Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

How Lockheed’s Skunk Works Got into the Stealth Fighter Business
GIZMODO ^ | Lt. Col. William B. O'Connor USAF (ret.)

Posted on 04/24/2012 6:41:06 PM PDT by DogByte6RER

How Lockheed’s Skunk Works Got into the Stealth Fighter Business

skunkworks Pictures, Images and Photos

How Lockheed’s Skunk Works Got into the Stealth Fighter Business

How do you hide an airplane behind a bird? Very skillfully. Lt. Col. William B. O'Connor (ret.) flew the F-117 Nighthawk during the Bosnia Conflict, and in Stealth Fighter, he explains the history, operation, and soul America's most advanced stealth jet.

While the United States had never embraced a defensive mindset and had only fielded one strategic SAM system to that point, the Nike-Hercules dating from the 1950s, and one real medium-range tactical system, the HAWK (homing all the way killer), the Soviets had fielded over fifteen different systems. One Soviet SAM system was even armed with nuclear warheads.

It had become clear that there had to be a better way. So in 1974, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated a program known as Project Harvey (named after the 6 feet 3 1/2 inches tall invisible white rabbit from the play of the same name). The ultimate goal was to develop a combat aircraft with as low a radar signature as possible. Five aerospace corporations had been contracted a million dollars each to give it their best shot. Surprisingly, Lockheed hadn't been among them. It was only an accidental tip-off that allowed Lockheed's Ben Rich to lobby for inclusion. Rich had been an engineer on the secret U-2 and SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft and had by then advanced to become Lockheed's successor to the famous Kelly Johnson as director of the Skunk Works. The "Skunk Works" is the official alias for the department responsible for all of Lockheed's highly secret advanced development projects. It was formed in 1943 to build America's first jet fighter, the P-80, and numerous other projects that belong to the shadow world of military operations.

By the time Rich had gotten wind of Project Harvey, there was no money left for another developmental contract. So Lockheed was offered a shot-for a dollar. But Rich wanted in and wisely turned down the token dollar. He knew that any new technologies developed with company funds would then be proprietary. Lockheed was famous for building small fleets of extremely advanced aircraft-often used for highly secretive missions. During World War II, they had built the United States' first operational subsonic jet fighter, the P-80. They skipped the Mach-1 era altogether and jumped right to fielding the United States' first fighter capable of speeds in excess of Mach 2, the F-104 Star Fighter. Along the way came the high-flying U-2, the higher-flying SR-71, the hypersonic D-21 drone (which would ride piggyback on an SR-71 until released), and other things not yet named.

In Rich's own words, the unsung hero of Lockheed's effort was an anonymous staff mathematician and electrical engineer named Denys Overholser. Overholser and his mentor, another mathematician named Bill Schroeder, had discussed the possibilities of utilizing some of the equations associated with optical scattering (how electromagnetic waves bounce off variously shaped objects) on this project. Both had the rather odd hobby of reading obscure Russian mathematics papers and had made the ultimate "nerd's nerd" discovery. They had stumbled across a paper published in Moscow a decade earlier titled "Method of Edge Waves in the Physical Theory of Diffraction." It had been written by Pyotr Ufimtsev, the Soviet's chief scientist at the Moscow Institute of Radio Engineering and the last in a long line of scientists developing a long series of wave equations originally derived centuries ago by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell.

The U.S. intelligence community had helped translate this research and brought it to the West. The paper was in no way classified or related to weapons development at all. It was purely theoretical math. Years later, Ufimtsev immigrated to the United States to teach at the University of California, Los Angeles, and only then discovered his inadvertent contribution to the development of stealth aircraft.

The equations that Ufimtsev had developed made the reflections of radio waves off hard surfaces predictable. Not invisible, transparent, or tactical in any way-just predictable. The problem for Lockheed was that the calculations were so ferociously difficult that the most advanced supercomputers in the world at the time could only compute results for flat surfaces. Any attempt to perform the calculations for the curved surfaces you would find on a conventional aircraft-well, those machines would still be grinding away toward a solution today.

Schroeder recognized how these equations could be applied to Lockheed's current project. The solution was not even to attempt to design an aircraft with any curved surfaces, but to build one with dozens, or perhaps hundreds, of individual flat triangular and rectangular plates. Then the challenge was to compute the reflection from each and every flat surface before adding them all together to build a picture of the aircraft's total radar signature. Once you knew where every bit of radar reflection was coming from, you could then reorient those individual plates so that the reflection would go off in a direction away from the radar looking at it.

