Before I escaped from America I was the first cell phone agent in my county. All of the phones that I activated had a name associated with the phone number. I can see their following you in that case, but when I went international, the phones were/are programed by sim chip. There is no name or address associated with them unless you choose to be on a contract with the carrier. You can even have an unlimited number of chips, all with different phone numbers.
While I am sure authorities can listen in on a call or read an SMS, they have no way of knowing who it is from.