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Princeton researchers find that high-fructose corn syrup prompts considerably more weight gain
http://www.princeton.edu ^ | March 22, 2010; 10:00 a.m. | by Hilary Parker

Posted on 10/25/2011 8:59:04 AM PDT by Red Badger

A Princeton University research team has demonstrated that all sweeteners are not equal when it comes to weight gain: Rats with access to high-fructose corn syrup gained significantly more weight than those with access to table sugar, even when their overall caloric intake was the same.

In addition to causing significant weight gain in lab animals, long-term consumption of high-fructose corn syrup also led to abnormal increases in body fat, especially in the abdomen, and a rise in circulating blood fats called triglycerides. The researchers say the work sheds light on the factors contributing to obesity trends in the United States.

"Some people have claimed that high-fructose corn syrup is no different than other sweeteners when it comes to weight gain and obesity, but our results make it clear that this just isn't true, at least under the conditions of our tests," said psychology professor Bart Hoebel, who specializes in the neuroscience of appetite, weight and sugar addiction. "When rats are drinking high-fructose corn syrup at levels well below those in soda pop, they're becoming obese -- every single one, across the board. Even when rats are fed a high-fat diet, you don't see this; they don't all gain extra weight."

In results published online Feb. 26 by the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, the researchers from the Department of Psychology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute reported on two experiments investigating the link between the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup and obesity.

The first study showed that male rats given water sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup in addition to a standard diet of rat chow gained much more weight than male rats that received water sweetened with table sugar, or sucrose, in conjunction with the standard diet. The concentration of sugar in the sucrose solution was the same as is found in some commercial soft drinks, while the high-fructose corn syrup solution was half as concentrated as most sodas.

The second experiment -- the first long-term study of the effects of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on obesity in lab animals -- monitored weight gain, body fat and triglyceride levels in rats with access to high-fructose corn syrup over a period of six months. Compared to animals eating only rat chow, rats on a diet rich in high-fructose corn syrup showed characteristic signs of a dangerous condition known in humans as the metabolic syndrome, including abnormal weight gain, significant increases in circulating triglycerides and augmented fat deposition, especially visceral fat around the belly. Male rats in particular ballooned in size: Animals with access to high-fructose corn syrup gained 48 percent more weight than those eating a normal diet.

"These rats aren't just getting fat; they're demonstrating characteristics of obesity, including substantial increases in abdominal fat and circulating triglycerides," said Princeton graduate student Miriam Bocarsly. "In humans, these same characteristics are known risk factors for high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes." In addition to Hoebel and Bocarsly, the research team included Princeton undergraduate Elyse Powell and visiting research associate Nicole Avena, who was affiliated with Rockefeller University during the study and is now on the faculty at the University of Florida. The Princeton researchers note that they do not know yet why high-fructose corn syrup fed to rats in their study generated more triglycerides, and more body fat that resulted in obesity.

High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose are both compounds that contain the simple sugars fructose and glucose, but there at least two clear differences between them. First, sucrose is composed of equal amounts of the two simple sugars -- it is 50 percent fructose and 50 percent glucose -- but the typical high-fructose corn syrup used in this study features a slightly imbalanced ratio, containing 55 percent fructose and 42 percent glucose. Larger sugar molecules called higher saccharides make up the remaining 3 percent of the sweetener. Second, as a result of the manufacturing process for high-fructose corn syrup, the fructose molecules in the sweetener are free and unbound, ready for absorption and utilization. In contrast, every fructose molecule in sucrose that comes from cane sugar or beet sugar is bound to a corresponding glucose molecule and must go through an extra metabolic step before it can be utilized.

This creates a fascinating puzzle. The rats in the Princeton study became obese by drinking high-fructose corn syrup, but not by drinking sucrose. The critical differences in appetite, metabolism and gene expression that underlie this phenomenon are yet to be discovered, but may relate to the fact that excess fructose is being metabolized to produce fat, while glucose is largely being processed for energy or stored as a carbohydrate, called glycogen, in the liver and muscles.

In the 40 years since the introduction of high-fructose corn syrup as a cost-effective sweetener in the American diet, rates of obesity in the U.S. have skyrocketed, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 1970, around 15 percent of the U.S. population met the definition for obesity; today, roughly one-third of the American adults are considered obese, the CDC reported. High-fructose corn syrup is found in a wide range of foods and beverages, including fruit juice, soda, cereal, bread, yogurt, ketchup and mayonnaise. On average, Americans consume 60 pounds of the sweetener per person every year.

"Our findings lend support to the theory that the excessive consumption of high-fructose corn syrup found in many beverages may be an important factor in the obesity epidemic," Avena said.

