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Another Disappointing Study For Fish Oil Supplements
Forbes ^ | 5/08/2013 | Larry Husten

Posted on 05/08/2013 8:51:52 PM PDT by neverdem

Another large study has failed to find any benefits for fish oil supplements. The Italian Risk and Prevention Study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, enrolled 12,513 people who had not had a myocardial infarction but had evidence of atherosclerosis or had multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The patients were randomized to either a fish oil supplement (1 gram daily of n-3 fatty acids) or placebo.

After 5 years of followup, the primary endpoint– the time to death from cardiovascular causes or admission to the hospital for cardiovascular causes– had occurred in 11.7% of the fish oil group versus 11.9% of the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio 0.97, CI 0.88-1.08, p=0.58). There were no significant differences in any of the prespecified secondary endpoints.

With one exception there were no significant differences in outcome in the prespecfied subgroups. Women who received fish oil supplements had a significant reduction in the primary endpoint (HR 0.82, CI 0.67-0.99, p=0.04). The study investigators also reported that although there was no difference in the rate of hospital admissions for cardiovascular admissions, there was a significant reduction in hospital admissions for heart failure in the fish oil group (1.5% versus 2.3%, p=0.002).

Due to a lower than expected rate of events, after the first year the investigators modified the primary endpoint, which originally had been the cumulative rate of death, MI, and nonfatal stroke.

The investigators wrote that “the consistently null effect across the various end points and subgroups does not suggests alternative interpretations.” The observed benefits in women and in reducing hospital admissions for heart failure “must be considered conservatively,” they wrote.

The trial investigators discussed two previous Italian trials, the GISSI-Prevenzione trial, in MI patients, and the GISSI-HF trial, in heart failure patients, which found benefits for fish oil supplements in their respective...

(Excerpt) Read more at forbes.com ...


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events; Testing
KEYWORDS: cad; chd; fishoil; fishoilsupplements
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1 posted on 05/08/2013 8:51:52 PM PDT by neverdem
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To: neverdem
Another large study has failed to find any benefits for fish oil supplements.

They make good breath mints.

2 posted on 05/08/2013 8:53:16 PM PDT by South40
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To: South40

I had a gut feeling about that.


3 posted on 05/08/2013 8:55:13 PM PDT by Califreak (11/6/12 The Day America Divided By Zero)
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To: neverdem

Who to believe? OTOH, I can save some $$$ ...


4 posted on 05/08/2013 8:56:50 PM PDT by BunnySlippers (I LOVE BULL MARKETS . . .)
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To: neverdem

Fish caps - quite an ‘industry’. My folks are totally hooked on the concept.


5 posted on 05/08/2013 8:58:13 PM PDT by MissMagnolia (You see, truth always resides wherever brave men still have ammunition. I pick truth. (John Ransom))
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To: neverdem

So not much point in lowering triglycerides? They drop like a rock when I take fish oil.


6 posted on 05/08/2013 8:58:38 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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To: steve86

On second thought, I’m really not taking it to prevent “heart failure” anyway and there could be a thousand benefits not measured in the study, even nothing to do with the cardiovascular system. So the bottle of fish oil pills isn’t getting tossed yet.


7 posted on 05/08/2013 9:04:25 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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>> had occurred in 11.7% of the fish oil group versus 11.9%

A suspiciously close outcome. Imagine the entire group on either the placebo or the fish oil exclusively with that outcome.


8 posted on 05/08/2013 9:07:06 PM PDT by Gene Eric (The Palin Doctrine.)
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To: neverdem
Those darn fish. They'll do it everytime. Not only are they slipping off my hook, stealing my bait and costing way too much at the fish market, but now they aim to deny me nutritional benefit obtained from their oils.

It's as if all these fish were conspiring against me. I wish fish never existed.

