Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

White pride in my classroom
Salon ^ | 6/4/2013

Posted on 06/05/2013 5:01:17 PM PDT by Altura Ct.

He made me uncomfortable and challenged my worldview. But the biggest surprise: I ended up liking him

I didn’t recognize his name at first. It was his writing that caught my attention. An autobiography in 100 words. That was the first assignment, and it was as much for me to get to know my students as to evaluate their writing skills. When I scrolled through the submissions, I saw that many of them were “fun-loving,” “ambitious” and “determined to succeed,” but only one was “living on a radical fringe” that put him at risk of being a “societal leper.” Only one spoke of being duty-bound to a “right wing resistance,” and asserted that if he didn’t stand up for “European folk” and advocate for his race, the “liberal sheep” would continue to erase his heritage.

In an act of piousness, I did to him only what I would have had him do to me: I Googled his name.

I was met with dozens of pictures: grinning in Confederate flag T-shirts, grinning in “Straight Pride” T-shirts, grinning in mid-interview stills excerpted from the evening news.

He was the founder of the White Student Union. And on Tuesdays and Thursdays, he would be in my fiction writing class.

I’d been aware of the White Student Union since its inception the semester before, having encouraged my students to participate in the group’s meetings. (If they disrupted the agenda by overwhelming the message of exclusivity with one of inclusion … I wasn’t going to complain.) Their first speaker, a self-described “racial realist,” had spoken glibly, and in radio-show-host tones, about human nature and diversity — how the combination of the two could only lead to tension and conflict, not strength. Shorty after, the Southern Poverty Law Center placed the White Student Union on its national map of hate groups.

I knew all this, but until that moment, I hadn’t put names or faces to the students who’d started the club. And there it was: a name, a face.

I was excited, and immediately ashamed of my excitement. A celebrity, in my classroom.

But the more I clicked through his online persona, the more nervous I became. From what I was reading — and the video clips available — he seemed to be a smooth-talking, levelheaded advocate for his point of view. He had the kind of facts and figures on hand that, though they sounded specious, I couldn’t immediately disprove. What if he challenged me in class?

How would I respond, at the end of the day — having already taught three 75-minute classes, my brain mostly fried — besides saying something innocuous about the beauty of human difference? I was not able, for instance, to controvert some of the more specific arguments of Pat Buchanan. I was not current with the politics of the ANC Youth League in South Africa. I probably should have been. But I also needed to be current in contemporary American fiction, in community container gardening, and with the trade rumors surrounding the Washington Wizards. There were only so many hours in the day. These were the excuses wheeling through my brain.

I was quick to seek out my colleagues, and what they told me seemed right: “Just teach the class. Don’t change anything.”

I consoled myself with that. Teaching fiction argues strongly against the tendency to generalize. Writing about all people of color, for instance, or about all homosexuals, is the same silly oversimplification as writing about all people, which results in flaccid storytelling. Revision often necessitates choosing one of those characters and getting to know them much more intimately—their strengths and weaknesses, the fears that keep them up at night, the small moments of beauty that move them through a day. In other words, to write better fiction, it is not unusual for me to ask my students to humanize their characters. Would I offer any different advice to a “racial realist”? I’d simply teach the stories I was planning to teach, focusing on the unique complexities of the people who populated them.

But the first unsettling moment came early. We were reading, “What Happened During the Ice Storm,” a story about a group of teenage boys who, during an ice storm, are struck by a sudden compassion to remove their jackets and cover some frozen, dazed pheasants. In doing this, they keep the pheasants alive, where otherwise they would have made for easy prey.

As the students discussed this story in groups, he turned companionably in conversation to each of the two women sitting next to him. They seemed to be commiserating about some point the writer was making. But after a few minutes, he raised both hands in exasperation. “I can’t take this!” he said, and put his chin to his chest, removing himself from further chatter.

I thought about what to do. I thought about breaking up the discussions to address his problem as a class. What I came up with was this: I said nothing. And the little pods of conversation in the room continued.