The new research complements previous work led by Hoebel and Avena demonstrating that sucrose can be addictive, having effects on the brain similar to some drugs of abuse.

In the future, the team intends to explore how the animals respond to the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in conjunction with a high-fat diet -- the equivalent of a typical fast-food meal containing a hamburger, fries and soda -- and whether excessive high-fructose corn syrup consumption contributes to the diseases associated with obesity. Another step will be to study how fructose affects brain function in the control of appetite.

The research was supported by the U.S. Public Health Service.


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; Government; US: New Jersey
KEYWORDS: cornsyrup; fructose; hfcs; highfructose; nutrition; obesity; sugar; sweetener
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A Princeton University research team, including (from left) undergraduate Elyse Powell, psychology professor Bart Hoebel, visiting research associate Nicole Avena and graduate student Miriam Bocarsly, has demonstrated that rats with access to high-fructose corn syrup -- a sweetener found in many popular sodas -- gain significantly more weight than those with access to water sweetened with table sugar, even when they consume the same number of calories. The work may have important implications for understanding obesity trends in the United States. (Photo: Denise Applewhite) Photos for news media

When male rats were given water sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup in addition to a standard diet of rat chow, the animals gained much more weight than male rats that received water sweetened with table sugar, or sucrose, along with the standard diet. The concentration of sugar in the sucrose solution was the same as is found in some commercial soft drinks, while the high-fructose corn syrup solution was half as concentrated as most sodas, including the orange soft drink shown here. (Photo: Denise Applewhite)

1 posted on 10/25/2011 8:59:12 AM PDT by Red Badger
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To: Red Badger

Duh!


2 posted on 10/25/2011 9:01:27 AM PDT by dfwgator
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To: Red Badger

It’s poison. So is sugar. Treat it as such and you’ll see the fat melt off your body in a few months.


3 posted on 10/25/2011 9:03:26 AM PDT by agrarianlady
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To: Red Badger

It’s really simple.

Sugar is metabolized immediately as an energy booster.
High fructose corn syrup is stored in the body as fat.

I suspect that this study is the reason for all the commercials touting ‘corn sweetener’ as being no different than sugar, from the CORN LOBBY of course.

We, in America are caught between two powerful lobbies in DC. The Corn Lobby and the Sugar Lobby.........


4 posted on 10/25/2011 9:04:31 AM PDT by Red Badger (Obama's number one economics advisor must be a Magic Eight Ball.................)
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To: Red Badger

HA-HA. alcohol causes intoxication is big news too,


5 posted on 10/25/2011 9:05:01 AM PDT by sickoflibs (Cain :"My parents didn't raise me to beg the government for other peoples money")
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To: Red Badger
Word to the wise--food purveyors are starting to use the name "CORN SUGAR" for high fructose corn syrup. If it says "corn sugar", it's high fructose corn syrup.

I wonder if anyone has done studies on the ubiquitious flavor additive citric acid. Is it a coincidence that citric acid is in almost all processed foods, and the RX shelves are full of Previcid, Prilosec, et al?

6 posted on 10/25/2011 9:05:58 AM PDT by Huck (TAX TEA NOW==SUPPORT 9-9-9!)
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.


7 posted on 10/25/2011 9:08:17 AM PDT by loungitude (The truth hurts.)
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To: Red Badger

How do you fatten up hogs? You feed them corn! DUH!!!


8 posted on 10/25/2011 9:08:48 AM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (It's the end of the world as we know it and I feel fine!)
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To: dfwgator

I personally avoid it like the plague. Of course I try to eat less sugar too, but if I want something sweet sugar or better yet fruit etc is better. High Fructose Corn Syrup may not be the only culprit but I have no doubt it’s not good for you. It’s certainly not necessary.


9 posted on 10/25/2011 9:10:55 AM PDT by brytlea (An ounce of chocolate is worth a pound of cure)
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To: Red Badger; FatherofFive

In other news Water is wet and Ice is cold


10 posted on 10/25/2011 9:11:28 AM PDT by verga (I am not an apologist, I just play one on Television)
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To: Red Badger

So, maybe the application of corn starch to the production of fuel grade ethanol isn’t such a bad idead after all.


11 posted on 10/25/2011 9:12:06 AM PDT by Mr. Lucky
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To: Huck

Thabnks for the heads up about Corn Syrup


12 posted on 10/25/2011 9:13:22 AM PDT by verga (I am not an apologist, I just play one on Television)
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To: Red Badger
Blame the government. U.S. protectionist policies led to the increase in prices for cane sugar and the rise in the use of HFCS. The government is complicit in the increase in obesity and the resulting destruction of peoples health just like they are responsible for destruction of our economy.

