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Could a Changing Climate Set Off Volcanoes and Quakes?
Yale University Enviornment 360 ^ | May 7, 2012 | Fred Pearce

Posted on 05/07/2012 11:45:01 PM PDT by bd476

07 May 2012: Analysis

Could a Changing Climate Set Off Volcanoes and Quakes?

A British scientist argues that global warming could lead to a future of more intense volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. And while some dismiss his views as preposterous, he points to a body of recent research that shows a troubling link between climate change and the Earth’s most destructive geological events.

by Fred Pearce

Geological disasters might influence climate, for instance when volcanic debris blots out the sun. But climate cannot disrupt geology. Right? Well, actually no, says a British geologist Bill McGuire, in a troubling new book, Waking The Giant: How a Changing Climate Triggers Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Volcanoes.

There is, McGuire argues, growing evidence to incriminate changing climate in the planet’s most destructive geological events. Melting ice sheets and changes in sea level can, he maintains, set off the largest earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Indeed, thanks to climate change, a human hand may already be at work. Potentially, McGuire’s argument adds a whole new dimension to why we should be worried about climate change.

The most solid evidence for climatic influence on geology comes from the end of the last ice age, around 12,000 years ago, says McGuire, who is a volcanologist and professor of geophysical and climate hazards at University College London. Analysis of volcanic deposits, published in the past decade by several authors, has found that this period of rapid climate change, when ice sheets retreated from much of the planet, coincided with a sudden outburst of geological activity. The incidence of volcanic eruptions in Iceland increased around 50-fold for about 1,500 years, before settling back to previous levels.

What happened? McGuire makes the case that during the long preceding glaciation, the weight of ice some two kilometers thick over Iceland maintained high pressures underground that kept magma at the root of volcanoes solid and suppressed eruptions. But as the ice melted, the huge

‘Volcanoes can be incredibly sensitive to tiny changes to their external environment,’ McGuire says.
weight was released and the land surface lifted, sometimes by hundreds of meters. This reduced the pressure below. He cites Freysteinn Sigmundsson at the Nordic Volcanological Center at the University of Iceland in Reykjavik, who says: “Reduction of pressure enabled mantle rocks to melt, creating a zone of magma upwelling underneath Iceland.” Magma production increased 30-fold – that magma, the argument goes, burst out in a spectacular epidemic of volcanic eruptions.

Similar, though less pronounced, surges in volcanic activity occurred at that time across much of the planet, wherever large ice sheets or small tropical glaciers melted, says Hugh Tuffen, a volcanologist at the University of Lancaster in England. From the Eifel mountains of Germany to the Chilean Andes, and from California to Kamchatka, volcanoes were awakened, says McGuire, who chaired a conference on climate change and geology at the Royal Society in London in 2009.

While the planet’s volcanoes have been relatively peaceful during the long stable climate since then, McGuire warns that we need to watch out as the world starts to warm once more. “Volcanoes can be incredibly sensitive to tiny changes to their external environment, constantly teetering on the edge of stability,” he says.

Defrosting the planet’s cold regions has for some years been implicated in a range of “natural” disasters. The rapid melting of glaciers creates dangerous lakes of meltwater, perched high in the valleys of the Himalayas and Andes.

Some geologists have expressed skepticism about any immediate cause for concern.
Thawed soil unleashes landslides. Christian Huggel, a geographer at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, found in a study of mountain slope failures in Alaska, New Zealand and the European Alps that “all the failures were preceded by unusually warm periods,” lasting days or weeks. There are also concerns that warming will release the potent greenhouse gas methane from permafrost and continental shelves, creating a dangerous feedback to global warming itself.

But McGuire is talking about changes deep in the Earth’s crust, caused by the lifting or imposing of the weight of ice and ocean water at the surface. And the concern relates to earthquakes as well as volcanoes. For earthquakes, the evidence points to changes in sea levels, as well as the melting of ice.

Many geological fault lines are on a knife-edge, awaiting any nudge to send their seismic mayhem to the surface, says McGuire. His University College London colleague Serge Guillas has found that, over the past 40 years, El Nino cycles in the tropical Pacific Ocean have triggered a regular seismic response as the pressure of water has changed with short-term sea level fluctuations. There are more earthquakes in the eastern Pacific in the months after the cycle lowers sea levels in the area by a few centimeters, which flexes the plates beneath.

A 2009 study co-authored by Selwyn Sacks, a geophysicist at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C., concluded that something as seemingly insignificant as low atmospheric pressure in the heart of typhoons was sufficient to trigger slow earthquakes in strata east of Taiwan.

Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption 2010
Smoke billowing from Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull after
its eruption in 2010 grounded transatlantic flights
for a week.