Eventually, I opened them into a circle, and posed the question of the merits (or demerits) of the story’s “happy ending.” He raised his hand and said that the author clearly had no blue-collar background. That this wasn’t a happy ending. His voice was authoritative, measured, articulate. He said that there’s nothing beautiful about an ice storm, that it can wipe out an entire year’s crop. It became clear that by questioning the author, he was, in a way, mocking my own pantywaist reading of the text. The other students looked at one another, a bit like dazed pheasants, themselves, and I conceded that his reading was certainly another way of interpreting the story. He went on to say that furthermore, if he’d ever come home without his jacket in an ice storm, his kin would have beaten him, that by not killing the pheasants, those boys had deprived their families of food. That would be unheard of in a poor rural community.

I asked him where the story gave clues as to the community’s socioeconomics, or if it was possible that a rural community might have the means to be well-fed. He said he’d never seen a rural community that wasn’t poor.

This was the beginning of what I saw to be the primary means of his instigative expression: not the racism I was expecting, but an insistence on intellectualizing a kind of redneck order of the world. An insistence that the things that make liberal professors cringe (child beating, or maybe even the word “kin,” for instance) were the vocabulary of legitimate analysis.

Instead of finding a counter-example — a rural community that was, for instance, doing just fine — I said: “OK. Maybe what I read as compassion or whimsy was actually foolishness. That’s possible, too.”

The following class, he arrived wearing a shirt with a Confederate flag. The words “It Ain’t Over” were printed beneath it, but it was subtle — a dark green shirt, the flag a small one over the breast, with a larger version on the back, which was pressed against his chair. As I saw it, I thought, “What are his rights? Are they limited by the level of distraction he poses?”

When he leaned forward, I thought I saw a student crane her neck suspiciously. But it was only a T-shirt. It was distracting, yes, but not much more so than his camouflaged backpack and crew cut.

That day, we read Kafka’s “A Hunger Artist,” and my questions quickly revealed that he was one of the only ones to have read it. He was quick (and smart) to point out the story’s commentary on the nature of celebrity and its perversions, and seemed to take pleasure in the Hunger Artist’s pitiful death in a bed of straw. “The same thing,” he said, “happens with celebrities today. Just wait until it happens to Miley Cyrus.”

If I was once ashamed of my excitement at having him in class, that shame didn’t keep me from talking about him. Though it made me uncomfortable, he’d become the most interesting part of my teaching. I was primed for something to boil over, but I also found myself liking him. He arrived to class on time; he was prepared; he was respectful. He had a way of calling me professor in the middle of sentences that appealed to my ego. “You know, Professor, what Kafka might be saying here …”

In spite of his militancy, he was quick to joke and smile. He often stayed after class to shoot the breeze a little.

I spoke to a colleague about this, that I felt myself being charmed against my will. She was not surprised. “He’s a community organizer,” she told me. “He has to be likable. He has to be charismatic.”

There’s an anxiety to that, but of course she was right, that people espousing wildly antithetical beliefs to me can — surprise! — be pleasant. They can check me out at grocery stores, and help me with legal documents; they can be my neighbors. And how would I even know?

Or am I simply allowing myself to be fooled? Is it just that, as a middle-class white man, it doesn’t come up all that often? The difference between those people and whatever it was that my student was peddling was that with my student, I’d received the memo beforehand. It was out in the open and brazenly so (the Confederate flags on his shirts were getting larger, and he’d adhered a sticker to his laptop that read “The South WILL Rise Again”).

It was a few weeks later that he stayed after class to alert me to an upcoming absence. He was going to CPAC as a member of the college Republicans. It was decent of him to tell me, but it also seemed like he was bracing for a fight. “It’s an excused absence because the SGA is paying for it,” he said. To my knowledge, there is no such arrangement between the student government and the university. Not that it mattered. I told him it was fine.

I can’t remember how I first saw the videos. It may have been the friend who emailed me, the subject heading: “Is this your student???” I clicked the link and saw the photo at the top of the page; indeed, there he was, wearing that same Confederate flag shirt, and now a credential, looking as open as he often looked in class when discussing “story versus plot.”

The video footage was of a Q&A at a conservative strategy session. And though it wasn’t my student asking the questions, there he was, sitting right next to the questioner (another member of the WSU) without any measure of shock, without offering any restraint, as the question was smugly posed what it was that Fredrick Douglass had to forgive his former slave owner … “giving him shelter and food.”