GOVERNMENT IS THE PROBLEM.

13 posted on 10/25/2011 9:13:30 AM PDT by Prokopton
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To: Red Badger

I blame the democrats and the RINOS with all their “Corn Subsidies” which have made it fashionable for the big agribusinesses who are in bed with government to push their Corn Sugar on everybody and artifically pushing the regular sugar growers (sugar beet and sugar cane) growers out of the market.


14 posted on 10/25/2011 9:16:20 AM PDT by GraceG
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To: Mr. Lucky

It'll clog up the injectors, guaranteed.......

15 posted on 10/25/2011 9:16:38 AM PDT by Red Badger (Obama's number one economics advisor must be a Magic Eight Ball.................)
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To: Prokopton

Wouldn’t it be *sweet* if we could actually sue the people who were at fault here?


16 posted on 10/25/2011 9:17:45 AM PDT by brytlea (An ounce of chocolate is worth a pound of cure)
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To: neverdem

ping


17 posted on 10/25/2011 9:19:52 AM PDT by GOPJ (OWS - a scam to shift blame for unemployment and misery away from Obama..)
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To: Red Badger
In other news, after extensive research and billions of dollars spent, scientists have discovered that removing the head of any living creature may cause death.

Paid for by your tax dollars, of course.

18 posted on 10/25/2011 9:20:47 AM PDT by Mr. Impatient (Have you ever been so far even as decided to use go want to look more like?)
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To: GraceG
...the regular sugar growers (sugar beet and sugar cane) growers out of the market.

The regular sugar growers (sugar beet and sugar cane) growers priced themselves out of the market. Their lobby in DC got their cronies in Congress to basically exclude foreign sugar from the American market in order to maximize their own monopoly. If we paid the 'world price' for sugar, Cokes and candy bars would still be a quarter...........

19 posted on 10/25/2011 9:22:22 AM PDT by Red Badger (Obama's number one economics advisor must be a Magic Eight Ball.................)
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To: Prokopton
[ Blame the government. U.S. protectionist policies led to the increase in prices for cane sugar and the rise in the use of HFCS. The government is complicit in the increase in obesity and the resulting destruction of peoples health just like they are responsible for destruction of our economy. GOVERNMENT IS THE PROBLEM. ]

Obvviously we need MORE GOVERNMENT!!!!

MOAR, MOAR, MOAR!!!


20 posted on 10/25/2011 9:23:21 AM PDT by GraceG
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To: Jack Hydrazine

[ How do you fatten up hogs? You feed them corn! DUH!!! ]
Neighbor used to have a dog that was gettign fatter and fatter even after they cut it’s food down to a cup of dog food a day....

It was sneaking into the hog feeders and eating the ground up corn.

So they made the fence around the hogs higher and the dog got thinner, then around august/september the dog was gainign weight again... They found it going intot he corn field and helping itself.....

Dog had to be kept on a leash.


21 posted on 10/25/2011 9:25:59 AM PDT by GraceG
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To: neverdem; DvdMom; grey_whiskers; Ladysmith; Roos_Girl; Silentgypsy; conservative cat; ...

Ping


22 posted on 10/25/2011 9:30:58 AM PDT by decimon
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To: GraceG

ROFLMAO! Going out to the cornfield to get loaded up, eh?

Put that dog on a leash or get an invisible fence for him.

If he barks to much because it just throw a anti-bark shock collar like this one!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pOn9Ux0-pjo


23 posted on 10/25/2011 9:32:35 AM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (It's the end of the world as we know it and I feel fine!)
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To: GraceG

So, they had a real live ‘Corn Dog’?..................


24 posted on 10/25/2011 9:35:52 AM PDT by Red Badger (Obama's number one economics advisor must be a Magic Eight Ball.................)
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To: agrarianlady

Products with sugar cane are much more healthier for an individual than products with high-fructose corn syrup. Sugar Cane contains magnesium, calcium, and B2. Also, sugar cane is good for for digestion and has less calories than hfc.


25 posted on 10/25/2011 9:38:29 AM PDT by hippyhater
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To: agrarianlady

Products with sugar cane are much more healthier for an individual than products with high-fructose corn syrup. Sugar Cane contains magnesium, calcium, and B2. Also, sugar cane is good for for digestion and has less calories than hfc.


26 posted on 10/25/2011 9:38:42 AM PDT by hippyhater
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To: Red Badger

No worries here mate, I have no rats. :)


27 posted on 10/25/2011 9:39:54 AM PDT by TexasCajun (Fast & Furious , Solyndra & Light Squared would be enough to impeach any White President !!)
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To: dfwgator
Duh!