The process became known as "faceting." And that became the real secret-not to absorb all the radar or make the plane somehow transparent, but to make the plane's signature predictable. That predictability could then be used to shape a tactically useful aircraft. The jet would also be covered in thin sheets of RAM, but the bulk of the stealth effect was achieved by its shape.

Traditionally, a single engineering specialty will take the lead during the design of a new aircraft. An aerodynamicist may be in charge of pushing through a new wing or fuselage shape, as happened with the early delta wings and area-ruled fuselages of the "Century Series" of interceptors. Sometimes it may be the power-plant guy: "Here's the engine we're going to use, build us a jet fighter for it." This is how the P-80 came about. Occasionally it may be the armaments people- the A-10 is fundamentally a massive 30mm Gatling cannon with a plane built around it. In this particular case, this was the first time the lead was owned by an electrical engineer.

The computer program designed by Overholser's team to make these calculations was called Echo- 1. Armed with that tool, the first test subject, the Hopeless Diamond, was built. It was described as a diamond for obvious reasons and "hopeless" for its aerodynamic qualities (or rather, its complete lack thereof).

Early radar testing of the Hopeless Diamond turned out to be staggeringly successful. The White Sands experimental radar range near Holloman AFB was used. When the radar was fired up for the initial testing, the only thing that showed up was the reflection of the pole on which the test model was supposed to be mounted. Assuming that the model had fallen off the pole, the radar operators sent technicians downrange to fix the problem. To their surprise, the ten-foot model was still in place.

To test the model at all, Lockheed then had to design an invisible "stealth pole" to mount the model utilizing the same technology as the proposed fighter. The results were once again astounding, and incredulous USAF officials were called in to witness and verify the data.

The first opportunity to impress these officials almost resulted in embarrassment. When the radars were turned on, the reflections, while still very small by airplane standards, were orders of magnitude larger than what the USAF officials had been led to expect. They could still clearly see a small radar return from where the model was mounted.

While the Lockheed engineers were trying to explain this discrepancy, a radio call came in from a technician downrange. He reported that a bird was perched on the ten-foot model. The quick reply was an order to blow the horn of the pickup truck the guy was sitting in. As the startled bird flew away, the radar reflection on the test scope disappeared.

The very idea that a combat aircraft could be made so invisible as to hide behind a bird was an opportunity that couldn't be passed up. Everything associated with the program became classified at the highest levels. The program was transferred from DARPA to the USAF special projects office. The word "stealth" was forbidden to be mentioned in any unclassified document. And in April 1976, the Ford administration gave Lockheed the go-ahead for a full-scale aircraft. The Skunk Works was officially in the stealth fighter business.


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Foreign Affairs; Government; Miscellaneous; US: California
KEYWORDS: aerospace; area51; aviation; burbank; cia; coldwar; darpa; defense; dod; f117; f117nighthawk; hopelessdiamond; kellyjohnson; lockheed; militaria; military; skunkworks; sr71; stealth; topsecret; u2; usaf
stealth fighter dusk Pictures, Images and Photos
1 posted on 04/24/2012 6:41:12 PM PDT by DogByte6RER
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

What is that?

Impressive.


2 posted on 04/24/2012 6:44:07 PM PDT by Mears (Alcohol. Tobacco. Firearms. What's not to like?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Mears
F-117 Nighthawk Pictures, Images and Photos F-117 Nighthawk
3 posted on 04/24/2012 6:50:40 PM PDT by DogByte6RER ("Loose lips sink ships")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

The P-80 wasn’t the first US jet fighter. P-59 Airacomet would be the first.


4 posted on 04/24/2012 6:53:01 PM PDT by donmeaker (Blunderbuss: A short weapon, ... now superceded in civilized countries by more advanced weaponry.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Mears

Looks like a 117 to me. They are impressive.


5 posted on 04/24/2012 6:54:31 PM PDT by Cyber Liberty (Obama considers the Third World morally superior to the United States.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER
DARPA has given the best ROI on my tax dollars of any program. Ever.

/johnny

6 posted on 04/24/2012 6:56:38 PM PDT by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

I saw an F-117 at an airshow back in 1998 or 1999. I walked two or three times around it trying to figure out where the exhaust was. When I finally zeroed in on the answer, I couldn’t believe my eyes.


7 posted on 04/24/2012 6:58:03 PM PDT by Steely Tom (If the Constitution can be a living document, I guess a corporation can be a person.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

Thanks for this history lessen! Good interesting read.