9 posted on 05/08/2013 9:08:29 PM PDT by SamAdams76
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To: neverdem
Highly refined/purified Omega 3 does work. Case in point newly FDA approved Vescepa from Amarin. Currently it is only approved for high Trigs over 500, but the FDA will rule by Nov. for usage in Trig levels 200-500. It's a slam dunk for approval as there are no side effects unlike the big player (for now) on the block Lovaza. The FDA liked it so much they requested Amarin to conduct a 5 year study “Reduce-it” To determine if Vescepa reduced Coronary events.

More and more research is showing that cholesterol is only responsible for for a fraction of Cardiac events, blood acids resulting in arterial inflammation is a major cause of Heart attacks as well. Vescepa reduced these bad blood acids in their Phase I, II, III trials thus inflammation.

10 posted on 05/08/2013 9:10:57 PM PDT by DAC21
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To: neverdem

So, is it that 1: we don’t need Omega 3’s? Or that 2: we’re getting plenty of Omega 3’s? Or is it simply that 3: the typical fish oil tablets are pretty lousy sources of Omega 3’s?

I know it’s not 1 or 2. Which leaves us with 3.

The few studies that actually showed deleterious effects from saturated fats didn’t distinguish between natural saturated fats and artificial (aka trans) fats. Which difference turned out to be critical. The studies that show deleterious effects from red meat don’t distinguish between actual meat like beef and pork and processed meat-like substances like hotdogs and bologna.

So, when I read studies like these I wonder, do they distinguish between the different sources of fish oil? Might it be that these new fish oil capsules are pretty much worthless, and grandma’s old staple of cod liver oil is very much good for you?

It’d not surprise me at all.


11 posted on 05/08/2013 9:15:10 PM PDT by jdege
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To: neverdem

Fish oil just as a “heart” failure preventer...NOT hardly....it has so many other benefits. Plus, I’d like to know the participants OTHER habits...


12 posted on 05/08/2013 9:17:14 PM PDT by goodnesswins (R.I.P. Doherty, Smith, Stevens, Woods.)
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To: neverdem

Are you a lackey for big pharma? This study was designed for the purpose of showing no effect: the dosage was too small and the population was selected for athersclerotic issues. Wise up and quit posting “crap” that is intended to further confuse people who are looking for ways to improve their health opportunities.


13 posted on 05/08/2013 9:21:04 PM PDT by kruss3 (Kruss3@gmail.com)
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To: neverdem

IDIOT STUDY!!

It is the ratio of omega 3s to omega 6s that is important. Where does it say that their diet was controlled for omega 6s? Which would be impossible to do if they were freely eating. Also the total amount of PUFAS (all industrial seed / vegetable oils) counts too. They should only consist of what would occur in natural foods like pastured beef, eggs.


14 posted on 05/08/2013 9:24:50 PM PDT by Yaelle
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To: jdege

This doesn’t make a great deal of sense. My grandparents were having a great deal of time getting cholesterol under control until the doctor tried fish oil, and it made a world of difference.

Of course, it isn’t just “fish oil” - it is the Omega 3s - watch the concentration of what you buy. The milligrams of “fish oil” does not equal more Omega 3s - look for how much Omega 3 is in them.

Fish oil is also not the only source of Omega 3s, however.


15 posted on 05/08/2013 9:25:23 PM PDT by Republican Wildcat
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To: SamAdams76
Not only are they slipping off my hook

Well... that is what the oil is for.

16 posted on 05/08/2013 9:30:34 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (The monsters are due on Maple Street)
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To: neverdem
The lack of any discernable effect on heart disease death (“coronary death”) raises concerns about the real benefits of fish oil supplements in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Recommendations to eat fish, in the context of an overall healthy diet, increasing activity, and stopping smoking, should remain the priority for reducing risk. Still, there was no evidence that fish oil supplements cause any harm or risk, so for patients who won’t eat fish or wish to be sure they are getting their omega-3′s, there is no reason to stop taking fish oil supplements if they are already on them.

So basically, the study concludes nothing...other than just popping a pill alone is not a cure all. If you keep eating ice cream by the carton each day and sit around watching soap operas, your health will not improve by just adding a fish oil pill.

17 posted on 05/08/2013 9:31:45 PM PDT by Republican Wildcat
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To: Republican Wildcat

It has never been claimed (by any reputable source) that Omega 3s treat Hypercholesterolemia. They do reduce triglycerides effectively.


18 posted on 05/08/2013 9:33:07 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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To: Republican Wildcat
Fish oil is also not the only source of Omega 3s, however.


19 posted on 05/08/2013 9:34:58 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (The monsters are due on Maple Street)
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To: South40

>> They make good breath mints.

rofl


20 posted on 05/08/2013 9:35:02 PM PDT by Nervous Tick (Without GOD, men get what they deserve.)
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To: Yaelle
Impossible to know what to believe at this point.

Some older clinical studies[46][55] indicate that the ingested ratio of omega−6 to omega−3 (especially linoleic vs alpha-linolenic) fatty acids is important to maintaining cardiovascular health. However, three studies published in 2005, 2007 and 2008, including a randomized controlled trial, found that while omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are extremely beneficial in preventing heart disease in humans, the levels of omega−6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (and therefore the ratios) were insignificant.[56][57][58]

21 posted on 05/08/2013 9:36:11 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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To: neverdem

SCREW “supplements”!

If you want the benefits of eating fish... eat FISH.


22 posted on 05/08/2013 9:36:14 PM PDT by Nervous Tick (Without GOD, men get what they deserve.)
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To: neverdem

I don’t take them but my pup was recently diagnosed with SLO and has to take them (and doxycyline and niacinimide) for the rest of his life. :-(


23 posted on 05/08/2013 9:36:28 PM PDT by peggybac (My boss I respect, my father I revered. Chris Rock, Mr. Obama is NOT my boss or my father.)
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FReepmail me if you want on or off my health and science ping list.

24 posted on 05/08/2013 9:36:52 PM PDT by neverdem (Register pressure cookers! /s)
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To: kruss3
Don't go overboard with dose:

In a letter published October 31, 2000,[45][dated info] the United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements noted that known or suspected risks of EPA and DHA consumed in excess of 3 grams per day may include the possibility of:

Increased incidence of bleeding
Hemorrhagic stroke
Oxidation of omega-3 fatty acids, forming biologically active oxidation products
Increased levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol or apoproteins associated with LDL cholesterol among diabetics and hyperlipidemics
Reduced glycemic control among diabetics


25 posted on 05/08/2013 9:47:26 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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To: steve86
So not much point in lowering triglycerides? They drop like a rock when I take fish oil.

Been taking the capsules for about 2 years per my doc. Triglycerides showed up good again this year at annual checkup -- hope this is a good idea.

26 posted on 05/08/2013 9:56:09 PM PDT by imardmd1
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To: neverdem

The test results were “good news” to the fish.


27 posted on 05/08/2013 9:57:10 PM PDT by MadMax, the Grinning Reaper
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To: imardmd1
I have been refreshing my knowledge of atherosclerosis and hypertriglyceridemia for the last 30 minutes and it does appear that lowering trigycerides is a very good thing (with respect to atherosclerosis). No question you don't want atherosclerosis, i.e. thickening of artery walls e.g.:

Most commonly, soft plaque suddenly ruptures (see vulnerable plaque), causing the formation of a thrombus that will rapidly slow or stop blood flow, leading to death of the tissues fed by the artery in approximately 5 minutes.

28 posted on 05/08/2013 10:01:45 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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To: neverdem

I thought the purpose of taking fish oil supplements was to get the doctor off your back by upping the good HDL number.


29 posted on 05/08/2013 10:04:45 PM PDT by donna (Pray for revival.)
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To: Republican Wildcat

Correct. FLAXSEED OIL is also a great source of it. A friend of mine had Lasik and every eye doctor recommended it highly as there are conditions that make your eyes dry out and omega 3/flaxseed oil takes care of that. It worked for him.