It was hard for me to take. Though I’d seen it coming, I felt a bit betrayed. I’d been telling myself that he was a decent kid who’d gotten sucked up by the experiment of his own rhetoric — that he enjoyed the attention more than the ideas, themselves. But this was CPAC. This was hand-held iPhone stuff. He wasn’t being hijacked by the liberal media. The rest of the room was audibly uncomfortable with the level of insensitivity.

His profile in the national media continued to grow, and by the middle of the semester, he was the most hated man on campus. There were rumors that, to intercept black men from committing crimes against white women, the WSU would lead nighttime patrols on campus. There were rumors that they were training in mixed martial arts, and that they were networking with racist groups across the country. And yet, in class, he continued to be guileless. Outside of an occasional raised eyebrow, I couldn’t even tell if my other students knew who he was.

One day, he came in a half-hour after class had started, and then stuck around to apologize.

“Sorry I was late,” he told me. “I was dealing with the police.”

“The police?” I said.

“I might not be in class on Thursday. I got my first death threat.” He lifted his computer to show me his Facebook wall.

“Usually, they just call me a motherfucker or tell me to suck a dick,” he said. “But this one says they’re going to kill me on Thursday.”

“That’s terrible,” I said. “What are the police doing?”

“They’re not doing anything.”

“You shouldn’t have to deal with that,” I said, while at the same time knowing that — had he not been in my class, had I not seen him furrowing his brow over Carver or O’Connor, asking serious questions about characterization and voice — a more reprehensible me might have muttered he deserved it.

He stood with his hands clutched in front of his waist, looking down at his chest, very much like a frightened child.

“It’s been getting worse for you?” I asked.

“These interviews keep getting it wrong. They take out all the good stuff I say.”

“It’s a huge price to pay for this kind of celebrity.”

“I guess I have to double down,” he said. “I don’t like this. I don’t like this at all.”

This was my moment. I thought maybe I could change something. There he was, after class, a scared kid … and me, in loco parentis. But I wasn’t sure what to say.

“Or,” I tried, “you can just go silent.”

He thought about that. “But then they just write whatever they want.”

“For now,” I said, “and it might get worse before it gets better. But if you don’t feed it, it will eventually starve.”

“That’s interesting,” he said, looking me in the eye. “I might try that.”

Maybe I’d gotten through; maybe I’d made a connection. And what was more, at a university where I felt politics were often treated with apathy, new and myriad connections were being made. A few professors had organized a teach-in about racism on campus; the president of the university was forced to comment on policies of inclusion, and students were watching the news, staging protests and talking about it. At a majority white school on the edge of a majority black city, I’d once sat through a presentation that bemoaned the fears that “suburban people” harbored for “urban people,” keeping them off of public transit. At least now the issue was becoming black and white.

The next emails came on May 2.

On May 1 — May Day — there had been Workers of the World-type protests in D.C. The emails in my inbox had subject lines like, “At it again,” and “Is this what it’s like in class?” They linked to videos of the White Student Union standing in a line across a street, calmly leaning Confederate flags (more appropriately sized for poles) against their shoulders, as a wave of bearded and backpacked anarchists approached them, flanked them, and began to call them “fuckers” and “racist pigs.”

They chanted, “Nazi scum, your time will come,” told them to “get in the fucking ground where you belong,” and held extended middle fingers fractions of inches away from their faces. There was my student, unflinching, chewing a piece of gum, occasionally asking someone to stop grabbing at his flag. In other videos, he posed measured questions about affirmative action to his screaming counterparts. It was only after someone managed to rip his flag from his hands that he lunged forward, was caught up in a shoving match, and was lost in a swarm of police. Later, I read that bags of urine had been thrown at him.

I guess that for someone accustomed to an all-in brand of righteousness, my suggestion of just shutting up had lacked a certain credibility. What kind of “connection” had I really made? I’d told him to keep his opinions to himself. Was I comfortable with that advice, even when giving it to someone who had advocated for a whites-only state?

“I know,” he’d said to me earlier in the semester, “you probably don’t agree with my politics, because no professors do, but you’re one of the only ones who treats me like a human.”

I’d wanted to receive it as a compliment, but does receiving a compliment always mean letting down your guard?

