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The Great Remigration - Blacks are abandoning the northern cities that failed them.
City Journal ^ | Summer 2012 | Daniel DiSalvo

Posted on 09/17/2012 3:39:25 PM PDT by neverdem

A century ago, nine out of ten black Americans lived in the South, primarily in formerly Confederate states where segregation reigned. Then, in the 1920s, blacks began heading north, both to escape the racism of Jim Crow and to seek work as southern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized. “From World War I to the 1970s, some six million black Americans fled the American South for an uncertain existence in the urban North and West,” writes journalist Isabel Wilkerson, the author of The Warmth of Other Suns. Principal destinations in the Great Migration, as the exodus came to be called, included Washington, D.C. (the first stop on the bus), Chicago, Detroit, and New York City. The Great Migration had tremendous political implications, both good and bad. It helped spur the civil rights movement, but it also trapped many blacks in urban ghettos.

More recently, however, the Great Migration has reversed itself, with blacks returning to the South. In a broad sense, this reversal fits within a larger demographic shift among Americans in general, who are moving from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt. But the new black migration is nevertheless significant: not only could it portend major changes to the nation’s politics; it also testifies to the liberal North’s failure to integrate African-Americans into the mainstream. As the historian Walter Russell Mead has observed, that failure is “the most devastating possible indictment of the 20th century liberal enterprise in the United States.”

In the early seventies, the New York Times noticed that between 1970 and 1973, for the first time, more blacks had moved from the North to the South than vice versa. The movement has continued apace. Last year, the Times described the South’s share of black population growth as “about half the country’s total in the 1970s, two-thirds in the 1990s and three-quarters in the decade that just ended.” Many of the migrants are “buppies”—young, college-educated, upwardly mobile black professionals—and older retirees. Over the last two decades, according to the census, the states with the biggest gains in their black populations have been Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, Texas, and Florida; New York, Illinois, and Michigan have seen the greatest losses. Many of the new black migrants are moving to the South’s urban and suburban hot spots, rather than the small towns that their grandparents or great-grandparents left behind generations ago. Today, 57 percent of American blacks live in the South—the highest percentage in a half-century.

Much of the migration has been urban-to-urban. During the first decade of the new century, according to Brookings Institution demographer Bill Frey, the cities making the biggest gains in black population were Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston. Meanwhile, New York City’s black population fell by 67,709, Chicago’s by 58,225, Detroit’s by 37,603, and Los Angeles’s by 85,025. But plenty of the migrants have been moving from cities to suburbs. “By 2000 there were fifty-seven metropolitan areas with at least 50,000 black suburbanites, compared to just thirty-three in 1980,” notes sociologist Andrew Wiese. The 2010 census revealed that 51 percent of blacks in the 100 largest metro areas lived in the suburbs. As journalist Joel Garreu describes it, suburbia now includes a “large, churchgoing, home-owning, childbearing, back-yard barbecuing, traffic-jam-cursing black middle class remarkable for the very ordinariness with which its members go about their classically American suburban affairs.”

The black suburban push has resulted in a decline in residential segregation. A recent Manhattan Institute report by Jacob Vigdor and City Journal contributing editor Edward Glaeser finds that America’s cities are more integrated than they have been since 1910 and that all-white neighborhoods in urban areas are virtually extinct. Black movement to the suburbs explains much of the decline in segregation, the report concludes. Similarly, a Brookings Institution report notes that in more than 90 of the 100 largest metropolitan areas of the U.S., black residential segregation has declined. The departure of blacks from the cities has separated the haves from the have-nots. White prejudice no longer forces middle-class and upwardly mobile blacks to live alongside the truly disadvantaged.

Four factors help explain the Great Remigration. The first, and arguably most important, is the push and pull of job markets. States in the Northeast and on the West Coast, where liberalism has been strongest, tend to have powerful public-sector unions, high taxes, and heavy regulations, which translate into fewer private-sector jobs. In southern locales, where taxes are lower and regulations lighter, employment has grown faster; the fastest-growing cities for job creation between 2000 and 2010 were Austin, Raleigh, San Antonio, Houston, Charlotte, and Oklahoma City. As Texas governor Rick Perry eagerly pointed out when campaigning for the Republican presidential nomination, the Lone Star State was home to 40 percent of the jobs created in the United States since June 2009. For upwardly mobile blacks, the job-creating South represents a new land of opportunity. (And the current tightening of government budgets in debt-burdened northern cities will also mean fewer opportunities in public employment, long a niche job sector for black Americans.)

The second reason for blacks’ southward migration is the North’s higher housing prices and tax rates. The 2010 median single-family home price in northeastern metro areas was $243,900, compared with $153,700 in southern metro areas, according to the National Association of Realtors. New York and New Jersey have some of the highest property taxes in the nation, with Illinois not far behind; property taxes across the South are much lower. Overall cost of living also tends to be higher in the urban North. According to a CNN Money cost-of-living calculator, one needs only $33,000 a year in Atlanta to live the way someone making $75,000 in Manhattan does. Groceries, utility bills, housing, and health care cost less south of the Mason-Dixon Line. Though all these costs make life difficult for the middle class, regardless of color, they pose a particular challenge to black families. During the difficult years from 2005 to 2009, according to a recent Pew survey, inflation-adjusted wealth fell by 16 percent among white households but by 53 percent among black ones.

Third, high taxes in northern cities don’t always translate into effective public services. Public schools are a prime example: though class sizes have shrunk and average per-pupil spending has increased markedly over the last three decades, schools with large black populations continue to perform poorly. In search of a solution, blacks have become more amenable than other groups to experiments with vouchers and charter schools. In 2009, a survey conducted by Education Next and Harvard’s Program on Education Policy and Governance found that 57 percent of blacks either completely or somewhat supported school choice, while only 28 percent of whites did. In a 2011 Rutgers-Eagleton Poll, only 31 percent of whites said that they would send their children to a charter school, compared with 48 percent of blacks.

Finally, many of the blacks moving to the South are retirees who, like other older Americans, are seeking places with better weather. In the 1990s, Florida’s Broward County, home to Fort Lauderdale, attracted 8,875 older black migrants—more than any other U.S. county, according to sociologists Calvin Beale and Glenn Fuguitt. Over the past decade, Florida attracted more black migrants than any other state. Reporting from USA Today suggests that in the Palm Coast metro region, which saw the fastest black population growth in Florida, northern retirees—including many former public employees—accounted for most of the new arrivals. Beale and Fuguitt found that black retirees were moving not only to classic retirement destinations but also to “a cross-section of southern counties from which thousands of blacks migrated during the exodus from farming in the 20 years or so after World War II.” Many of them may be responding to what anthropologist Carol Stack describes as a “call to home.”

The political consequences of that summons may soon become apparent—though not in the North, where those left out of the middle-class expansion will remain and where the traditional liberal solutions to social problems will doubtless continue to be peddled. In the South, however, as the shared experience of discrimination abates and as more middle-class blacks succeed, the gap between the reality of their lives and the old political rhetoric may become too wide to ignore. “In neighborhoods offering the resources and opportunities that facilitate future socioeconomic mobility,” writes Harvard political scientist Claudine Gay, “the likelihood of believing that one’s fate is closely linked to the fate of blacks as a group declines, and pessimism about the severity of antiblack discrimination recedes.”

At the moment, black Americans are among the most reliable Democratic voters. As a group, they constituted 13 percent of the electorate and approached unanimity (95 percent) in voting for Barack Obama in 2008. As they move south and presumably bring their liberalism with them, they may help shift the political balance of power in these conservative states. Alternatively, as they move to states with better business climates, they may see their upwardly mobile and business-friendly attitudes reinforced. They may then slowly shift to the right, even if they remain Democrats.

The most important barrier standing in the way of a new black politics is majority-minority districting for congressional and state legislative seats. The 1965 Voting Rights Act has evolved into a mechanism for facilitating the election of black Americans to public office in rough proportion to their numbers in the population (see “Redistricting Wars,” Spring 2012). To achieve this result, the law mandates that blacks be shunted into districts where they constitute a majority—so-called majority-minority districts. But as Abigail Thernstrom and others have shown, majority-minority districts create safe seats, reduce voter turnout, and produce legislators well to the left of the national norm. These politicians develop voting records that cannot attract broader support from whites, and it becomes difficult for them to leave the legislature and run for statewide office.

But the barrier erected by majority-minority districting may be falling. As blacks spread out residentially, it becomes harder to draw predominantly black districts. Further, increased numbers of black immigrants from Africa and the Caribbean are likely to change the equation, as their experience in the United States differs significantly from that of native-born blacks. The traditional grievance narrative doesn’t capture the imagination of entrepreneurial Nigerians in Houston or Somalis in Minneapolis.

New political attitudes among blacks also have trouble finding expression when black candidates are concentrated into one party. So some blacks may eventually decide to test their political fortunes outside the safe harbors of the Democratic Party—and that means becoming independents or even joining the GOP. Recently, Republican members of ethnic minorities have had more success than their Democratic counterparts in winning office in states and districts with white voting majorities: think of Congressmen Tim Scott (South Carolina) and Allen West (Florida), Senator Marco Rubio (Florida), and Governors Bobby Jindal (Louisiana), Nikki Haley (South Carolina), and Susana Martinez (New Mexico). That trend could coincide neatly with the southward migration of middle-class, entrepreneurial black Americans. The South, then, in addition to holding more economic promise for blacks, could soon offer them greater political opportunity as well—and, in the process, transform the two parties’ long-established racial dynamics.

Daniel DiSalvo is an assistant professor of political science at the City College of New York–CUNY and a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute’s Center for State and Local Leadership.



TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; Editorial; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: blacks; bluestates; dixie; migration; trends

1 posted on 09/17/2012 3:39:30 PM PDT by neverdem
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To: neverdem

THE_CARCASS_HAS_BEEN_PICKED_CLEAN_PING!


2 posted on 09/17/2012 3:47:36 PM PDT by The Duke
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To: The Duke

let not the door...


3 posted on 09/17/2012 3:49:51 PM PDT by brivette
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To: The Duke

Looking for new scavenging grounds.


4 posted on 09/17/2012 3:50:10 PM PDT by cripplecreek (What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his soul?)
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To: neverdem

That is Pofessor De Salvo’s opinion.

Certainly blacks moved North, to Detroit, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh. Washington DC and New York.

Look at what they brought, crimes, murder,thefts, rapes.
Some of them came to work. others came for the easy to get Welfare.
Now they are running from the cities they brought these crimes into. Running from their own kind. Where are they running , back down south,where they can leave the ghettos, and live in peace.

What will they bring with them?

Guess.


5 posted on 09/17/2012 3:50:10 PM PDT by Venturer
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To: neverdem

More like they destroyed those areas and are looking for new places to soil.


6 posted on 09/17/2012 3:50:28 PM PDT by Jimmy4Toes (this tagline space is available.)
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To: neverdem
He!!, I'm white as a sheet and I have migrated to the South to reacquaint myself with financial freedom!

From a deep blue state to a brilliant red state.

7 posted on 09/17/2012 3:51:05 PM PDT by EGPWS (Trust in God, question everyone else)
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To: neverdem

No, blacks destroyed the cities. Perhaps now, those of us in the north can recover.


8 posted on 09/17/2012 3:52:17 PM PDT by gotribe (WTF?)
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To: neverdem

Like the article mentioned, blacks on the west coast have left en mass to places like Georgia, Texas and many other southern and eastern cities.

For example, South Central LA, just a few years ago was predominantly black, now Hispanics have moved in, and most of the blacks headed southbound and eastbound.


9 posted on 09/17/2012 3:52:57 PM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: gotribe

Detroit was a growing city into the 1950s.


10 posted on 09/17/2012 3:54:32 PM PDT by cripplecreek (What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his soul?)
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To: neverdem

The Northern cities that failed them, and that they themselves helped to fail.


11 posted on 09/17/2012 3:57:21 PM PDT by MIchaelTArchangel
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To: neverdem

People from other racial groups are leaving too.


12 posted on 09/17/2012 4:00:21 PM PDT by reg45 (Barack 0bama: Implementing class warfare by having no class!)
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To: neverdem

1) “middle-class, entrepreneurial black Americans” There are probably very few black American business owners whose company isn’t supported by some kind of government quota.

2) “As they(blacks) move south and presumably bring their liberalism with them” Blacks are not liberal but more tribal and are supported by the racial grievance industry.

3) ‘high taxes in northern cities don’t always translate into effective public services’. Blacks are more likely a government recipient of public aid and are just going where the money is.

4) ‘As blacks spread out residentially, it becomes harder to draw predominantly black districts.’ Yet lefties hell bent on social engineering will STILL try to create a district that may resemble a Twister game mat.

5) ‘as more middle-class blacks succeed,’ Blacks are over represented in government employment especially the postal service and in DC. The black middle class will evaporate when spending is curtailed or the economy tanks.

After 4 years of Obama, the knock out game, beat whitey night in Iowa, Holder and the black Panthers, Trayan Martin etc, I no longer give a sh!te where or what blacks do just as long as they do it in another continent.


13 posted on 09/17/2012 4:01:08 PM PDT by Le Chien Rouge
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To: neverdem

Great...move south and vote Obama


14 posted on 09/17/2012 4:07:55 PM PDT by personalaccts (Is George W going to protect the border?)
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To: neverdem

L.A. proved too much for the man,
So he’s leavin’ the life he’s come to know,
He said he’s goin’ back to find
Ooh, what’s left of his world,
The world he left behind
Not so long ago.
He’s leaving,
On that midnight train to Georgia...


15 posted on 09/17/2012 4:10:35 PM PDT by TankerKC (If Mitt Romney is elected, everyone in the US will die!)
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To: neverdem
Blacks and whites have left the north for Texas. There was a man employee in the Walmart in my town who said he left Detroit after practically giving his house away, to come to Texas for work. He had education and skills but no job. He said he walked in our Walmart and walked out with a job and that would hold his family until he found better work for his skills.

He was terribly glad to be in Texas where there was work opportunity. The low cost of good housing and low taxes and no state income tax and lower food prices, lower everything prices in Texas, was great for him. I felt sorry for his plight but know he will have a better future here.

I truly don't know how people in the north exist with their higher prices and higher taxes and state income taxes. I am retired and live well but could not do that in the north.

I don't know what the future holds for any state or this country but I'm glad to be where I am and wish the best for every Freeper in the months/years to come.

16 posted on 09/17/2012 4:11:20 PM PDT by Marcella (Republican Conservatism is dead. PREPARE)
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To: personalaccts
Great...move south and vote Obama

Oh they will. There's a reason why most of the political shifting is in the north these days. Its good for us but bad for the south.
17 posted on 09/17/2012 4:23:08 PM PDT by cripplecreek (What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his soul?)
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To: Jimmy4Toes

“More like they destroyed those areas and are looking for new places to soil.”

Just like the Eastern Marxists ( i.e. Boxer and Pelosi, et.al) did to California. But they are moving eastward because their nests here in California are full of their own sH!t!


18 posted on 09/17/2012 4:36:44 PM PDT by vette6387
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To: vette6387

The urban black populations were thriving and starting to develop a significant middle class, when they were carpet bombed by a combination of cynical Democrat politicians looking to buy votes, white do gooders looking to ease their guilt, and devious black political wannabes who saw the opportunity to gain political power (a la Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson) by creating a permanent black underclass. Many poor blacks were seduced by the promise of a better life and just ended up addicted to welfare and food stamps. As the welfare class increased in size, crime and drug addiction grew along with it. This initially chased away white lower and middle class neighbours and in the last 20 years has also chased away the middle class blacks who (in spite of their slavish loyalty to the Democrats) don’t want to live in a crime ridden hell-hole any more than middle class whites, asians or hispanics.


19 posted on 09/17/2012 4:46:52 PM PDT by littleharbour
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To: neverdem
I could have fun gloating about the horrid failure of it all and how it proves that Northern liberals are frauds and hypocrites.

BUT

This thing is like a Republican party policy paper!

Shocking! School choice - VOUCHERS and Charter Schools - are popular with people who got badly screwed by Democrat Hallowed Institutions like the Chicago Public School system!

Did this guy intend to validate every Conservative argument?

Because that's what he just did.

20 posted on 09/17/2012 4:54:34 PM PDT by Regulator
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To: Le Chien Rouge
Ahhh Obama the false prophet. Your post reflects exactly what Obama has accomplished in race relations. The rapid disintegration of the black family and inciting false rage onto white, Asian and Mexican generations who never had a prejudice bone in their body but now have been given no choice. The false charges of racism, sexism, religious bigotry,homophobia...etc... has become nauseating to the majority. Even the blind can now see.
21 posted on 09/17/2012 4:59:46 PM PDT by liberty or death
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To: neverdem

The only Nigerian immigrant that I know sees no value in either Jesse Jackson or President Obama, other than being a ‘brother’. I don’t know how he votes, but he sure knocks me to the floor when he makes fun of them.

By the way, both of his kids are doctors now.


22 posted on 09/17/2012 5:12:28 PM PDT by BobL (You can live each day only once. You can waste a few, but don't waste too many.)
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To: neverdem

Can anyone tell me the cause of just why they would want to leave the northern cities? /s


23 posted on 09/17/2012 5:27:25 PM PDT by HANG THE EXPENSE (Life's tough.It's tougher when you're stupid.)
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To: neverdem

The cities didn’t fail them.....


24 posted on 09/17/2012 5:40:25 PM PDT by Feckless (I was trained by the US << This Tagline Censored by FR >> ain't that irOnic?)
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To: The Duke

I don’t think it’s only blacks who are moving to the South. Most of my family left Connecticut and moved to Florida over the last four years. A lot of people I grew up with have also moved to Florida and South Carolina over the years. I can’t say I blame them with the way this state keeps deteriorating. I will be right behind them when my youngest graduates high school in 3 years.


25 posted on 09/17/2012 5:53:38 PM PDT by peeps36 (America is being destroyed by filthy traitors in the political establishment)
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To: Venturer
Aint quite as many dedicated “black ghettos”, down around here, in the deep south.

They certainly exist, as do the “white trash” and “illegal enclave”, AKA high crime areas, or bad parts of town.

We all prefer to live among our peers, don't we?
In the south, a foul mouthed child can still expect to be told to “shut your mouth” by an adult of any and every race.
The still expected response is a subdued "yes mam,I'm sorry" or "yes sir,I'm sorry.

26 posted on 09/17/2012 6:05:35 PM PDT by sarasmom
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To: neverdem
The traditional grievance narrative doesn’t capture the imagination of entrepreneurial Nigerians in Houston or Somalis in Minneapolis.

This is so true. The black people I know who are from Ghana, Uganda, or the Congo think quite differently from many blacks with whom I grew up in MS. The Africans are very much about working hard to make something of themselves, or build a business, or just raise their children to have a good life, and not blame anyone else if setbacks occur.

27 posted on 09/17/2012 6:32:04 PM PDT by SuziQ
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To: neverdem

Locusts have similar behavior don’t they?


28 posted on 09/17/2012 6:50:31 PM PDT by Sequoyah101 (Half the people are below average, they voted for oblabla.)
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To: Marcella
He was terribly glad to be in Texas where there was work opportunity. The low cost of good housing and low taxes and no state income tax and lower food prices, lower everything prices in Texas, was great for him. I felt sorry for his plight but know he will have a better future here.

I hope you pointed out to him WHY there is opportunity in Texas and invited this person to "Vote for more of what you came for" and stop feeding the Lefties.

29 posted on 09/17/2012 7:52:29 PM PDT by superloser
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To: superloser
“I hope you pointed out to him WHY there is opportunity in Texas and invited this person to “Vote for more of what you came for” and stop feeding the Lefties.”

Guy was a Republican - good thing as this county is about 98% Republican. Most Republican county per capita in this state.

30 posted on 09/17/2012 8:37:32 PM PDT by Marcella (Republican Conservatism is dead. PREPARE)
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To: Venturer
During the Great Migration when Blacks moved North it was to take jobs in industry, where unskilled labor was needed. The Black community was sound, and social vices were low.

The disintegration of the Black culture came with three developments: the outmigration of jobs from inner city industrial areas; residential de facto segregation which prevented Blacks from following the jobs; and government dependency-inducing welfare entitlemnts to keep unemployed Blacks stalled in a subsistence economy where crime was a rational choice.

31 posted on 09/17/2012 8:38:37 PM PDT by hinckley buzzard
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To: HANG THE EXPENSE
Simple. No jobs.
32 posted on 09/17/2012 8:41:56 PM PDT by hinckley buzzard
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To: hinckley buzzard

I know.I wont hire a demorat so they can keep on moving.


33 posted on 09/17/2012 8:48:19 PM PDT by HANG THE EXPENSE (Life's tough.It's tougher when you're stupid.)
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To: All

Does anyone know if the government is helping people buy houses in some kind of “section 8” program?

And are they renting out foreclosures?


34 posted on 09/17/2012 9:05:38 PM PDT by Terry Mross (The Clintons are extremely afraid of obama. Do they owe him their souls?)
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To: Marcella

A retiree from Manhattan recently relocated to our area outside of Houston. He came here looking for work and safety and was hired as a produce associate at his first interview. He’s happy to be in Texas and can’t get over our friendliness.


35 posted on 09/17/2012 9:11:59 PM PDT by Jane Long (Soli Deo Gloria!)
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To: Terry Mross
Does anyone know if the government is helping people buy houses in some kind of “section 8” program? And are they renting out foreclosures?

It wouldn't surprise me at all. It probably falls under 0's "redistribution" plan.

36 posted on 09/17/2012 9:15:22 PM PDT by Jane Long (Soli Deo Gloria!)
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To: Jane Long

“He’s happy to be in Texas and can’t get over our friendliness.”

Jobs are here. An entry level job will get them working fairly quickly and making money and they will get into the field best for them within time. Austin has turned into an electronic center for jobs in that field.

Cities are giving companies tax breaks when they move into their area and this is a right to work state, don’t have to join a union to get a job. Texas tries to make it easy for businesses to thrive here. Medical jobs are in every city but Houston is the center for medical jobs. One trip into the Houston Medical Center proves that.

When we had to go to MD Anderson Cancer Center in that area for surgery for husband, we stayed at the hotel owned by MD Anderson and it was filled with people from foreign countries coming there for treatment. We were definitely in the minority in that hotel. Felt like we were in a foreign country with these people in their traditional country clothes. All of us were there due to cancer and those of us who were with cancer patients helped any patient there who needed help moving around. Cancer can make people friends no matter where they come from.


37 posted on 09/17/2012 9:34:05 PM PDT by Marcella (Republican Conservatism is dead. PREPARE)
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To: neverdem

Speaks volumes about how racial attitudes have changed in the South.

I would love to see blacks get their act together and thrive down here.


38 posted on 09/17/2012 9:43:51 PM PDT by Yardstick
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To: neverdem
it also trapped many blacks in urban ghettos.

Walls around the ghettos? Armed guards trapping "many blacks" in them?

Your environment is what you and your neighbors make it.

39 posted on 09/18/2012 3:26:14 AM PDT by Tax-chick (Use the nukes, Bibi!)
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To: neverdem

Does this author not understand that a city in and of itself cannot “fail” its population. That population votes in the government it deserves. This migration will only spread the cultural rot inherent in large cities.

More and more criminal gang activity is occurring in rural America:

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/envrnmnt/drugfree/v1donner.htm

http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/2011-national-gang-threat-assessment


40 posted on 09/18/2012 10:26:28 AM PDT by Darnright ("I don't trust liberals, I trust conservatives." - Lucius Annaeus Seneca)
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To: neverdem

In Chicago, white racist Democrats trapped blacks in urban ghettos through the highway system. Aldermen John J. Duffy and William J. Lancaster sited them to be a “Maginot Line” against black movement. Richard J. Daley encouraged this racist policy. See the Robert Taylor homes, etc.


41 posted on 09/18/2012 5:08:37 PM PDT by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: cripplecreek

That’s the wrong approach. The GOP does a terrible job with outreach. There is no reason why Indian, black, Korean, and other minority groups that own businesses aren’t Republicans.

Blacks agree with us on some critical issues - school choice, 2nd Amendment, families, etc. We have so many common issues with them that they’d make natural Republicans. Better outreach must be the goal if the South is to remain a GOP bastion.


42 posted on 09/18/2012 5:26:15 PM PDT by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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