8 posted on 04/24/2012 6:59:13 PM PDT by Red_Devil 232 (VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Red_Devil 232

Anyone interested in this should hit Amazon ASAP for the book “Skunk Works” by Lockheed’s Ben Rich. It’s an amazing look at a piece of our history.


9 posted on 04/24/2012 7:02:33 PM PDT by Norm Lenhart
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

GREAT article - thanks for posting!


10 posted on 04/24/2012 7:07:06 PM PDT by Slump Tester (What if I'm pregnant Teddy? Errr-ahh -Calm down Mary Jo, we'll cross that bridge when we come to it)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Norm Lenhart

I concur... Not only for the F-117, but the SR-71 as well... The explanation of the “plunger” in the engine intake that allowed the aircraft to operate at high speeds and altitudes is incredible. Skunk Works is a book for anyone interested in military/aviation history.


11 posted on 04/24/2012 7:09:51 PM PDT by cliniclinical (space for rent)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: cliniclinical

The 71 is my favorite thing in existence. My daughter worked on the 117 and said it’s more incredible than people will ever know ;)


12 posted on 04/24/2012 7:14:06 PM PDT by Norm Lenhart
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER
[...] originally derived centuries ago by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell.

Well, make that a century and a half. Maxwell's first paper on it was in 1864, IIRC. Oliver Heaviside recast them into modern form twenty years later.

One of the great breakthroughs in the history of Science occurred when Maxwell intuitively inserted a term into one of his equations (the one for the magnetic field) to be symmetrical with the other one (for the electric field). He did this on aesthetic grounds, without any immediate empirical evidence for its inclusion.

However, it gave him a pair of equations that allowed him to predict the existence of a wave, traveling through space, that was composed of both electric (electrostatic) and magnetic fields which reinforced each other and therefore sustained the wave for indefinite distances.

The equations included two constants for the characteristics of the medium through which the wave was travelling; and the speed of the wave was dependent on these two characteristics. (Technically, they are known as the 'dielectric permittivity' and the 'magnetic permeability.')

These had been previously been determined for a vacuum. When they were substituted into Maxwell's equation for the velocity of his hypothetical 'electromagnetic' wave, it gave another value that was already empirically known: the speed of light.

So, on the basis of Maxwell's inspired guess as to the form of his equations, he was soon able to postulate with some confidence that light itself was an electromagnetic wave.

And soon after Heaviside reformulated Maxwell's equations, a young Heinrich Hertz demonstrated how to produce and detect EM waves of practical dimensions much longer than those of light: Radio waves.

13 posted on 04/24/2012 7:20:18 PM PDT by Erasmus (BHO: New supreme leader of the homey rollin' empire.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Steely Tom

When I first saw one in a static display, they had black painted plywood sheets over the exhaust. Armed guards and roped off too.


14 posted on 04/24/2012 7:20:37 PM PDT by doorgunner69
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER
I met Denys Overholser while an engineer with GE Aircraft Engines in Cincinnati, Ohio. He and my boss, Don Foreman (now deceased) were good friends. Don was also somewhat of a stealth pioneer.

I also worked with the original F-117 wing commander, Colonel Robert Jackson while at General Dynamics - though I didn't know his background at the time (He had retired a few years earlier). I didn't find out his connection with the F-117 until The History Channel did a weeklong series on Stealth Technology (about 10-12 years ago) and interviewed him. He was also a former Thunderbird Pilot. Turns out I had a brochure that I had save from an airshow when I was about 8 years old. It had his picture in it. That brought a lot of smiles when I passed it around the office.

Also, the article mentions a test range in White Sands. That was likely the RATSCAT facility near Alamogordo. RATSCAT. Spent 3 weeks there back in the 80s. Clearest night sky I've ever seen.
15 posted on 04/24/2012 7:29:32 PM PDT by tang-soo (Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks - Read Daniel Chapter 9)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Mears

That’s the F117!


16 posted on 04/24/2012 7:31:31 PM PDT by dalereed
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: doorgunner69

Kind of a side note but the last year they were at Holloman I got to take a tour of the ‘test cells’ where they work on the engines. Being a gearhead it was like going to Nirvana.

Imagine ‘walls’ of Snap-On tool rack/cabnets and clean room style working conditions. I quickly understood why that little toy cost so much. But the really funny part was the drawers full of ‘modified’ tools the crew came up with to actually get work done ;)


17 posted on 04/24/2012 7:31:41 PM PDT by Norm Lenhart
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: Norm Lenhart

That’s pretty awesome... Flying math... Sat through a lecture during open cockpit day at Castle AFB with a sled-driver... Stellar bird! It had not dawned on me until then that max speed and altitude where a function of weight. Thrust levers were essentially at the detents and as fuel was consumed, the aircraft climbed and increased in speed. They essentially ran out of fuel before they ever hit the maximum possible speed and altitude.


18 posted on 04/24/2012 7:31:48 PM PDT by cliniclinical (space for rent)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: cliniclinical

I think it’s interesting that so much of that plane’s abilities are still classified.

“Sled Driver”...now there’s a book I want in the worst way. I love the stories on that plane posted here on FR from time to time and available on the net. The story about the ‘altitude check’ is hilarious.

Also, My daughter and I stopped at the Tucson museum on a trip. She had never seen a 71 in real life. For all her time with the 117, she still stood there slack jawed when she realized that they built that thing with slide rules and 1950s tech.


19 posted on 04/24/2012 7:38:29 PM PDT by Norm Lenhart
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER; Cyber Liberty; dalereed

Thanks all.

God,I’d love to go out for a “spin” in that.


20 posted on 04/24/2012 7:38:39 PM PDT by Mears (Alcohol. Tobacco. Firearms. What's not to like?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Norm Lenhart
Anyone interested in this should hit Amazon ASAP for the book “Skunk Works” by Lockheed’s Ben Rich. It’s an amazing look at a piece of our history.

Bump. Stealth came from the Soviets! But the Ruskies were too stupid to know what they had. Capitalism vs. Communism. (tagline brought ot you by...the Soviets)

21 posted on 04/24/2012 7:48:18 PM PDT by VRW Conspirator (Article 58)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

What a GREAT story! We used to be so aggressive and open and innovative.

Nowadays we end with turds like the F35.


22 posted on 04/24/2012 7:53:02 PM PDT by freedumb2003 ('RETRO' Abortions = performed on 84th trimester individuals who think killing babies is a "right.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER; Cyber Liberty; dalereed

That F-117 is quite a bit sharper than the DC-3 that I had my first flight on in 1955.

I thought I was so cool and was treated like a queen.


23 posted on 04/24/2012 7:53:15 PM PDT by Mears (Alcohol. Tobacco. Firearms. What's not to like?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: freedumb2003

The 35 is really an awesome plane. The problem is Unions and committee decisions are killing it. As a pure piece of tech, it’s great.


24 posted on 04/24/2012 7:56:10 PM PDT by Norm Lenhart
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 22 | View Replies]

To: Norm Lenhart

>>The 35 is really an awesome plane. The problem is Unions and committee decisions are killing it. As a pure piece of tech, it’s great.<<

It was... it was... :(

The current F35 exemplifies the definition of a camel as a mouse built to government specifications.

Can you imagine the result if the F15, A10 or ST71 had committees and agendas running roughshod on them? None would have had the mastery of their respective spaces (and I shiver to think the still-best MRFs F/16 and (S)F/18 would have ended up.

We lost our way. The killing of the F-117 is the best example of just how bad it has become.


25 posted on 04/24/2012 8:06:44 PM PDT by freedumb2003 ('RETRO' Abortions = performed on 84th trimester individuals who think killing babies is a "right.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: freedumb2003

Totally agree.

“The current F35 exemplifies the definition of a camel as a mouse built to government specifications.”

That is the perfect description of the situation. Going back to the Skunk Works book, sure there was typical govt red tape, but those guys, like you were getting at, had none of the BS of today. They refused to deal with it. Heck, the very way Kelly Johnson set up the SW was to eliminate the BS. And the results spoke for themselves.
Hell, the dude grabbed a plane, flew around until he found a big enough dry lake, made a call and had Area 51 built in a few months. No eco impact reports, union contracts et all required.

Indeed we have lost our way.


26 posted on 04/24/2012 8:18:07 PM PDT by Norm Lenhart
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: Mears

its Have Blue... :)


27 posted on 04/24/2012 9:04:56 PM PDT by ColdSteelTalon (Light is fading to shadow, and casting its shroud over all we have known...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

I never worked at the Skunk Works, but I had friends that did. I worked at Northrop ASD on the development of the B-2 Bomber (also stealth).

FYI I also worked on the Nike Hercules missle system (since it was mentioned in the article).