In a way, I was getting my own education in human contradiction. As much as I railed against it in my students’ stories, I’d been acting no differently in my attempts to oversimplify — to fit him most easily into a prefabricated slot in my mind. I had not wanted to acknowledge his complexity, let alone adjust my teaching style to it. Was he the manipulative leader of a dangerous hate group? Or a college kid experimenting with the power of his voice? Of course, he could be both, and he could be many other things to which spending two and a half hours a week with him had granted me no access.

It was no wonder he’d become frustrated trying to exist in media sound bites. Who among us can keep a message on fire in 30-second bursts — for good or bad — before having to lie down in the straw, exhausted, demoralized or forgotten? On one of the last days of the semester I saw him in the hall, hours before we were due to meet for class. He was playing with his phone.

“Hi,” I said, catching him off guard. He looked up and said hello as though he had no idea who I was. But after class, later that day, he stayed again. “Professor,” he said, “I just want to really thank you for saying hello to me today.”

“Yeah?” I said.

“This morning, a girl spit on me. When you said hello, it really turned my day around.”

“I’m sorry,” I said to him. “You shouldn’t have to go through that.”

What should he have to go through? I still had no idea.


TOPICS: Constitution/Conservatism; Culture/Society; Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: academicbias; doublestandard; racialdivision

1 posted on 06/05/2013 5:01:17 PM PDT by Altura Ct.
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Positive story. Hope it sticks...


2 posted on 06/05/2013 5:10:54 PM PDT by DwFry (Baby Boomers Killed Western Civilization!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Who is this about? I don’t get it. It must be my headache or something.


3 posted on 06/05/2013 5:14:48 PM PDT by PghBaldy (12/14 - 930am -rampage begins... 12/15 - 1030am - Obama's advance team scouts photo-op locations.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: PghBaldy

it is about me...or you


4 posted on 06/05/2013 5:21:08 PM PDT by bigheadfred ( barry your mouth is writing checks your ass cant cash)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Pretty remarkable that Salon would touch this one.


5 posted on 06/05/2013 5:22:01 PM PDT by Cicero (Marcus Tullius)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

note his liberal colleague says the kid HAS to be nice, he’s a community organizer. wonder why the lib author didn’t decide to connect that to obama.

i guess lib community organizers get a pass, they can only be genuine, only conservative organizers are acting.


6 posted on 06/05/2013 5:22:37 PM PDT by Secret Agent Man (Gone Galt; Not averse to Going Bronson.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: DwFry

White pride. It’s justified. White people eliminated slavery in N. America, Europe, & Australia. Maybe S. America too. I surely don’t see much to feel guilty about when the lefties push that. If anyone wants to fight slavery I can give them a list of Muslim countries to go to.


7 posted on 06/05/2013 5:25:36 PM PDT by wrencher
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

“What should he have to go through? I still had no idea.”

He shouldn’t have to go through the hate and abuse, dumb-ox!


8 posted on 06/05/2013 5:26:13 PM PDT by spel_grammer_an_punct_polise (Learn three chords and you, too, can be a Rock Star!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

I like the T-Shirt with the Confederate flag with the words “It Ain’t Over Yet” !


9 posted on 06/05/2013 5:28:05 PM PDT by Red_Devil 232 (VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: PghBaldy

I am guessing (just guessing) that this is about a student at a university in Maryland—IIRC it was either U of Maryland Baltimore County or Towson State—who founded a White Student Union this past year and received a torrent of abuse from all levels of the university for it, including from professors and administration. The line about “majority-white school on the fringes of a majority-black city” automatically makes me think of Baltimordor.

I don’t remember the guy’s name, but I remember seeing part of an interview with him and he was extremely articulate and well-spoken.

}:-)4


10 posted on 06/05/2013 5:38:30 PM PDT by Moose4 (SHALL. NOT. BE. INFRINGED.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Yes, because all Republicans are White First Confederate flag shirt wearing back woods types.

If anything, it’s a over coddling angst driven piece of drivel aimed at the left leaners to simply say, “you know there are one or two almost OK Republicans, no matter how much racism is only a thin layer beneath everything they do/say/think.”


11 posted on 06/05/2013 5:40:46 PM PDT by SengirV
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: PghBaldy

Matthew Heimbach, possibly? (the founder of Towson University’s White Student Union).

This is about anti-White racism- as spel_grammer said, abuse + discrimination, aggression, violence, the systematic destruction of American (AKA “white”) culture. It IS about supremacy, but not white supremacy as it’s generally believed to be. It’s about crushing white people. Or being crushed out of existence.
I see the requisite nazi slurs are present in the comments & referenced in the article. Not much is further from national socialist ideology than Christian Southron conservatism.

Matt is a good man- decent, rational... fearless. I don’t know if he “hates” the SPLC, but who doesn’t? (They make it so easy.) There are videos of him speaking linked on southernnationalistnetwork.com

Red_Devil, thank you for the heads up. I sure want that t shirt.
The Confederate flag (for the billionth time) is about heritage not “hate”.

God Bless.


12 posted on 06/05/2013 5:51:23 PM PDT by KGeorge (Till we're together again, Gypsy girl. May 28, 1998- June 3, 2013)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

The story is really about the teacher, not so much the kid - she’s forced to confront her own prejudices (which doesn’t quite actually realize she has), her own stereotyping of others (whom she doesn’t really know and doesn’t fully understand), and in the process, her own feeling of superiority in being one of the good people in liberal la-la land.

The whole experience shakes her up (the way liberal professors try to shake up kids who hang on to their traditional values), and in the end, she doesn’t quite know what to make of it.

There may be some hope for her yet.


13 posted on 06/05/2013 5:57:06 PM PDT by Stosh
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

If this same likable kid had been a Black Panther pushing the Black agenda, the Professor would have fell in love with him and his classmates would like him and half the white girls in the class would be having sex with him.

It doesn’t pay to be proud and white. Not in college, not at work and not on most Social internet sites..


14 posted on 06/05/2013 5:58:23 PM PDT by Venturer
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.
Very interesting, although the kid loses me with the confederate flag.. I mean, I understands what it means, and I understand, as a conservative, its not about race, hate, etc etc, but that is a symbol that has been appropriated by the left as a sign of hate, and no amount of rehab on our side will ever get it back.

Should probably move on from using that, since overall, it detracts from the message.

15 posted on 06/05/2013 6:04:56 PM PDT by Paradox (Unexpected things coming for the next few years.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: PghBaldy

This is about Scott Terry, I think.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQf9_oflU9s

I’m not a fan of his. He made the boneheaded comment, in response to the fact that Fredrick Douglass wrote a letter to his former slavemaster forgiving him, Terry said, “For what? For giving him food and shelter?”

I know that libs love to play the racism card at the drop of a hat, but this guy is definitely racist (or just plain ignorant, or willfully stupid) if he believes that slavemasters did their slaves a favor by owning them and exploiting their work.


16 posted on 06/05/2013 6:23:28 PM PDT by VictoryGal (Never give up, never surrender! REMEMBER NEDA)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Bump for re-reading later.


17 posted on 06/05/2013 6:29:17 PM PDT by Senator_Blutarski
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Moose4
googling the author says he teaches at Towson State, and this is most likely the student in question...


18 posted on 06/05/2013 6:33:24 PM PDT by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: wrencher

White people also spearheaded the modern idea of the primacy of the individual. Of individual natural laws and rights. The very thing that this and most Western Civilizations are supposedly built on. Personal Liberty.


19 posted on 06/05/2013 6:36:46 PM PDT by Jim from C-Town (The government is rarely benevolent, often malevolent and never benign!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Why does he have to go through anything to voice his opinion, live his own life...on his own terms.

Why....why does the professor encourage him to shut-up?


20 posted on 06/05/2013 7:06:57 PM PDT by EBH (The government that sits in Washington, D.C. is not the United States government.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Moose4
I'm wondering if on some level it might also be a parody of various identify politic groups and activist. The community organizer bit seems telling.
21 posted on 06/05/2013 7:13:58 PM PDT by Red Dog #1
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Interesting article. It sounds like the professor is wed to his Liberal ‘only certain race topics can be addressed or celebrated’ worldview, but from a human perspective he recognizes that Heimbach (the student being described) is more moral in his human interactions than the self-described anti-racists.

When I was a foolish Liberal I often felt similarly to this professor. I recall going to see Charles Murray speak when he came to my university. I was repulsed by how the allegedly more moral anti-racists acted in disturbing Murray’s speech. I’ve long since abandoned my Liberal ‘only certain race topics can be addressed or celebrated’ worldview and my personal repulsion of how Liberals often act was a stimulant in driving me away from that incorrect viewpoint.

I’m glad that my morality allowed me to listen to Murray rather than attack him like my peers. Actually listening to Murray and doing my own independent research on his arguments allowed me to see that Murray’s facts are accurate and Murray’s conclusions are likely correct.


22 posted on 06/05/2013 7:31:39 PM PDT by NotYourAverageDhimmi
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Venturer; wardaddy

Yep.


23 posted on 06/05/2013 7:32:06 PM PDT by Travis McGee (www.EnemiesForeignAndDomestic.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: Altura Ct.

Interesting. Thanks for posting.


24 posted on 06/05/2013 8:06:58 PM PDT by Liberty Valance (Keep a simple manner for a happy life :o)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: wrencher

Ultra short history lesson on slavery in America
Of all 1,515,605 families in the 15 slave states in 1860, nearly 400,000 held slaves (roughly one in four),[3] amounting to 8% of all American families. So at the apex of slavery in the United States only 8% of American families owned staves and some of those slaves were owned by black Americans.

So why do modern day blacks blame the entire white race for slavery when in fact it was white Americans who stopped slavery? Gee, maybe they have been brainwashed by liberal politicians for political advantage.

Black chieftains sold black slaves to Arabs. Arabs sold those slaves to slave traders. Slavery was a fact of life. Even free black Americans owned black slaves. Black Africans and Arabs made slavery possible. White Americans stopped slavery. Where is the gratitude on the part of blacks toward white abolitionists?

Editors note: I received email challenging the fact that black Americans owned black slaves. Here is a research source:

BLACK SLAVEHOLDERS

Some slaveholders were black or had some black ancestry. In 1830 there were 3,775 such slaveholders in the South who owned 12,760 slaves,[142] with 80% of them located in Louisiana, South Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. There were economic differences between free blacks of the Upper South and Deep South, with the latter fewer in number, but wealthier and typically of mixed race. Half of the black slaveholders lived in cities rather than the countryside, with most in New Orleans and Charleston. Especially New Orleans had a large, relatively wealthy free black population (gens de couleur) composed of people of mixed race, who had become a third class between whites and enslaved blacks under French and Spanish rule. Relatively few slaveholders were “substantial planters.” Of those who were, most were of mixed race, often endowed by white fathers with some property and social capital.[143] For example, Andrew Durnford of New Orleans was listed as owning seventy-seven slaves.[142] According to Rachel Kranz: “Durnford was known as a stern master who worked his slaves hard and punished them often in his efforts to make his Louisiana sugar plantation a success.”[144] The historians John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger wrote:
A large majority of profit-oriented free black slaveholders resided in the Lower South. For the most part, they were persons of mixed racial origin, often women who cohabited or were mistresses of white men, or mulatto men ... . Provided land and slaves by whites, they owned farms and plantations, worked their hands in the rice, cotton, and sugar fields, and like their white contemporaries were troubled with runaways.[145]
The historian Ira Berlin wrote:
In slave societies, nearly everyone – free and slave – aspired to enter the slaveholding class, and upon occasion some former slaves rose into slaveholders’ ranks. Their acceptance was grudging, as they carried the stigma of bondage in their lineage and, in the case of American slavery, color in their skin.[146]
Free blacks were perceived “as a continual symbolic threat to slaveholders, challenging the idea that ‘black’ and ‘slave’ were synonymous.” Free blacks were seen as potential allies of fugitive slaves and “slaveholders bore witness to their fear and loathing of free blacks in no uncertain terms.”[147] For free blacks, who had only a precarious hold on freedom, “slave ownership was not simply an economic convenience but indispensable evidence of the free blacks’ determination to break with their slave past and their silent acceptance – if not approval – of slavery.”[148]
The historian James Oakes in 1982 notes that, “The evidence is overwhelming that the vast majority of black slaveholders were free men who purchased members of their families or who acted out of benevolence.”[149] After 1810 southern states made it increasingly difficult for any slaveholders to free slaves. Often the purchasers of family members were left with no choice but to maintain, on paper, the owner-slave relationship. In the 1850s “there were increasing efforts to restrict the right to hold bondsmen on the grounds that slaves should be kept ‘as far as possible under the control of white men only.”[150]
In his 1985 statewide study of black slaveholders in South Carolina, Larry Koger challenged the benevolent view. He found that the majority of black slaveholders appeared to hold slaves as a commercial decision. For instance, he noted that in 1850 more than 80% of black slaveholders were of mixed race, but nearly 90% of their slaves were classified as black.[151] He also noted the number of small artisans in Charleston who held slaves to help with their businesses.