I know, right.. We already knew that high fructose sugar is the worse.

All foods with sugar, or carb-loaded foods that convert to sugar in the body, will pack on the pounds.
28 posted on 10/25/2011 9:42:01 AM PDT by DivineMomentsOfTruth ("Give me Liberty or I'll stand up and get it for myself!")
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To: Red Badger

Maybe someone can tell us of some sucrose-sweetened food items we can buy. Are there any drinks that are sucrose-sweetened?


29 posted on 10/25/2011 9:44:51 AM PDT by frposty (I'm a simpleton)
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To: frposty

Big Lots! here sell Cokes made in Mexico that are sweetened with sugar not HFCS. They don’t allow it in their foods..............


30 posted on 10/25/2011 9:47:38 AM PDT by Red Badger (Obama's number one economics advisor must be a Magic Eight Ball.................)
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To: Huck
Is it a coincidence that citric acid is in almost all processed foods, and the RX shelves are full of Previcid, Prilosec, et al?

Maybe not, but I would blame wheat (ADM) for the acid problems. Even for people without celiac disease the human stomach just isn't designed to digest wheat easily, and Big Wheat has taken over even more of the food industry than Big Corn. Americans have been put on a routine where they eat a huge pasta dish for dinner, then gulp down Prilosec for dessert as if the wheat-induced acid reflux problem were medical in nature.

I hope this study helps discredit the "Corn Sugar" BS, but I doubt it will make much difference.

31 posted on 10/25/2011 9:47:42 AM PDT by Mr. Jeeves (CTRL-GALT-DELETE)
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To: DivineMomentsOfTruth

I think a lot of people are missing the point. Both sugar and HFCS will pack on the pounds, but HFCS will do it very, very rapidly............


32 posted on 10/25/2011 9:50:34 AM PDT by Red Badger (Obama's number one economics advisor must be a Magic Eight Ball.................)
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To: Red Badger

this has been evident for decades.

the industry first worked on the so-called “high fructose” corn syrup in the ‘50s and ‘60s,

and then a japanese researcher finished the work in the ‘70s.

then they marketed it in “health food” stores to get the upscale consumers.

later, it gained wide acceptance,

ubiquitous in consumer products.


33 posted on 10/25/2011 9:53:43 AM PDT by ken21
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To: stylecouncilor; windcliff

sugary ping....


34 posted on 10/25/2011 9:53:54 AM PDT by onedoug (lf)
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To: frposty

Every now and then Pepsi will put out Pepsi and Mountain Dew sweetened with cane sugar. I think it is called Throwback or something like that. I saw it in the spring at Target.

Re: corn. We grew about 45 acres of corn and after harvest, there were some ears on the ground that had been missed. I went around on the gator with my dogs and picked up a bunch and hubby had them shucked and shelled. We had a huge ice chest filled with corn and he left it at the back of our farm. Stuff came up and we forgot about the corn for about a week. Well, I got back there and lifted the lid, Whoa!!! It had turned to alcohol!!! I dropped the lid down but didn’t lock it and went back up to the barn. When hubby got around to getting to the ice chest to dispose of it about 4 days later, he lifted the lid and not one kernel of corn was left. Best we can figure is that the raccoons and deer had themselves quite a party. And most likely a huge hangover.


35 posted on 10/25/2011 9:58:27 AM PDT by Cowgirl of Justice
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To: Red Badger

[ So, they had a real live ‘Corn Dog’?.................. ]

It was a golden retreiver, seriously it was.


36 posted on 10/25/2011 10:03:49 AM PDT by GraceG
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To: agrarianlady

My grandmother was a dietician, and I’m from a ranching/farming family-there was plenty of fruit from the small orchard, but refined sugar was only found in the occcasional pie or batch of oatmeal cookies. Breakfast was oatmeal or other hot cereal, sweetened with honey-I only saw sugary boxed cereal if I did a sleepover at a friend’s home.

I don’t have a “taste” for sugar, and did not encourage my own cub to do so. As soon as she went off to college and began eating “dorm food”, she gained 20 pounds and has had a sugar craving and an intermittent weight problem ever since.

I avoid processed food, particularly if words ending in “ose” are included in the ingredients-as you say, poison. I’m 5’9” and weigh 108-110, on a small frame. Granted, my business requires physical work, but I believe diet is just as important to maintaining healthy weight.


37 posted on 10/25/2011 10:04:58 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"....)
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To: Cowgirl of Justice

I swear the colas tasted different and better back in the, oh, fifties. Does the fructose-rich sweetener taste a little different from sucrose?


38 posted on 10/25/2011 10:07:18 AM PDT by frposty (I'm a simpleton)
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To: DivineMomentsOfTruth

[ Duh!

I know, right.. We already knew that high fructose sugar is the worse.

All foods with sugar, or carb-loaded foods that convert to sugar in the body, will pack on the pounds. ]

Step 1. Feed Animals like Cows, Chickens, and Pigs Corn

Step 2. Eat those animals instead of Corn.


39 posted on 10/25/2011 10:07:30 AM PDT by GraceG
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To: frposty

I think so. The hfc flavored drinks taste so syrupy to me - I don’t drink them anymore- while the sugar cane sodas taste like they did in the 70s before hfc was used.
You can buy the Mexican cane sugar cokes from cash and carry stores for about $10 for 24 bottles.


40 posted on 10/25/2011 10:20:18 AM PDT by Cowgirl of Justice
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To: Cowgirl of Justice

That is a riot! Sometimes, it will freeze early here when there are still berries on the pyracantha, barberry and other bushes. A few days later, cedar waxwings, titmice and other birds can be seen in the bushes, eating the fermenting berries, screeching and flying erratically for hours.


41 posted on 10/25/2011 10:21:46 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"....)
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42 posted on 10/25/2011 10:22:54 AM PDT by TheOldLady (FReepmail me to get ON or OFF the ZOT LIGHTNING ping list)
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To: agrarianlady

You speak the truth :).


43 posted on 10/25/2011 10:23:06 AM PDT by GOP Poet (Obama is an OLYMPIC failure.)
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To: Red Badger

More corn going to more ethanol production would help eliminate this massive problem.

Added sugar in any form is bad. Dad told us in the 60s don’t eat anything white—sugar, white flour, and salt.


44 posted on 10/25/2011 10:24:19 AM PDT by Neoliberalnot ((Read "The Grey Book" for an alternative to corruption in DC))
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To: agrarianlady

It’s poison. So is sugar. Treat it as such and you’ll see the fat melt off your body in a few months.””

Good ideas. Reducing grain consumption will also help eliminate the epidemic levels of obesity. How do we fatten livestock? What do we feed them?


45 posted on 10/25/2011 10:26:35 AM PDT by Neoliberalnot ((Read "The Grey Book" for an alternative to corruption in DC))
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To: frposty; Cowgirl of Justice

The HFC drinks are icky tasting-even the canned lemonade and such. I don’t drink sodas or other canned or bottled drinks, but I will buy the cane sugar ones for my bro’s kids if they are visiting-Family Dollar out here has the ones from Mexico at a really decent price.


46 posted on 10/25/2011 10:29:09 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"....)
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To: Cowgirl of Justice

You can also buy cans or bottles of Dublin Dr Pepper (cane sugar sweetened) from Beverages Direct. Good stuff!


47 posted on 10/25/2011 10:30:27 AM PDT by windsorknot
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To: Red Badger
It’s really simple.

Sugar is metabolized immediately as an energy booster. High fructose corn syrup is stored in the body as fat.

Let's follow your logic:

Sugar = sucrose. Sucrose = glucose and fructose.
High fructose corn syrup = glucose and fructose.

This being a fact, how can sucrose be metabolized immediately as a source of energy while hfcs is converted to fat? Afrer all, they're comprised of the same two chemicals in almost identical proportions.

Why wouldn't they both be utilized for immediate energy if the body required it? Why wouldn't they both be stored as glycogen if the body didn't have an immediate need for energy? Why wouldn't they both be stored as fat if the body's glycogen reserves were full?

I suspect that this study is the reason for all the commercials touting ‘corn sweetener’ as being no different than sugar, from the CORN LOBBY of course.

Can you explain how glucose and fructose from hydrolyzed sucrose is chemically different than glucose and fructose from HFCS?

48 posted on 10/25/2011 10:42:11 AM PDT by Mase (Save me from the people who would save me from myself!)
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To: Huck
I wonder if anyone has done studies on the ubiquitious flavor additive citric acid

Why would you need to see any studies on citric acid? Citric acid is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables. It serves as a natural flavor enhancer, preservative and acidifier. Why the concern, unless you think lemons, limes and oranges are dangerous?

49 posted on 10/25/2011 10:52:22 AM PDT by Mase (Save me from the people who would save me from myself!)
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To: Texan5

Agreed. I cannot stomach hfc drinks and avoid like the plague. I make cherry or tropical fruit Kool-Aid with white sugar and drink that if I get a craving for a sweet drink.


50 posted on 10/25/2011 10:57:12 AM PDT by Cowgirl of Justice
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