A month ago, some clowns said eggs are bad for you. What’s next, water gives you cancer?


30 posted on 05/08/2013 10:08:08 PM PDT by max americana (fired liberals in our company after the election, & laughed while they cried (true story))
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To: donna

One of the things I just read is that niacin and fish oil are no longer thought to be very effective (might be a little) at raising HDL.


31 posted on 05/08/2013 10:09:31 PM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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To: steve86

“So not much point in lowering triglycerides? They drop like a rock when I take fish oil.”

My HDL, the good cholesterol, increases with fish oil, but my HDL also increases with olive oil.


32 posted on 05/08/2013 10:15:13 PM PDT by Sun (Pray that God sends us good leaders. Please say a prayer now.)
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To: steve86
Thanks!

My Barlean's Fish Oil pills label indicates:

For 2 gm (2000 mg) Saturated Fat 0.5 gm Polyunsaturated Fat 1 gm Calories from fat 18 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) 370 mg Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) 230 mg Other Omega-3 Fatty Acids 150 mg Vitamin E Natural (d-alpha tocopherol) 2 IU Cholesterol 0 mg

I wonder how much is enough, and how much too much each day -- hmmm.

33 posted on 05/08/2013 10:32:13 PM PDT by imardmd1
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To: steve86

“So not much point in lowering triglycerides? They drop like a rock when I take fish oil.”

My HDL, the good cholesterol, increases with fish oil, but my HDL also increases with olive oil.


34 posted on 05/08/2013 10:36:17 PM PDT by Sun (Pray that God sends us good leaders. Please say a prayer now.)
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To: neverdem

Notice that the study used female subjects only who were in the high risk category who already showed evidence of atherosclerosis.

“12,513 people who had not had a myocardial infarction but had evidence of atherosclerosis or had multiple cardiovascular risk factors.”

We don’t know if men react differently.

So, the study may not apply to people how take fish oil to PREVENT atherosclerosis.

Taking a supplement won’t automatically improve your health. You have to exercise and reduce calories.


35 posted on 05/08/2013 11:24:33 PM PDT by garjog (Heroes Died. Obama Lied.)
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To: garjog

Bingo.


36 posted on 05/09/2013 3:28:56 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: neverdem; All

Just bought a new bottle this past week...I noticed that they now sell a “burp-free” fish oil capsule. I have no idea what that is..but it does cost TWICE as much as what I regularly buy..


37 posted on 05/09/2013 3:32:52 AM PDT by ken5050 (Not every Muslim is a terrorist, but just about every terrorist is a Muslim..)
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To: Califreak

I guess I’ll scale back my fish oil intake. I wasn’t really hooked anyway.


38 posted on 05/09/2013 3:36:33 AM PDT by Larry Lucido
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To: Nervous Tick

Problem is, you don’t know what you’re getting these days:

http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/world-our-backyard/2013/feb/23/widespread-seafood-fraud-us/


39 posted on 05/09/2013 3:39:45 AM PDT by carriage_hill (AR-10s & AR-15s are the Muskets of the 21st Century. Free men need not ask permission.)
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To: neverdem

40 posted on 05/09/2013 4:01:36 AM PDT by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet - Mater tua caligas exercitus gerit ;-{)
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To: Nervous Tick
SCREW “supplements”! If you want the benefits of eating fish... eat FISH.

What're you trying to do, put the pill makers out of business??

/s
41 posted on 05/09/2013 4:07:43 AM PDT by LearsFool ("Thou shouldst not have been old, till thou hadst been wise.")
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To: Republican Wildcat

“Of course, it isn’t just “fish oil” - it is the Omega 3s”

There’s a world of difference between whole Omega 3s and Omega 3s that have oxidized - gone rancid.

If you’re finding yourself burping fishy smells, you can be sure that your fish oil tablets have gone rancid - and rancid oils not only aren’t protective, they make things worse.

And it wouldn’t take a very large proportion of the study participants to have been taking fish oil pills that had gone rancid to mask whatever benefit that the non-rancid pills were providing.


42 posted on 05/09/2013 5:09:27 AM PDT by jdege
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To: neverdem
The Italian Risk and Prevention Study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, enrolled 12,513 people who had not had a myocardial infarction but had evidence of atherosclerosis or had multiple cardiovascular risk factors.

In other words, if you already have heart disease or if you're a fat, lazy, chain-smoking, junk-food addicted, couch potato, then all the fish oil in the world isn't going to save your sorry a$$.

43 posted on 05/09/2013 5:18:03 AM PDT by Labyrinthos
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To: neverdem

The patients were randomized to either a fish oil supplement (1 gram daily of n-3 fatty acids) or placebo.

No wonder it didn’t work. I’d like to see the study repeated with 3 grams per day. I reduced my cholesterol from 220 to 185 by taking 3 of these a day....http://www.swansonvitamins.com/swanson-efas-multiomega-3-6-9-flax-borage-fish-1200-mg-240-sgels?otherSize=SWE020


44 posted on 05/09/2013 5:25:57 AM PDT by csmusaret (America is more divided today , not because of the problems we face but because of Obama's solutions)
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To: neverdem

Hey neverdem, I take fish oil supplements along with a healthy diet and exercise and my good cholesterol is 121! I’m a freak of nature I guess.


45 posted on 05/09/2013 6:05:36 AM PDT by poobear (Socialism in the minds of the elites, is a con-game for the serfs, nothing more.)
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To: steve86
hemorrhagic stroke is a legitimate issue. I believe that you offset that specific risk by significantly reducing the incidence of ischemic stroke with omega 3 or aspirin. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec;225(2):291-5. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.09.006. Epub 2012 Sep 18. Omega-3 fatty acids: benefits for cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. Siegel G, Ermilov E. Source Charité - University Clinic Berlin, D-14195 Berlin, Germany. guenter.siegel@charite.de Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS) is a narrowing of an intracranial artery, which is a common etiology for ischemic stroke. In this commentary, we review key aspects of the discrimination between non-stroke controls and ischemic stroke patients on the background of phospholipid ω3-fatty acid (DHA, EPA) composition. The discussion is embedded in the presentation of general effects of long-chain ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases (CCVDs) and Alzheimer dementia (AD). SUMMARY OF COMMENTARY: ICAS is a common stroke subtype and has emerged as a major factor in recurrent stroke and vascular mortality. DHA and EPA are important fatty acids to distinguish between NCAS (no cerebral arteriosclerotic stenosis) and ICAS in stroke. The risk of ICAS is inversely correlated with the DHA content in phospholipids. Furthermore, a mechanistic explanation has been proposed for the beneficial effects of PUFAs in CCVDs and AD. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the beneficial effects of EPA/DHA for cardiovascular diseases and stroke seem to be beyond question, preventive effects in patients with very mild cognitive dysfunction and beginning Alzheimer's disease undoubtedly need confirmation by larger clinical trials. A collaborative international basic science approach is warranted considering cautiously designed studies in order to avoid ethical problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Am Heart J. 2013 Feb;165(2):208-15.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.10.021. Epub 2013 Jan 4. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic heart failure in the GISSI-Heart Failure Trial: relation with fish intake, circulating biomarkers, and mortality. Masson S, Marchioli R, Mozaffarian D, Bernasconi R, Milani V, Dragani L, Tacconi M, Marfisi RM, Borgese L, Cirrincione V, Febo O, Nicolis E, Maggioni AP, Tognoni G, Tavazzi L, Latini R. Source Department of Cardiovascular Research, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri," Milan, Italy. Abstract Treatment with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Circulating levels of n-3 PUFA, an objective estimation of exposure, have never been measured in a large cohort of patients with HF. METHODS: We measured n-3 PUFA in plasma phospholipids at baseline and after 3 months in 1,203 patients with chronic HF enrolled in the GISSI-Heart Failure trial and randomized to n-3 PUFA 1 g/daily or placebo. N-3 PUFA levels were related to clinical characteristics, pharmacologic treatments, dietary habits, circulating biomarkers, and mortality. RESULTS: Baseline n-3 PUFA (5.1 ± 1.8 mol%) was associated with dietary fish intake, with an average difference of 43% between patients with the lowest and highest consumptions (P < .0001). Baseline eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was inversely related to C-reactive protein, pentraxin-3, adiponectin, natriuretic peptide, and troponin levels. Three-month treatment with n-3 PUFA raised their levels by 43%, independently of dietary fish consumption; increases in EPA levels were associated with decreased pentraxin-3. Low baseline levels of EPA but not DHA were no longer related to higher mortality after the addition of circulating biomarkers to multivariable models. CONCLUSION: Before supplementation, circulating n-3 PUFA levels in patients with chronic HF mainly depend on dietary fish consumption and are inversely related to inflammatory markers and disease severity. Three-month treatment with n-3 PUFA markedly enriched circulating EPA and DHA, independently of fish intake, and lowered pentraxin-3. Low EPA levels are inversely related to total mortality in patients with chronic HF. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Kardiologiia. 2012;52(12):17-23. [Influence of ω-3 PUFAs on predictors of sudden cardiac death in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction]. [Article in Russian] Logacheva IV, Barantseva NG, Vinokurova ES. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on non-invasive predictors of sudden cardiac death (ventricular arrhythmias, QT duration and variability, late ventricular potentials [LVP], microvolt-level T-wave alternans [MTWA], and heart rhythm turbulence [HRT]) in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI) and ventricular heart rhythm disturbances (VHRD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 140 men aged 52.5+/-1.3 years with primary diagnosis of Q-wave MI and I-IV Lown grade VHRD. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: index group (A) and control group (B) consisted of 70 persons each. Patients of index and control groups were divided into another 2 groups by severity of arrhythmic syndrome: Al (n=39) and Bl (n=38) with I-III grade VHRDs; A2 (n=31) and B2 (n=32) with IV-V grade VHRDs. In index groups (Al and A2) ω-3 PUFA medicine was administered additionally to standard therapy at a dose of 1 g/day during 6 months. All patients underwent standard clinical examination and 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring on days 10-14 and in 6 months after MI. RESULTS: Decreases of single and paired ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia runs, total duration of myocardial ischemia were observed in patients of index groups Al and A2 after ω-3 PUFAs treatment. After 6 months of ω-3 PUFAs treatment significant QT shortening and increase of QTc variability were noted. Numbers of patients with LVP in Al and A2 groups decreased 21.3% (p<0.05) and 38.7% (p<0.0l), with HRT - 20.5% and 29.1% (p<0.05), with MTWA - 18% and 16.1% (p<0.01). In control groups the result was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: Administration of 1 g/day of a prescription preparation of 90% ω-3 PUFAs in patients with primary Q-wave MI was associated with decrease of ventricular ectopy severity in patients with low and high grade VHRD and simultaneous reduction of total myocardial ischemia time. ω-3 PUFAs administration for 6 months had marked positive effect on QT duration and variability, LVP, HRT, MTWA. PMID: 23237436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Br J Nutr. 2012 Jun;107 Suppl 2:S201-13. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001596. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Delgado-Lista J, Perez-Martinez P, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F. Source Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Medicine, IMIBIC/Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía/Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain. Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease remains the commonest health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. The use of marine omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA) has been recommended to reduce cardiovascular risk by multiple mechanisms. Objectives: To update the current evidence on the influence of omega-3 on the rate of cardiovascular events. Review Methods: We used the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify clinical trials and randomized controlled trials of omega-3 fatty acids (with quantified quantities) either in capsules or in dietary intake, compared to placebo or usual diet, equal to or longer than 6 months, and written in English. The primary outcome was a cardiovascular event of any kind and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiac death and coronary events. We used RevMan 5·1 (Mantel-Haenszel method). Heterogeneity was assessed by the I2 and Chi2 tests. We included 21 of the 452 pre-selected studies. Results: We found an overall decrease of risk of suffering a cardiovascular event of any kind of 10 % (OR 0·90; [0·85-0·96], p = 0·001), a 9 % decrease of risk of cardiac death (OR 0·91; [0·83-0·99]; p = 0·03), a decrease of coronary events (fatal and non-fatal) of 18 % (OR 0·82; [0·75-0·90]; p < 1 × 10⁻⁴), and a trend to lower total mortality (5 % reduction of risk; OR 0·95; [0·89-1·02]; p = 0·15. Most of the studies analyzed included persons with high cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: marine omega-3 fatty acids are effective in preventing cardiovascular events, cardiac death and coronary events, especially in persons with high cardiovascular risk. PMID: 22591894 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
46 posted on 05/09/2013 11:08:19 AM PDT by kruss3 (Kruss3@gmail.com)
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To: kruss3