The evidence from volcanoes of short-term influences is even more startling. According to Oxford University geologists Ben Mason and David Pyle the planet has volcanic seasons. In the Northern Hemisphere, eruptions happen most frequently between November and April. The reason, they say, is shifts in water round the globe. This movement of water slightly squashes or releasing the land beneath, at times pushing magma to the surface rather like toothpaste in a tube.

Some researchers are unconvinced by all this. When the journal Nature published a short report on McGuire’s Royal Society meeting, the first anonymous online comment began: “This has to rank as one of the most preposterous warming scare articles of the new century.”

None of the climate scientists I contacted felt competent to comment on McGuire’s ideas. But some geologists have expressed skepticism about any immediate cause for concern. Roland Burgmann of the University of California, Berkeley did not want to add to a statement he made five years ago that “it would take a long time” for sea level rise to trigger seismic activity.

McGuire is keen to underline that his message “is not intended as a speculative rant.” He is simply reviewing the voluminous literature already in the public and peer-reviewed domains. He makes a point of dismissing talk that climate change might have caused the Sumatra earthquake that triggered devastating Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 as “clearly nonsense.” But he insists that “people who find the idea [of climate change triggering geological events] flaky don't appreciate that the link between abrupt climate change and a response from the solid Earth is supported by huge amounts of research.”

So how scared should we be? The short answer is nobody knows. While clearly some geological responses to surface events could occur fast, others could take thousands of years to emerge.

One place we might expect trouble is Iceland, the scene of the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull two years ago. Its smoke billowing across flight paths

The world of climate science has so far failed to acknowledge these new potential hazards.
grounded transatlantic flights for a week. Nobody is blaming that eruption on climate change, but the island’s ice cap has been thinning for more than a century now. In response, the land surface is rising, often by more than 20 millimeters a year. This is still an order of magnitude less than the rates at the end of the last ice age, but Sigmundsson says it nonetheless creates “highly significant” pressure release — and new magma ready for ejection.

There are other dormant volcanoes and quiescent fault-lines lurking beneath the thick ice caps over Greenland and Antarctica. Andrea Hampel, a geologist at Leibniz University in Hanover, Germany, warns that the subdued geology in both places today is likely caused by the presence of large ice sheets. “Shrinkage [of the ice] owing to global warming may ultimately lead to an increase in earthquake frequency in these regions,” she predicted in a paper published two years ago. “This effect may be important even on timescales of 10 to 100 years.”

Tuffen, of the University of Lancaster, agrees. He points out that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is set to thin by 150 meters by 2100, potentially waking dormant volcanoes. Other volcanoes in the firing line, he says, could include Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia and Cotopaxi near Quito, the capital of Ecuador.

We could already be seeing a resurgence of earthquakes. McGuire admits there is no certainty about any link, but he points out that there has been “an unprecedented cluster of massive earthquakes” in recent years. Since 1900, the world has been struck by seven “super-quakes,” with a magnitude exceeding 8.8. While only one of them occurred in the first half of the 20th century, three more came in the second half, and there have been three more in the past seven years, bringing death and destruction to Sumatra, Chile, and Japan.

The world of climate science has so far largely failed to acknowledge these new potential hazards from climate change. There is no mention of them in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s last science assessment in 2007.

A special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on extreme climate events, published in April, restricts its comments on McGuire’s ideas to a single paragraph. While conceding that crust movements resulting from melting ice “may result in an increase in earthquake activity, perhaps on timescales as short as 10 to 200 years,” it concludes that “there is low confidence in the nature of recent and projected future seismic responses to anthropogenic climate change.” McGuire says it is not yet clear if quakes, tsunamis and volcanoes will be addressed in the next full scientific assessment, due in 2014.


Living in the Anthropocene:
Toward a New Global Ethos

Living in the Anthropocene: Toward a New Global Ethos
A decade ago, Nobel Prize-winning scientist Paul Crutzen first suggested we were living in the “Anthropocene,” a new geological epoch in which humans had altered the planet. In an article for Yale e360, Crutzen explain why adopting this term could help transform the perception of our role as stewards of the Earth.

Why this reticence? McGuire concludes that climate scientists at the IPCC have blind spots, both about geology and about learning the history of what happened during past eras of climate change. The science of geological responses at the end of the last glaciation, he says, “is extremely well established.” Nonetheless, the implications for the future remain largely ignored even among the most strident campaigners for action on climate change.

Nobody should want climate scientists to rush around the world warning of geological Armageddon. Too much remains unknown. Caution certainly is justified. But the danger is that a topic of potentially huge importance ends up being ignored. And the research needed to substantiate — or to repudiate — these concerns is never done. That would be unwise.

TOPICS: Business/Economy; Crime/Corruption; Culture/Society; Government; News/Current Events; United Kingdom
KEYWORDS: billmcguire; catastrophism; climate; climatechange; earthquake; globalwarming; globalwarminghoax; volcano
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To: DH
Our only solution is more green policies and the only ones who can do it are socialists and progressives.

So if we ignore the leftists many of us will be killed by Earth. And if listen to the leftists many of us will be killed by government. I'll take my chances with the Earth option.

Leftists hate most of humanity so they should pray for the climate apocalypse. On the day after, their envy over the Joneses next door will be all gone and they will experience rapture.

41 posted on 05/08/2012 8:17:07 AM PDT by Reeses
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To: Reeses

Leftists think there are too many people on this planet, I say, let the Earth take care of that problem.

42 posted on 05/08/2012 8:19:36 AM PDT by dfwgator (Don't wake up in a roadside ditch. Get rid of Romney.)
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To: monocle
That aside, I have often wondered if quakes or vocanic eruptions could be,in part, caused or facilitated by land tides.

The orbiting moon is a constantly applied, moving gravity wave of varying magnitude. It causes both water and land tides. As with any force applied and released, there is going to be long term mechanical breakdown. Throw in the earth directed coronal mass ejections from the sun and you have a fairly complex set of interactions. Not something easily amenable to a simple predictive model.

43 posted on 05/08/2012 8:53:26 AM PDT by Myrddin
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To: Reeses

Our only solution is more green policies and the only ones who can do it are socialists and progressives.

I guess you didn’t pick up in my sarcasm in that statement.

44 posted on 05/08/2012 2:30:38 PM PDT by DH (Once the tainted finger of government touches anything the rot begins)
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To: bd476; LibWhacker
Well some researchers got funding for a study,...we got a thread around here somewhere,...that Global Warming was caused by dinosaur ...farts...

Dinosaur gases 'warmed the Earth'

Must be true,...BBC broadcast it.

Been busy this morning with the latest from Watts Up With That?

East Anglia Climatic Research Unit shown to be liars by ... latest FOIA ruling and investigation


Yamal FOI Sheds New Light on Flawed Data ( AGW -- The Global Warming Hockey Stick is Faux )

45 posted on 05/08/2012 5:14:09 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach (The Global Warming Hoax was a Criminal Act....where is Al Gore?)
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To: Explorer89; 75thOVI; agrace; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aragorn; aristotleman; ...

A total lack of physics education appears to be a prerequisite among the pro-AGW demagogues. Thanks Explorer89 for that excellent comment and the ping.

46 posted on 05/08/2012 8:26:32 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (FReepathon 2Q time --
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

slight link fix:

Dinosaur gases ‘warmed the Earth’

47 posted on 05/08/2012 8:27:57 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (FReepathon 2Q time --
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To: SpaceBar; Explorer89; SunkenCiv; blam; All

In the case of the increase of volcanic activity at the end of the last ice age, it is possible that the outburst of volcanism in Europe WAS caused by the melting and lifting upward of compressed areas in Europe. There were significant volcanic eruptions or flows in Germany, France, and Italy. Activity has continued in Italy on a smaller scale.

However, the idea that global warming will trigger intense volcanic activity is a real stretch unless it might take place in Antarctica if great quantities of ice melt where Mt. Erebus and others are located, also allowing significant uplift. While melting may be taking place in the Alps, and the Himalayas, these are not volcanic type mountain areas. I don’t think there is deep enough snow cover to affect the volcanic potential in the Andes.

I have noted an interesting phenomena in the temperature charts. Between 30,000 and 22,000 years ago there were three major temperature drops. I have identified one possible cause for the drop 22,000 years ago. That is the eruption of Sakura-Jima. This Japanese volcano left a 15 mile diameter caldera which could have sent up a lot of ash and cooling sulfur. Currently there is an active smaller volcano on the edge of that caldera, as well as a city and port.

48 posted on 05/11/2012 9:35:00 PM PDT by gleeaikin
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To: gleeaikin

A significant melting of ice will cause some redistribution of weight on the crusts, etc and possibly cause earthquakes and volcanoes.

49 posted on 05/12/2012 5:11:56 AM PDT by blam
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To: gleeaikin

Thanks glee’! If all the ice in Antarctica (including the amount above sealevel, which is the shorter half of all the ice there) melted, the isostatic rebound could result in the eruption of any existing volcano there, or anywhere (particularly south of the Equator). It would be difficult to be positive of the causation though. :’)

50 posted on 05/12/2012 11:19:52 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (FReepathon 2Q time --
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