28 posted on 04/24/2012 9:10:01 PM PDT by Crazy ole coot (Mr. obama and Sen. Rubio are NOT Natural Born Citizens.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

“The Skunk Works” by Ben Rich, dog-eared as the book is , remains one of my favorites.

The excerpts from a Desert Storm F-117 pilot detailing the first night of hostilities over Baghdad is descriptive beyond all.....he knew he was going to survive when bat carcasses where littered around the aircraft as it sat in the revetment.

Read the chapter on Kelly Johnson’s management principles (his 15th rule).

Outstanding text.


29 posted on 04/24/2012 9:22:09 PM PDT by LFOD (Formerly - Iraq, Afgahnistan - back home in Dixie.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: donmeaker

operational


30 posted on 04/24/2012 10:03:04 PM PDT by A.A. Cunningham (Barry Soetoro is a Kenyan communist)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: DogByte6RER

That’s one of our birds from the 410th Flight Test Squadron.


31 posted on 04/24/2012 10:12:18 PM PDT by SZonian (Throwing our allegiances to political party's in the long run gave away our liberty.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Mears
What is that?

It's Sandra Fluke's personal jet.

32 posted on 04/25/2012 4:36:07 AM PDT by JRios1968 (I'm guttery and trashy, with a hint of lemon. - Laz)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: tang-soo

I was in ROTC summer camp at Holloman AFB in 1976. We got to visit the RATSCAT facility. As I remember, I saw models of B-1B aircraft among others. There was another Flight from our ROTC camp that went to visit the RATSCAT on a different day - I was told that when they showed up, they had to wait in their bus for a while as technicians scrambled to cover up some models. I believe there was a scheduling mistake. Only years later did it occur to me that they were testing early models of Stealth designs at that facility while I was there.


33 posted on 04/25/2012 5:17:36 AM PDT by MrTed ("...at the name of Jesus, every knee will bow...", will it be before or after one's death?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: Norm Lenhart

The lecturer was the author of Sled Driver and retold the altitude check story - I think that it included a speed check as well...


34 posted on 04/25/2012 8:19:42 AM PDT by cliniclinical (space for rent)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: MrTed
Yeah - many models tested at RATSCAT were visually classified. I heard they had info from NORAD that provided schedules for when soviet satellites were overhead, so for highly classified testing, they could cover up the model. About the time I was there, I found out after the fact that a new facility was under construction named, I think RAMS (another acronym for which I can not remember the meaning). I heard it described as a real James Bond type facility with a massive elevator that dropped the testing model and 80 ft mounting (they called it a sting) device underground with the push of a button. Would have like to see that.

You likely also passed the "Sled" - a high acceleration device used to test pilots exposure to high acceleration. It was pretty awesome, though we never saw it under operation.
35 posted on 04/25/2012 8:56:22 AM PDT by tang-soo (Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks - Read Daniel Chapter 9)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: tang-soo

By “Sled” do you mean the rocket sled track. Its been long enough my memory is fuzzy, but I know we saw at least one “shot” on the track while I was at ROTC camp. Can’t remember if it was just a rocket test or an ejection seat test. (Saw so many videos/tapes over the years can’t remember what was “Live” and what was “Memorex”!!) Seem to remember we were there for a test shot when the test was cancelled/aborted for technical reasons. Been a lifetime ago.


36 posted on 04/25/2012 11:41:19 AM PDT by MrTed ("...at the name of Jesus, every knee will bow...", will it be before or after one's death?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: MrTed

Yes - that’s what I meant. By the way, the British/Falklands war was going on about that same time (early to middle 80s). I know the Brits took a significant hit on one of their battle ships (i think maybe the only real threat the Argentians mustered during the conflict). Later, they made some design changes on their hull and wanted to test the difference. My understanding is they mounted a simulated hull at the end of the sled and “launched” a dummy missile at it. Real Myth Busters kinda stuff. Loved to have seen that.


37 posted on 04/25/2012 1:39:55 PM PDT by tang-soo (Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks - Read Daniel Chapter 9)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 36 | View Replies]

To: tang-soo

Given the current state of things, the Brits could be back at it with Argentina. Our President hasn’t (won’t?) help things.


38 posted on 04/25/2012 1:57:47 PM PDT by MrTed ("...at the name of Jesus, every knee will bow...", will it be before or after one's death?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: MrTed

Yeah, I thought of that as i was writing.


39 posted on 04/25/2012 2:17:37 PM PDT by tang-soo (Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks - Read Daniel Chapter 9)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 38 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson