Skip to comments.New Bacteria Raises Concern
Posted on 12/03/2012 1:31:48 AM PST by neverdem
A deadly bacteria known as Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, is raising concerns in the medical community.
Jennifer Hsu in an Infectious Disease Physician at Sanford Health and has been closely studying this 'super bug' which is best known for it's ability to defy even the strongest of drugs.
What has happened over time with increasing exposure to antibiotics the bacteria have developed ways to evade those antibiotics and they become resist to a certain class of antibiotics, said Hsu.
In the United States, the bacteria have been found primarily in healthcare facilities and hospitals and are known to prey on the weak.
Patients who are immune-compromised whether it be from medical treatments, chemotherapy for instance or patients that have had other severe illnesses that place them in the ICU-those would be risk factors, said Hsu.
CRE infections are already an epidemic in several major cities including New York and Chicago, but Hsu said not to be surprised if we start to see them more frequently in less-populated areas.
There's no reason to think that we won't see them in South Dakota and they wont become increasingly common here but really our goal is to head that off before it happens, said Hsu.
Experts said that there isn't likely to be a vaccine for this type of infection, but they are continually researching ways to prevent it from spreading. While doctors are fighting hard to keep it contained, it may be a battle they are not equipped to win.
"There is absolutely no reason to think that if we don't do a good job with infection control that this is going to stay in a hospital, said Hsu.
Which may mean this 'super bug' is here to stay,always close-by and always a threat.
With Obamacare taking effect, across the land, you won’t live long enough to worry about superbugs.
Ping... (Better late than never, and thanks for posting, neverdem!)
Ping... (Better late than never, and thanks for posting, neverdem!)
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Faithfully yours, nginx.
Just hoping that might help do away with some of the multiple posts around here.
The error log URL (HTML imbedded link) http://nginx.org/r/error_log
I don’t read anything by anyone who doesn’t know when to say “bacteria” and when to say “bacterium.”
NDM-1 stands for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, which is an enzyme produced by certain strains of bacteria that have recently acquired the genetic ability to make this compound. The enzyme is active against other compounds that contain a chemical structure known as a beta-lactam ring. Unfortunately, many antibiotics contain this ring, including the penicillins, cephalosporins, and the carbapenems.
NDM-1 infection was first identified (in 2009) in people who resided in or traveled to the India and Pakistan. Antibiotic use in India is not as restricted as it is in the United States and some researchers feel overuse of carbapenems allowed NDM-1 to develop. Others point to the advent of medical tourism as a cause of NDM-1 spread among countries. Medical tourism refers to patients who travel to a country to get medical care that is not available or is more expensive in their own country. The three first cases of NDM-1 infection in the United States were identified in June 2010 in Americans who had recently sought medical care in India. Vacation and business travel have also played a role in introducing NDM-1 bacteria into countries outside of the Indian subcontinent. Cases have now been detected in many countries, including Great Britain, Canada, Sweden, Australia, Japan, and the United States.
Cases of NDM-1 infection are usually caused by gram negative bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family. This family includes common bacteria like Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella. These bacteria reside in the bowel and may spread from person to person if hands or items are contaminated with fecal material. To date, strains of Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter genera of bacteria are known to possess the gene for NDM-1.
What are symptoms and signs of a person infected with bacteria carrying NDM-1?
Bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family are the most common cause of urinary infections. They can also cause bloodstream infections (sepsis), pneumonia, or wound infections. Symptoms and signs reflect the site of the infection. Most patients will have fever and fatigue. If bacteria enter the bloodstream, patients may go into shock. Symptoms do not differ between bacteria that express NDM-1 and those that do not. However, patients who have bacteria producing NDM-1 will not respond to most conventional antibiotics and are at high risk for complications.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
“Detection of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Carrying Metallo-Beta-Lactamase -— United States, 2010.” http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
“Guidance for Control of Infections with Carbapenem-Resistant or Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Acute Care Facilities.” http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5810a4.htm
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)
The term CRE refers to carbapenem-resistant and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Currently, the most common type of carbapenemase in the United States is the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). In 2010, carbapenemases known as metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL) were first detected in the U.S.: New Delhi MBL (known as NDM-1) and Verona-Integron encoded MBL (known as VIM).
K. pneumoniae can cause the disease Klebsiella pneumonia.
They cause destructive changes to human lungs inflammation and hemorrhage with cell death (necrosis) that sometimes produces a thick, bloody, mucoid sputum (currant jelly sputum). Typically these bacteria gain access after a person aspirates colonizing oropharyngeal microbes into the lower respiratory tract.
As a general rule, Klebsiella infections are mostly seen in people with a weakened immune system. Most often illness affects middle-aged and older men with debilitating diseases. This patient population is believed to have impaired respiratory host defenses, including persons with diabetes, alcoholism, malignancy, liver disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), glucocorticoid therapy, renal failure, and certain occupational exposures (such as paper mill workers).
Many of these infections are obtained when a person is in the hospital for some other reason (a nosocomial infection).
The most common infection caused by Klebsiella bacteria outside the hospital is pneumonia, typically in the form of bronchopneumonia and also bronchitis. These patients have an increased tendency to develop lung abscess, cavitation, empyema, and pleural adhesions. It has a high death rate of about 50% even with antimicrobial therapy. The mortality rate can be nearly 100% for persons with alcoholism and bacteremia.
In addition to pneumonia, Klebsiella can also cause infections in the urinary tract, lower biliary tract, and surgical wound sites. The range of clinical diseases includes pneumonia, thrombophlebitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), cholecystitis, diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, wound infection, osteomyelitis, meningitis, and bacteremia and septicemia. If a person has an invasive device in their body then contamination of the device becomes a risk; for example respiratory support equipment and urinary catheters put patients at increased risk.
Also, the use of antibiotics can be a factor that increases the risk of nosocomial infection with Klebsiella bacteria. Sepsis and septic shock can follow entry of the bacteria into the blood.
The extent and prevalence of CRKP within the environment is currently unknown. The mortality rate is also unknown but is suspected to be within a range of 12.5% to as high as 44%.
The likelihood of an epidemic or pandemic in the future remains uncertain.
Over the past 10 years, a progressive increase in CRKP has been seen worldwide; however, this new emerging nosocomial pathogen is probably best known for an outbreak in Israel that began around 2006 within the healthcare system there.
In the USA, it was first described in North Carolina in 1996; since then CRKP has been identified in 41 states; and is recovered routinely in certain hospitals in New York and New Jersey. It is now the most common CRE species encountered within the United States.
“I dont read anything by anyone who doesn’t know when to say bacteria and when to say bacterium.”
For those who do not understand your comment.
Bacteria is the plural of bacterium, and that saying “a bacteria” is incorrect. It is correct to say “The soil sample contains millions of bacteria,” and “Tetanus is caused by a bacterium.”
“Experts said that there isn’t likely to be a vaccine for this type of infection, ...” Experts?
Not only is it super bugs, but these diets for cholesterol cause deficiencies in Iodine, and the new sea salt craze just adds to it, and when the doctors throw in a low sodium diet you are screwed.
Eggs, cheese and meat beyond iodized salt are the main sources of Iodine. Read a label and you won’t find the word Iodine on it. And with the new ‘truth in labeling law’ it has to be listed even if it provides 0 nutrition.
Ask my thyroid what these two waring diets did to it. Took and Endocrinologist to fix the mess the PCP and the ENT created.
When you get that message, your reply probably did go through.
It’s a good practice to checks your pings or refresh the thread to see if it did post before attempting to post it again.
I have noticed a lot of others who are pinging people are getting triples too, and thought I'd pass that info on.
Bump to that USA Today article. Excellent for a lib publication.
Don't forget the increasing prevalence of vaccination for every ailment under the sun, which diverts the immunity and is probably particularly dangerous for persons whose immunity is already compromised.
Double posts from one click on the post button have the exact same time stamp, right down to the second.
Yours is indeed a strange glitch.
I am generally suspicious of primarily “nosocomial”, or hospital acquired infections, for the simple reason that hospitals are not particularly septic compared to many other places, such as prisons, locker rooms, etc.
If a pathogen is strong enough to be nosocomial, then it should be rampant in those other places.
Instead, suspicion should first fall on improper administration of antibiotics. There is still no disciplined doctrine for their proper use, so prescription varies widely between doctors.
Importantly, often when strict discipline is imposed, the number of nosocomial patients drops drastically.
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