RE: I think that the federal courts have since held that the 14th amendment prevents states from maintaining a state religion any more.
I don’t see how religion is related to the 14th amendment.
The 14th amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves. It did this by prohibiting states from denying or abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, depriving any person of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or denying to any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
How does that relate to state religions?
“The 14th amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves.”
Congress had already used their naturalization powers to grand all former slaves citizenship. the 14th ammedment was simply proposed and passed(allegedly) because the radical republicans worried about their own misreading of a Federal court ruling. (Dred Scott v. Sandford)
Of course the amendment was recklessly written, where as it was originality only intended to reverse the effects of Dred Scott. It’s actual application was “reinterpreted” about 50 years later as a platform upon which the Federal employees in black robes could affectingly wield boundless power by simple application of ‘discovering’ a heretofore undiscovered ‘right’ to compel or prohibit it.
The 14th Amendment’s due process provision has been held to mean that the bill of rights applies to the states. This is how, for example, the 5th amendment requires that states give Miranda rights to criminals. It has been taken much farther than the people who passed the 14th intended, of course.