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Powering Your Car with Waste Heat
MIT Technology Review ^ | Wednesday, May 25, 2011 | By Prachi Patel

Posted on 05/27/2011 12:06:51 PM PDT by Red Badger

New thermoelectric materials will be tested in BMW, Ford, and Chevrolet vehicles by the end of summer.

At least two-thirds of the energy in gasoline used in cars and trucks is wasted as heat. Thermoelectrics, semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity, could capture this waste heat, reducing the fuel needs of the vehicle and improving fuel economy by at least 5 percent. But the low efficiency and high cost of existing thermoelectric materials has kept such devices from becoming practical in vehicles.

Now researchers are assembling the first prototype thermoelectric generators for tests in commercial cars and SUVs. The devices are a culmination of several advances made independently at thermoelectric device-maker BSST in Irwindale, California, and at General Motors Global R&D in Warren, Michigan. Both companies plan to install and test their prototypes by the end of the summer—BSST in BMW and Ford cars, and GM in a Chevrolet SUV.

BSST is using new materials. Bismuth telluride, a common thermoelectric, contains expensive tellurium and works at temperatures of only up to 250 °C, whereas thermoelectric generators can reach 500 °C. So BSST is using another family of thermoelectrics—blends of hafnium and zirconium—that work well at high temperatures. This has increased the generator efficiency by about 40 percent.

At GM, researchers are assembling a final prototype based on a promising new class of thermoelectrics called skutterudites, which are cheaper than tellurides and perform better at high temperatures. The company's computer models show that in its Chevrolet Suburban test vehicle, this device could generate 350 watts, improving fuel economy by 3 percent.

Fabricating skutterudites, which are cobalt arsenide compounds that are doped with rare earth elements such as ytterbium, is a time-consuming, complicated process, and incorporating them into devices is difficult, says GM scientist Gregory Meisner. The crucial challenge is making good electrical and thermal contacts. The large temperature gradient across the device puts mechanical stress on the contact-thermoelectric interface. Plus, joining the different materials introduces resistance that heats up the contact, degrading the device. "By a suitable choice of materials, you can affect resistance," he says. "The challenge is in arriving at the right formula for materials—both the semiconductor thermoelectric and the contact."


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; Technical
KEYWORDS: automobile; electricity; energy; fuel

Power from heat: A thermoelectric generator that converts waste heat from a car’s exhaust system into electricity could improve fuel economy. Credit: General Motors

1 posted on 05/27/2011 12:06:55 PM PDT by Red Badger
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To: sully777; vigl; Cagey; Abathar; A. Patriot; B Knotts; getsoutalive; muleskinner; sausageseller; ...

Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Ping!.................


2 posted on 05/27/2011 12:07:45 PM PDT by Red Badger (Jesus said there is no marriage in Heaven. That's why they call it Heaven............)
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To: Red Badger
Neat idea.

The crucial challenge is making good electrical and thermal contacts.

Seems to me like the cooling system would be the best place to do this. Either that, or embed high-temperature heat pipes right into the engine block, and put the thermocouples on the outside of the engine.

3 posted on 05/27/2011 12:14:31 PM PDT by r9etb
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To: Red Badger

If this can get perfected and mass produced it could provide more energy per square inch than regular solar cells because solar cells only work with a small amount of em spectrum, where all you would need is a black panel to absorb all light and heat up with this device under it.


4 posted on 05/27/2011 12:16:39 PM PDT by GraceG
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To: Red Badger

Who knew skutterudites are cheaper than tellurides?


5 posted on 05/27/2011 12:21:06 PM PDT by Red_Devil 232 (VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!)
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To: Red Badger

Anyone here own a newer 2010 or 2011 model prius ?

Like ?

Don’t like ?

If ya have a minute......:o)


6 posted on 05/27/2011 12:22:21 PM PDT by Squantos (Be polite. Be professional. But have a plan to kill everyone you meet)
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To: r9etb

Mercury contacts maybe?..............


7 posted on 05/27/2011 12:22:30 PM PDT by Red Badger (Jesus said there is no marriage in Heaven. That's why they call it Heaven............)
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To: Red_Devil 232

The people in Telluride won’t like this.................

http://tellurideskiresort.com/TellSki/index.aspx


8 posted on 05/27/2011 12:25:25 PM PDT by Red Badger (Jesus said there is no marriage in Heaven. That's why they call it Heaven............)
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To: GraceG
If this can get perfected and mass produced it could provide more energy per square inch than regular solar cells because solar cells only work with a small amount of em spectrum, where all you would need is a black panel to absorb all light and heat up with this device under it.

The problem being that thermocouples are very inefficient -- less than 10% of the heat gets converted to electricity.

The article touts a 40% increase in efficiency with the new materials, but when you're only starting out at 5-7% the improved efficiency is still quite low.

9 posted on 05/27/2011 12:27:43 PM PDT by r9etb
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To: r9etb
Gallium would be better than mercury. It has a boiling point of 2204 °C, 3999 °F...........
10 posted on 05/27/2011 12:28:10 PM PDT by Red Badger (Jesus said there is no marriage in Heaven. That's why they call it Heaven............)
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To: Red Badger

Seems like this would work well with a turbo. You could remove the heat, use it as energy, and scavenge the now cool gasses to run the turbo which would allow you to use a smaller displacement engine to produce the same amount of power.


11 posted on 05/27/2011 12:29:05 PM PDT by RC one (DO NOT RAISE THE DEBT LIMIT!)
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To: RC one

I prefer superchargers over turbos..............


12 posted on 05/27/2011 12:31:19 PM PDT by Red Badger (Jesus said there is no marriage in Heaven. That's why they call it Heaven............)
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To: Red Badger

Yeah, let’s hang an extra 1000lbs of this crap on our vehicles instead of drilling here for our own oil.


13 posted on 05/27/2011 12:37:45 PM PDT by Slump Tester (What if I'm pregnant Teddy? Errr-ahh -Calm down Mary Jo, we'll cross that bridge when we come to it)
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To: Red Badger

This makes much more sense than windmills, solar panels, and ethanol.

I just hope there is little, it any, government funding. which will lead the program down a dead end path.


14 posted on 05/27/2011 12:45:41 PM PDT by Balding_Eagle
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To: Red Badger
"...cobalt arsenide compounds...& Yttrium"

Well, THAT certainly sounds Sustainable and Green.

15 posted on 05/27/2011 12:45:41 PM PDT by Paladin2
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To: Red_Devil 232
Who knew skutterudites are cheaper than tellurides?

Well, I've been to Telluride and it certainly was expensive.

16 posted on 05/27/2011 12:47:04 PM PDT by Paladin2
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To: Squantos
'05 VW TDI Jetta Wagons.

They're great!

17 posted on 05/27/2011 12:48:20 PM PDT by Paladin2
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To: GraceG
If this can get perfected and mass produced it could provide more energy per square inch than regular solar cells because solar cells only work with a small amount of em spectrum, where all you would need is a black panel to absorb all light and heat up with this device under it.

That is actually a great idea. You may want to consider a sashimi patent. Quickly. There may also be applications that are more economical from parabolic collectors.
18 posted on 05/27/2011 12:54:49 PM PDT by PA Engineer (SP12: Time to beat the swords of government tyranny into the plowshares of freedom.)
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To: PA Engineer

Sashimi patent?

You mean a SoSumi Patent?...............;^)


19 posted on 05/27/2011 12:57:34 PM PDT by Red Badger (Jesus said there is no marriage in Heaven. That's why they call it Heaven............)
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To: r9etb

When you say cooling system, do you mean as a source or a sink of the thermal energy?

High temperatures are crucial; from the temperatures mentioned they must be going for the exhaust system, where the most waste heat is available at high temperature. This suggests the exhaust system would be the best source.

If they need a sink, I think they’d try to use ambient air for simplicity. Ambient air’s advantage is that it’s cooler than the cooling system (duh!); its disadvantage is that it’s hard to get waste heat into ambient air compared to putting it into the liquid-based cooling system, which itself uses a fairly large liquid-to-air heat exchanger. In fact, if the existing engine cooling system took on the additional waste heat load of the thermoelectric generator, it would have to be made somewhat larger.

Due to thermodynamic considerations, the total (cooling+exhaust) heat rejection has to be at least twice the power output of the engine, in the steady state. Off the top of my head, I don’t have figures on how much of this waste heat the cooling system needs to dissipate; it must be in the tens of kilowatts under most conditions. Also, it would be nice to know exactly how this amount compares to the amount heat given off in the exhaust, which I think is the larger quantity.

Just some idle speculations here.


20 posted on 05/27/2011 1:02:27 PM PDT by Erasmus (I love "The Raven," but then what do I know? I'm just a poetaster.)
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To: Red Badger
Bismuth telluride

That sounds like a ski resort that serves bad food.

21 posted on 05/27/2011 1:05:56 PM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: Red Badger

That too!


22 posted on 05/27/2011 1:08:24 PM PDT by PA Engineer (SP12: Time to beat the swords of government tyranny into the plowshares of freedom.)
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To: Balding_Eagle

Can hardly wait to put a 2-ton Cogen plant where my alternator used to go on my half-ton truck.


23 posted on 05/27/2011 1:12:33 PM PDT by Cvengr (Adversity in life and death is inevitable. Thru faith in Christ, stress is optional.)
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To: Erasmus
When you say cooling system, do you mean as a source or a sink of the thermal energy?

Source -- though I'll grant that the temperature is much lower than at the exhaust. But the cooling system offers a more efficient gatherer of heat from the engine, than just gathering heat from the exhaust.

Depends on the goal, obviously. If you're just trying to use the combustion heat more efficiently, that's a different story.

I think use of heat pipes works well in that environment, though.

24 posted on 05/27/2011 1:12:39 PM PDT by r9etb
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To: r9etb

Then we can mount a cooling tower in the back, make chilled water and hot water for an air handler and control everything with pneumatic controls.


25 posted on 05/27/2011 1:15:24 PM PDT by Cvengr (Adversity in life and death is inevitable. Thru faith in Christ, stress is optional.)
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To: Paladin2

Looked at one, loved it.... but closest dealer is in Lubbock TX .....about 170 miles from me. Not a good thang for warranty work.

Love diesel, have 2 cummins doooges.....need a higher mpg commuter rig.

Thanks for yer time !


26 posted on 05/27/2011 1:25:24 PM PDT by Squantos (Be polite. Be professional. But have a plan to kill everyone you meet)
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To: Cvengr

Ten pounds wrapped around the catalytic converter would do.


27 posted on 05/27/2011 1:48:30 PM PDT by dangerdoc (see post #6)
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To: Red Badger
cobalt arsenide compounds

I can see the sticker on the back of the car now.

'CAUTION..Do not place mouth on exhaust pipe or inhale the fumes.
Especially children under 12 and pregnant women.

28 posted on 05/27/2011 1:50:38 PM PDT by Vinnie
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To: Red_Devil 232
Who knew skutterudites are cheaper than tellurides?

Sometimes the are, sometimes they are not. It depends of where you buy the skutter. If you have a good source, usually on the black market, you can get the price down.

29 posted on 05/27/2011 2:40:26 PM PDT by Mind-numbed Robot (I retain the right to be inconsistent, contradictory and even flat-out wrong!)
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To: Red Badger

Grant magnet


30 posted on 05/27/2011 4:52:28 PM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. N.C. D.E. +12 ....( History is a process, not an event ))
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To: Red Badger
Waste gates, intercoolers, and design improvements have put the turbocharger far above the blower IMO. Blowers use to be the way but I think turbos have proven themselves to be the superior forced air induction system. I can't afford to put either on my hot rod though. :{

I think the trick to fuel economy is in aerodynamics and weight reduction. Thermocouples are interesting and i definitely approve of the R&D but when it gets right down to it, if you build a lighter more aerodynamic car, you will get better gas mileage. Much better. Case in point, my 400 hp corvette gets 28-30 MPG on the highway because it is light weight and extremely aerodynamic. If that big old V8 were replaced by a 150 hp inline four cylinder that weighed a hundred + pounds less, and the ginormous tires were replaced by standard economy car tires that weigh half as much, and the transmission were downgraded by another hundred pounds, I imagine I would be getting around 40+ mpg at 60 mph.

31 posted on 05/27/2011 5:33:47 PM PDT by RC one (DO NOT RAISE THE DEBT LIMIT!)
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To: Slump Tester

They could just put a steam boiler out back in a trailer to power the electric motors.(sarcasm off)
I think you could build a real “flux capacitor” that would press oil out of organic material, use the oil in a(bio)diesel engine and save the pressed organic material for heating and cooling your home. That would be a lot cheaper and less expensive. We could call it “grass and go”. It would sure help the american farmer, as they could produce any oil bearing seeds and save on fertilizer and water.


32 posted on 05/28/2011 6:55:07 AM PDT by Rocketwolf68 (Bring back the crusades)
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To: r9etb

This makes me wonder if developements in this type of technology may modify/improve the energy contributions of something as simple as wood stoves. Jotul ought to be at least examining this.


33 posted on 05/30/2011 7:43:14 AM PDT by MSF BU (YR'S Please Support our troops: JOIN THEM!)
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