Yes, ischemic stroke prevention is a proven benefit of Omega-3. Keep the dose at 3g or below and avoid the increased incidence of the other. No need to “offset”: it hasn’t increased yet (to the best of my knowledge). No, I’m not reading beyond the first sentence of that!


47 posted on 05/09/2013 11:22:15 AM PDT by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not Nurture™)
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To: steve86
I forgot to mention that I had heard that fish oil helps prevent colds and flu.
(1) I have not accepted flu shots for many years.
(2) Since taking fish oil for 2 years, I have had no colds or flu experiences.
FWIW
48 posted on 05/09/2013 12:21:01 PM PDT by imardmd1
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To: South40; Califreak; BunnySlippers; MissMagnolia; steve86; Gene Eric; SamAdams76; DAC21; jdege; ...
n–3 Fatty Acids in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors

BACKGROUND
Trials have shown a beneficial effect of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with a previous myocardial infarction or heart failure. We evaluated the potential benefit of such therapy in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors or atherosclerotic vascular disease who had not had a myocardial infarction.

METHODS
In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we enrolled a cohort of patients who were followed by a network of 860 general practitioners in Italy. Eligible patients were men and women with multiple cardiovascular risk factors or atherosclerotic vascular disease but not myocardial infarction. Patients were randomly assigned to n−3 fatty acids (1 g daily) or placebo (olive oil). The initially specified primary end point was the cumulative rate of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. At 1 year, after the event rate was found to be lower than anticipated, the primary end point was revised as time to death from cardiovascular causes or admission to the hospital for cardiovascular causes.

RESULTS
Of the 12,513 patients enrolled, 6244 were randomly assigned to n−3 fatty acids and 6269 to placebo. With a median of 5 years of follow-up, the primary end point occurred in 1478 of 12,505 patients included in the analysis (11.8%), of whom 733 of 6239 (11.7%) had received n−3 fatty acids and 745 of 6266 (11.9%) had received placebo (adjusted hazard ratio with n−3 fatty acids, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.08; P=0.58). The same null results were observed for all the secondary end points.

CONCLUSIONS
In a large general-practice cohort of patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, daily treatment with n−3 fatty acids did not reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (Funded by Società Prodotti Antibiotici and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00317707.)

So the placebo is a variant of the Mediterranean diet which is high in n−3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. For some reason I didn't check the abstract before I posted the article from Forbes which linked the abstract.

P.S. If a story links the original citation or its abstract, then I don't.

49 posted on 05/09/2013 10:22:20 PM PDT by neverdem (Register pressure cookers! /s)
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To: neverdem

Thanks!


50 posted on 05/09/2013 10:29:20 PM PDT by imardmd1
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