25 posted on 06/05/2013 9:40:22 PM PDT by Samuel II (paypal)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Stosh
There may be some hope for her yet.

After she receives all the vitriol that is sure to come from her left-wing "friends", she just might.

The academic equivalent to being mugged.

26 posted on 06/05/2013 10:23:31 PM PDT by eddie willers
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: wrencher; Travis McGee; Squantos; Pelham; chasio649; N-R-T

Why is slavery the end all

Been a lot worse things

Minority grievance is why....

Is more special when blacks are enslaved by whites

Why

Are whites held to Hebrew national higher authority

Why did north american slaves live longer than kunta kintes cousins left behind

Or fed better

Housed better etc

slavery was once considered benevolent over vanquish and exterminate the population

Ill tell ya....the mongols and huns and pissed off legions or turkomens or Rus

Or vengeful SS or Nips or Stalin or Beria’s wrath

Or Saladin or the grand Mahdis wrath

Many many things a damn site worse than slavery
Once a constant of the human condition even tolerated by parts of the Bible

I am long over it

The redress is killing us....crippled our will and will eventually turn us into a turd world hellhole baring a war

And stupid whites will still hand wring over white supremacy or racism

Obama and his bolshie govt is merely a harbinger

Don’t doubt me

This is exactly what kills once great nations and cultures....complacency


27 posted on 06/05/2013 11:46:44 PM PDT by wardaddy (wanna know how my kin felt during Reconstruction in Mississippi, you fixin to find out firsthand)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: DwFry

I like the professor very much. If Obama acted this way he could be great.


28 posted on 06/06/2013 5:15:14 AM PDT by jimfree (In November 2016 my 12 y/o granddaughter will have more quality exec experience than Barack Obama)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: wardaddy
Why is slavery the end all

Indeed and why are whites(and why do whites allow themselves to be) held to some arbitrary 'standard' that no other race or ethnicity is held to?

29 posted on 06/06/2013 6:05:19 AM PDT by Altura Ct.
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: wardaddy; wrencher; Travis McGee; Squantos; Pelham; chasio649
White Pride is justifiable in this hostile environment where we are expected to feel guilt for the actions of that eight percent 148 years ago. Multiculturalism and the worship of diversity has replaced Family and the worship of God - especially in government and in the hearts of "low information voters".

Unfortunately the term White Pride itself has been hijacked by skinhead Neo-Nazis,

seen-kyle

mixed martial arts fighters of dubious sanity,

MMA-fighter-1MMA-fighter-2

crappy punk bands...

punk-rock-racists

and some just unclear on the concept.

black-white-pride-guyhoodie-supremicists

It's folks like that who make this fella look downright acceptable.

racist-redneck

30 posted on 06/06/2013 3:42:34 PM PDT by N-R-T (Non-Recognizable Target)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: N-R-T

Great images of white pride losers. When will an ADL party start here, like the UK’s EDL. The piss poor govt. USA now has is the culmination of years of Affirmative Action policies and disproportionate hiring and promotion of less capable people based on their race.

Could it be any plainer that the USA govt is racist and is trying to oppress white people and also impose sharia rules to benefit Muslims over Christians. It’s working, both are a smaller and smaller part of the population.


31 posted on 06/06/2013 6:05:45 PM PDT by wrencher
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: wrencher

Our government consults with the ACLU and the SPLC as if those entities are officially part of the government. Muslim Brotherhood has infiltrated the State Department, the FBI and, five years ago, the White House. They’ve been throwing money at all of our educational institutions since the G.H.W. Bush administration.

All is not lost. No matter what the Liberals, socialists, Communists, Democrats and Islamists do they will not win. God and His people do.


32 posted on 06/06/2013 6:41:10 PM PDT by N-R-T (Non-Recognizable Target)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: N-R-T

The crowd in those pics certainly are a credit to us, lol!


33 posted on 06/06/2013 11:15:17 PM PDT by Pelham (Deport illegal aliens? Hell yes!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson