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Split water splitting raises green hydrogen hopes
Chemistry World ^ | 14 April 2013 | Andy Extance

Posted on 04/14/2013 3:45:32 PM PDT by neverdem

oxygen

The polyoxometalate acts as a sink, storing the protons and electrons released when water is split © NPG

UK scientists say that they have developed the first widely-useable electrolysis system that splits water and releases hydrogen and oxygen in separate stages. Lee Cronin and Mark Symes from the University of Glasgow used a phosphomolybdate anion buffer to store protons and electrons generated when oxidising water to oxygen. Instead of directly producing hydrogen, as electrolysis normally does, the buffer lets the scientists choose where and when they do the second step. That could aid efforts to store renewable energy as hydrogen fuel made by water electrolysis.

‘Simultaneous hydrogen and oxygen production is a kind of “elephant in the room” for water splitting,’ Cronin tells Chemistry World. The gases can pass through and degrade expensive Nafion polymer membranes meant to separate them in existing electrolysers, with potentially explosive consequences. ‘We knew that natural photosynthetic systems separated oxygen and hydrogen-equivalent production in time,’ Cronin says. ‘So we thought, “Can we do this, but electrochemically?”’

hydrogen

The polyoxometalate can release the protons and electrons later to produce hydrogen on demand © NPGThough electrolysis usually produces oxygen and hydrogen together, two interlinked half-reactions actually generate the gases. The first oxidises water into oxygen, protons and electrons. In the second, electrons reduce the protons to give hydrogen. To separate the reactions, Cronin and Symes sought chemicals that could be reduced and protonated, but could later release those electrons and protons again. They reasoned that the necessary electron-coupled-proton buffer (ECPB) properties might lie within the transition metal and oxygen-containing networks of polyoxometalate anions.

‘Doing tests where you oxidise water, but make absolutely no hydrogen would seem like failure to most people,’ Cronin says. ‘But this was exactly what we were after, as when you reverse the process you get pure hydrogen and no oxygen.’ Of the polyoxometalates they tried, phosphomolybdate anions, [H2PMo12O40]-, worked best. ‘In one instance, we stored our reduced and protonated ECPB for eight months before we re-oxidised it to liberate hydrogen,’ Cronin notes. But splitting the reaction into two steps imposes an energy penalty, making it 87% as efficient as the one step reaction, at best.

Closer to green hydrogen

Separating water splitting could mean simpler and cheaper electrolysers. A membrane is still needed so protons can move between compartments, but keep the ECPB in place. But the phosphomolybdate anion is so large that cheaper dialysis membranes can be substituted for costly Nafion. Water splitting in such proton-electrolyte membrane electrolysers usually needs a three-electrode system, with two platinum electrodes. Separate gas evolution can be simpler. ‘You can use just one precious metal electrode in the cell instead of two, as it can be used alternately to produce oxygen and hydrogen,’ Cronin says. However, this reduced efficiency to 79%, compared with the single-step process.

These benefits could help to produce hydrogen to store energy from renewable sources like solar and wind, whose output can vary dramatically. Xile Hu, who researches electrocatalytic water splitting at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, underlines this method’s versatility in that context. ‘The spatial and temporal separation of hydrogen and oxygen production, achieved via this original approach, opens up new avenues in chemical energy storage,’ he says. ‘One can imagine electrolysers and photoelectrolysers that are more flexible, employ cheaper membranes, or produce hydrogen on-demand.’

Cronin’s team is now investigating non-polyoxometalate ECPBs that work under different conditions. The scientists also aim to send reduced, protonated ECPB to researchers in Australia, who will do the hydrogen-evolving step. But perhaps most importantly, they are working towards a small-scale prototype electrolyser using this technology. ‘We’re hoping that this will show significant cost advantages over traditional electrolysers, which will help to bring green hydrogen production from water a step closer to reality,’ Cronin says.

References

M D Symes and L Cronin, Nat. Chem., 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1621


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events; Technical
KEYWORDS: ecpb; electrolysisofh2o; electrolysisofwater; energy; renewableenergy
Electricity remains a niche application for solar.

No subsidies for renewable energy! We're broke!

1 posted on 04/14/2013 3:45:32 PM PDT by neverdem
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To: neverdem

However, the implications of peak water will mean that we will have regulate the use of hydrogen as an energy source - for the sake of the planet.


2 posted on 04/14/2013 3:56:33 PM PDT by centurion316
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To: neverdem

Raise the Hindengurg!


3 posted on 04/14/2013 4:09:07 PM PDT by bigheadfred
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To: neverdem

I wonder if it cleans old rifle barrels any better than the regular electrolysis.


4 posted on 04/14/2013 4:09:26 PM PDT by Track9 (hey Kalid.. kalid.. bang you're dead)
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To: centurion316

We’re all going to die from thirst? Can we re-combine them? I’m feeling thirsty.


5 posted on 04/14/2013 4:10:30 PM PDT by ImJustAnotherOkie (zerogottago)
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To: centurion316

And adding all that Oxygen to the ecosystem will have a deleterious effect upon the ozone level because you know the evil utility companies will release it as O2 (Ozone)

It would also mean that all the little tiny uncomfortable cars bought by the enviro-weenies are worthless. All those Prius’ would be worthless but the fuel injected Cadillac could be converted rather easily

This would also kill mass transit who would ride the bus when you can drive?

Lastly the big evil oil companies would be the ones to benefit since they already have the distribution system

There is a lot for the environmental movement to not like about this


6 posted on 04/14/2013 4:12:36 PM PDT by Fai Mao (Genius at Large)
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To: Fai Mao

All quite true, excepting that Ozone is O3. Oxygen (O2)is a known poisonous gas and excessive escape into the atmosphere will cause mosquitoes and dragonflies to grow to several feet in length. We are in deep trouble here and can only be saved by the EPA.


7 posted on 04/14/2013 4:16:59 PM PDT by centurion316
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To: neverdem

Boffins split water molecule; release gas in stages.


8 posted on 04/14/2013 4:20:33 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not NurtureĀ™)
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To: Fai Mao
And adding all that Oxygen to the ecosystem will have a deleterious effect upon the ozone level because you know the evil utility companies will release it as O2 (Ozone)

Ozone = O3

Oxygen = O2

9 posted on 04/14/2013 4:26:09 PM PDT by HangnJudge
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To: centurion316

Great, now we’ll run outa water. As if using to much sunlight wasn’t enough.


10 posted on 04/14/2013 4:38:41 PM PDT by MaxMax
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To: steve86

Headline win.


11 posted on 04/14/2013 4:43:43 PM PDT by Cboldt
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To: Fai Mao

Actually when car exhaust is water. In any city or congested area it will cause the humidity to be 100% 24/7/365. Even in dry places like Houston or Phoenix.

Not to mention all that extra water in atmosphere will alter rain patterns and if they think CO2 is a bad greenhouse gas, wait until all that water vapor is being added.


12 posted on 04/14/2013 4:59:59 PM PDT by qam1 (There's been a huge party. All plates and the bottles are empty, all that's left is the bill to pay)
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To: neverdem; SirKit

Hubby and #3 son were just discussing fusion a little while ago. I’ll have to show them this.


13 posted on 04/14/2013 5:19:33 PM PDT by SuziQ
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To: El Gato; Ernest_at_the_Beach; Robert A. Cook, PE; lepton; LadyDoc; jb6; tiamat; PGalt; Dianna; ...
Mayo Clinic: Cardiopoietic 'Smart' Stem Cells Show Promise in Heart Failure Patients

Shell extract helps rebuild pearly whites

Elusive atmospheric intermediates reveal some secrets

A molecular “superglue” based on flesh-eating bacteria

FReepmail me if you want on or off my health and science ping list.

14 posted on 04/14/2013 6:15:49 PM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi min oi)
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To: neverdem

Split water splitting
***If the water is already split, why do we need to spit it again?


15 posted on 04/14/2013 6:46:52 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: neverdem

http://hytechapps.com/

http://www.waterfuelcell.org/

http://www.keelynet.com/energy/waterfuel.htm

http://www.cyberspaceorbit.com/other_hfsystems.html

In particular; http://www.keelynet.com/energy/waterfuel.htm

It’s been done. It works. All it needs is to get our ‘scientific’ idiots to quit saying, “It’s impossible! It’s not efficient!” and get some realistic engineers working on it.

The only people not working on this are non-engineers and those who refuse to believe IT HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE!


16 posted on 04/14/2013 6:49:31 PM PDT by neversweat (40 years and I still miss it!)
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