromosome, the differences between the Lion chromosome and the Tiger chromosome can often make a mess of things.

31 posted on 01/26/2011 10:59:37 AM PST by allmendream (Tea Party did not send the GOP to D.C. to negotiate the terms of our surrender to socialism.)
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To: coloradan
Cross pollination also doesn't “mix genes” (i.e. swap out genes along the chromosome to produce reproductive cells).

Plants are strange in that most successful crossbreeds do not have one half of the DNA of their mother and half of the DNA of their father, but ALL of the DNA of their mother and ALL of the DNA of their father. This allows them to avoid the infertility often associated with crossbreeds; for example a Tigon and/or a Lyger has problems producing viable reproductive cells because when it tries to ‘mix and match’ mom and dads genes along the chromosome, the differences between the Lion chromosome and the Tiger chromosome can often make a mess of things.

32 posted on 01/26/2011 10:59:48 AM PST by allmendream (Tea Party did not send the GOP to D.C. to negotiate the terms of our surrender to socialism.)
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To: The Comedian

We’ll just let it be in the “cone” of silence............


33 posted on 01/26/2011 11:13:20 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: allmendream

... and to point to how long ago the species diverged from some point. The plants in this case still have wild ancestors available.........


34 posted on 01/26/2011 11:15:27 AM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: FrogMom; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

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Thanks FrogMom for your ping to this zesty topic!

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
 

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35 posted on 01/27/2011 6:29:22 PM PST by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Most welcome! This stuff fascinates me!


36 posted on 01/27/2011 6:33:18 PM PST by FrogMom (No such thing as an honest democrat!)
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To: Red Badger; SunkenCiv

w00t

37 posted on 01/27/2011 7:24:27 PM PST by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: martin_fierro

Proof that environmentalist tree huggers have sex with trees.....


38 posted on 01/27/2011 7:34:38 PM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: SunkenCiv
The evidence also confirmed that bergamot was a hybrid of sour orange and citron, with sour orange as the maternal parent and citron as the paternal parent.

Well, learn something new everyday.

Wild bergamot or Bee balm[1] (Monarda fistulosa) is a wild flower native to North America.[2] This plant is often used as honey plant, medicinal plant, and ornamental plant.[3]

Grows all over the place here.

THIS is what I should have been looking for:

Bergamot orange, citrus fruit used in Earl Grey tea. ... The bergamot orange is unrelated to the herbs of the same name, Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa, which are in the mint family.

I KNEW I was doing something wrong!

39 posted on 01/27/2011 10:12:50 PM PST by ApplegateRanch (Made in America, by proud American citizens, in 1946.)
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To: decimon

Maybe just cross pollination?


40 posted on 01/28/2011 5:30:33 PM PST by Domestic Church (AMDG...)
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To: coloradan

Someone was smart enough to collect the seeds from the sweeter fruit.


41 posted on 01/28/2011 5:33:46 PM PST by Domestic Church (AMDG...)
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To: martin_fierro

offspring of Donald Duck and a blowfish.


42 posted on 01/29/2011 7:40:53 AM PST by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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To: ApplegateRanch

That is interesting, glad you noticed it, I didn’t.


43 posted on 01/29/2011 7:42:54 AM PST by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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To: martin_fierro

44 posted on 01/29/2011 7:50:18 AM PST by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet - Visualize)
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To: Red Badger
Probably direct stamen to pistil cross pollination......

Lets keep this thread 'G' Rated. please.

45 posted on 01/29/2011 7:53:10 AM PST by central_va (I won't be reconstructed, and I do not give a damn.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Not much escapades my notice, even if I do manage-a-trois to manglewurzel half of it.


46 posted on 01/29/2011 12:07:04 PM PST by ApplegateRanch (Made in America, by proud American citizens, in 1946.)
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To: MHGinTN

fainting goats

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iyReSMJw5MI


47 posted on 01/29/2011 6:09:19 PM PST by happygrl
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To: Red Badger

So do oranges come from Orange County California, Orange County Florida, Orange County New Jersey?

Why no Lemon Counties, Grapefruit Counties, Nectarine Counties, etc?

Etc?

I thought the article was going to tell where these plants originated, who modified them and when, how they migrated/spread to current locations.

For example are citrus fruits native to Israel, California, China, Mexico etc?


48 posted on 01/29/2011 6:18:23 PM PST by truth_seeker
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To: truth_seeker

They are native to SE Asia.

You left out Orange County New York.......


49 posted on 01/29/2011 6:42:02 PM PST by Red Badger (Whenever these vermin call you an 'idiot', you can be sure that you are doing something right.)
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To: ApplegateRanch

:’D


50 posted on 01/29/2011 10:17:11 PM PST by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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