Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Outrage as female Texas Republican says rape kits CAN cause abortions
Daily Mail ^ | 6/25/2013 | Ben Leach

Posted on 06/25/2013 8:08:01 AM PDT by autumnraine

A Republican state representative has sparked outrage by suggesting rape kits can be used to terminate pregnancies. Jodie Laudenberg, a member of the Texas House of Representatives, made the comments during a debate about a new anti-abortion bill. Miss Laudenberg said: 'In the emergency room they have what’s called rape kits, where a woman can get cleaned out. 'The woman had five months to make that decision, at this point we are looking at a baby that is very far along in its development.' Her apparent confusion about 'rape kits' - the equipment used by medical personnel during forensic examinations to gather physical evidence following allegations of rape or sexual assault - sparked widespread ridicule on social media sites. The bill, which was passed by the House on Monday, would ban abortions after the 20th week of pregnancy, require doctors to have admitting privileges at nearby hospitals and limit abortions to surgical centers. Miss Laudenberg, the bill's sponsor, made the comments in response to a proposal by another Republican member for an exemption for women who were victims of rape and incest. The bill is due to be heard by the state Senate today. Hundreds of protesters have crowded into the state capitol building over the past few days to oppose the measure. According to the National Council of State Legislatures, eight state legislatures have banned abortions after 20 weeks. Arizona did so at 18 weeks and Arkansas passed a ban after 12 weeks. Federal judges have thrown out the laws in Arizona and Iowa, and judges have blocked similar measures in the other states.

(Excerpt) Read more at dailymail.co.uk ...


TOPICS: Government; Miscellaneous; US: Texas
KEYWORDS:
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-59 next last
I am pro-life, but this woman does not help the cause in any way.

If they misconstrued the comments, please let me know.

1 posted on 06/25/2013 8:08:01 AM PDT by autumnraine
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

Ok, when I hit post, there was paragraphs. Apologies to everyone’s eyes.


2 posted on 06/25/2013 8:08:34 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

... there *were* paragraphs...

Jeez, I’m going back to bed.


3 posted on 06/25/2013 8:09:03 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine
A female version of Todd Akin . . . just what we don't need.
4 posted on 06/25/2013 8:09:39 AM PDT by Vigilanteman (Obama: Fake black man. Fake Messiah. Fake American. How many fakes can you fit in one Zer0?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

nsa’s got yer computer!


5 posted on 06/25/2013 8:11:49 AM PDT by schm0e ("we are in the midst of a coup.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

Talking points for GOP on topic of rape:

1) Rape is a violation of women
2) Perps who rape women should be arrested and sentenced to death penalty.

Next question please.


6 posted on 06/25/2013 8:12:02 AM PDT by ealgeone (obama, border)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

The subject of rape sure can evoke the nuttiest of comments.


7 posted on 06/25/2013 8:14:07 AM PDT by ScottinVA ( Liberal is to patriotism as Kermit Gosnell is to neonatal care.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

I really never imagined how completely uneducated and clueless our politicians really are (both parties).

In a world of sentient beings, one could imagine some sort of implicit IQ required to be demonstrated before holding public office.

However, given Pelosi, Reid, the Obamadork, Boxer, Feinstein, ALL KENNEDYs, and the entire state of Massachusetts, it appears that sentient beings are no longer extant in large portions of the country.


8 posted on 06/25/2013 8:14:45 AM PDT by Da Coyote
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: ealgeone

Talking points for GOP on topic of rape:

1) Rape is a violation of women
2) Perps who rape women should be arrested and sentenced to death penalty.

Next question please.


EXACTLY. NO further discussion needed.


9 posted on 06/25/2013 8:14:50 AM PDT by ScottinVA ( Liberal is to patriotism as Kermit Gosnell is to neonatal care.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine
a proposal by another Republican member for an exemption for women who were victims of rape and incest.

I'm pretty extreme on this -- I do not think that anyone "gets the right" to kill a child, if the circumstances are just right. Nope. Killing a child is wrong. I don't care what the extenuating circumstances happen to be.

Abortion is murder of a living human being. It's wrong. End of story.

The proposal does not help.
The idiotic comment about the rape kit doesn't help.

If the GOP can't get abortion right, they can't get anythign right.

10 posted on 06/25/2013 8:14:51 AM PDT by ClearCase_guy
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: ealgeone; All

Yep. This is almost (no, I’d say equal) to Todd Akin’s “legitmate rape” comment.

Just STFU if you DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT BECAUSE YOU MAKE US ALL LOOK LIKE LOONS!!!!


11 posted on 06/25/2013 8:16:14 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

Actually, what she said doesn’t dissuade my opinion of abortion. Her opinion is no more silly that the thousands of crap-laden comments I hear from liberals.

In case you haven’t noticed, just being moral, right and on the right side of human and spiritual instances isn’t enough any more. Lies, mischaracterizations, and repetitive onslaughts are the norm and more effective.

So, I choose to ignore this, and Paula Deen’s comments and the few others that our biased media choose to promote.


12 posted on 06/25/2013 8:16:19 AM PDT by Gaffer
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: schm0e

They’ve probably had it for a while.


13 posted on 06/25/2013 8:16:38 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

Ok, when I hit post, there was paragraphs.

**************

But did you preview prior to hitting post.


14 posted on 06/25/2013 8:19:02 AM PDT by deport
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Gaffer

Her idiotic statement doesn’t dissuade my opinion of abortion either, but if we want to persuade anyone to the ills of abortion... well, we mustn’t look like brain dead zombies.


15 posted on 06/25/2013 8:19:34 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: deport

Dang that check box that says I already previews when I didn’t...


16 posted on 06/25/2013 8:21:12 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

She was no doubt confused in this instance.
When viewed in a vacuum one would think “how stupid is she?”
The reality is that any elected official that spends a lot of time talking to lobbyists, activists groups, other legislators, etc. often mixes up one issue with another from time to time.
The topics surrounding abortion alone are vast starting from conception through 95% delivery.
I can see how talking about the morning after pill, rape kits, and other things would cumulatively exhausting on the brain when many bills have been discussed and debated.
I know as an attorney I sometimes will get on a train of though and mix up facts from one case to another or attributed case law to the wrong court or legal issue.
It just happens, and anyone who spends a lot of time in it spoils from time to time.
The only difference is that the media won’t ridicule leftists for worrying about “the island capsizing from all the weight”.
But a pro lifer is always going to be a target.
It’s not just the administration that had adopted the Rules for Radicals.
Ridicule is a powerful weapon.
Hopefully she will recover and learn from it and move on.
Don’t be afraid of ridicule, but don’t give the. Any more opportunities than necessary.


17 posted on 06/25/2013 8:21:12 AM PDT by Clump ( the tree of liberty is withering like a stricken fig tree)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

That depends on what is in the rape kit. If they put the “morning after” pill in there, then the statement is true. One can also reasonably argue that if the use of the rape kit and examination results in the staff even recommending the morning after pill, then it can cause abortions.


18 posted on 06/25/2013 8:22:13 AM PDT by taxcontrol
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Clump

I agree about your capsize argument.

The left will NEVER ridicule their own.

That is something we must rise above and not give excuses for our own’s stupidity. Heck, someone who watches Law and Order knows though.

It can never be “well, they are stupid too.”


19 posted on 06/25/2013 8:26:29 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: taxcontrol

Are you saying they shove the morning after pill into the vagina?

Oh dear Lord.

We are all in trouble if many pro-life people think this way.


20 posted on 06/25/2013 8:27:52 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

They have the morning after pill, which can be administered to any woman who wants it, including rape victims.

It would be part of the standard items available for rape victims. Calling that a “kit” is confusing since there is something we call a “rape kit”. Of course, the idea of a ‘rape kit’ seems odd anyway — is there something special about rape that requires different forensic collection? I think the point is that they have trained the medical staff to use this so they don’t have to call in the police forensics unit?

I mean, wouldn’t a forensics unit have all the items needed to collect evidence? Why would THEY need a special kit just for rape victims?

The left is the party of ridicule and slander, so of course anything you say that isn’t spot-on will get you national scorn. They have ruined this country with their incivility.


21 posted on 06/25/2013 8:28:34 AM PDT by CharlesWayneCT
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine
We are all in trouble if many pro-life people think this way.

Are you unfamiliar with how pro-life people "think?"

You seem quite eager to assume they "think" in some way that causes you discomfort.

22 posted on 06/25/2013 8:31:25 AM PDT by Trailerpark Badass (There should be a whole lot more going on than throwing bleach, said one woman.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: taxcontrol

THe primary purpose of that pill would be to prevent pregnancy, but it would have the same effect — a woman would not be pregnant after 20 weeks.

The better point was that the woman had 20 weeks to decide she was raped and had to get rid of the baby. Five months is more than enough time, so they really didn’t need a rape or incest exception.


23 posted on 06/25/2013 8:31:51 AM PDT by CharlesWayneCT
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Trailerpark Badass

Yes, I am uncomfortable if pro-life people think that a rape kit that swabs for DNA ‘cleans them out’ and prevents pregnancy.

Pro-life doesn’t equal anti-science.


24 posted on 06/25/2013 8:34:15 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 22 | View Replies]

To: CharlesWayneCT

so they really didn’t need a rape or incest exception.

Thank you. Someone finally “gets it”...


25 posted on 06/25/2013 8:35:10 AM PDT by Paisan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: CharlesWayneCT

I would prefer a medical professional collecting dna from my vagina over a ‘forensics unit.’

Call me crazy.


26 posted on 06/25/2013 8:35:32 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

I was thinking the same thing. What is it with Republicans,,every time they talk about rape I cringe,,because they just come across as heartless neanderthals. If this woman is confused, she needs to clarify it..but since she has not issued a statement clarifying the stupid remarks, I am inclined to think she meant it and has put herself in the company of Todd Akin. What a dumb woman!


27 posted on 06/25/2013 8:35:51 AM PDT by austinaero
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine; taxcontrol

It was clear to me that they meant “in the rape kit”, not “in the vagina”.

In other words, if the hospital were to include the morning after pill as part of their “rape kits”, then the rape kit would include the means for the woman to prevent having a child.

It might not be in the physical box supplied for forensics, it could be in the supply cabinet where those boxes are stored. Probably wouldn’t be, because the hospital has a place to store pills. But it is highly likely that it is on the CHECKLIST that the hospital has for response to a rape victim.

They probably also have RU-486 available, which is an abortion pill, and it is likely ALSO on the checklist of items to be discussed with the rape victim, depending on how long she waited before coming in for treatment.

Some people confuse “morning after pill” with “RU-486”, but I wouldn’t attribute that to ignorance so much as the normal flow of a debate/internet conversation.


28 posted on 06/25/2013 8:36:19 AM PDT by CharlesWayneCT
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine
The word rape needs to be stricken from any political discussion or comments.

Bill Clement's slip with the work back in the '80's gave us Ann Richards. UGH!!!!! Why do we keep repeating this mistake?

29 posted on 06/25/2013 8:37:39 AM PDT by catfish1957 (Face it!!!! The government in DC is full of treasonous bastards)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Paisan

I totally get the rape or incest exception to the rule, if they didn’t know 20 weeks in that they were raped or it was incest, doesn’t apply.

What does that have to do with the rape kit issue?


30 posted on 06/25/2013 8:37:58 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: catfish1957
Bill Clement's slip with the work back in the '80's gave us Ann Richards.

That was Clayton Williams.

31 posted on 06/25/2013 8:37:59 AM PDT by dfwgator
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

That is true, and an excellent reason to train the medical professionals, in addition to the fact that there are a lot more medical professionals for the task than there are trained forensics experts.


32 posted on 06/25/2013 8:38:50 AM PDT by CharlesWayneCT
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: CharlesWayneCT

Now that is a post I can understand.

If there is a pill (RU-486) or something similar in the “kit” that is in the “kit” that they use for victims of rape... Ok, I get that.


33 posted on 06/25/2013 8:40:46 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: austinaero

SHe wasn’t talking about rape though, she certainly said nothing that falls into the “insensitive to women who were raped” category.

She mis-understood what the contents of a “rape kit” were. How is it minimizing rape to screw up the discussion of forensic tools?

The LEFT is trying to pretend this is more of the “attack on women”, when it is nothing at all like that, it was just a politician showing ignorance about what a rape kit was. It is on par with a politician claiming an island could tip over, or any of the dozens of stupid things Joe Biden says.


34 posted on 06/25/2013 8:41:46 AM PDT by CharlesWayneCT
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine
Yes, I am uncomfortable if pro-life people think that a rape kit that swabs for DNA ‘cleans them out’ and prevents pregnancy.<

So, as far as you know, most, or even many, pro-life people think that?

Again, do you know any pro-life people and what they think?

Pro-life doesn’t equal anti-science

No has asserted it does, except you.

35 posted on 06/25/2013 8:41:55 AM PDT by Trailerpark Badass (There should be a whole lot more going on than throwing bleach, said one woman.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

“Are you saying they shove the morning after pill into the vagina?”

The rape patient is traumatized. A morning after pill is legal. I would think the doctor would give the raped woman information on what was available to her and that pill is. The victim would make her own decision as to what she wanted to do or not do. She should be given her legal choices. If raped, I would take the pill not knowing if I was pregnant or not. I wouldn’t let rape change my body and life forever. I would put it back where it was before the rape if it had been changed and I wouldn’t know that at that time so I would take the pill.


36 posted on 06/25/2013 8:44:11 AM PDT by Marcella (Prepping can save your life today. I am a Christian, not a Muslim.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: CharlesWayneCT

An exception for rape victims is nothing more than Dem talking point. When they tell the story, they will leave out the fact that is was to allow late term abortion. It doesn’t make any sense. Why would a rape victim want or need to carry an unwanted child for so long? To inflict cruel punishment on the other victim, the baby?


37 posted on 06/25/2013 8:46:50 AM PDT by Rusty0604
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: Trailerpark Badass; All

You are right.

I wasn’t assuming all pro-life people think that way, but only a very vocal and quotable one.

If you like her representing you and your views, have it. I for one want intelligent people expressing our views to people who get bombarded with pro-abortion views and quotes all day. This kind of crap doesn’t help a dang bit.

You can hate the messenger of this woman’s statements all day long, but I want rational people representing RATIONAL POINTS AND VIEWS of myself and many others (including Freepers). However, it seems that hating on me for calling her out for her ridiculous comments and how IT DOES NOT HELP OUR CAUSE makes me fodder for Freepers.

I will go back to my Freeper hole.


38 posted on 06/25/2013 8:47:35 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: dfwgator
That was Clayton Williams.

You are right. I must be getting senile.

39 posted on 06/25/2013 8:50:01 AM PDT by catfish1957 (Face it!!!! The government in DC is full of treasonous bastards)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

In the Politifact article about this subject, which rated her claim “pants on fire”, they provided the following expert information:

“Sometimes a pregnancy test is administered, Gipprich said, but that is solely to see if a survivor might have been pregnant before the assault. Also, he said, the pregnancy test is not part of the kit. In addition, Gipprich said, a survivor may be offered high-dose antibiotics to ward off sexually transmitted diseases as well as a “morning after” pill to prevent impregnation, though such drugs and those offers are not part of the kit, he said”

She talked about the rape kit having the equipment to do a D&C type abortion, but that would not make sense if a woman had just been raped, since there would not be a baby yet to be aborted.

If you wanted to make sure you didn’t have a baby, you’d start with a pregnancy test — because you’d want to know if you were already pregnant. You could then take the morning-after pill. You’d probably wait a week or two and get another pregnancy test, and if positive you then could use RU-486. I think you’d wait a bit longer to do an abortion procedure, but certainly never 20 weeks.

The “kit” is a forensics kit, and wouldn’t have any medications in it. The hospital might include them all though.

I also got confused because I thought they were saying she was in the House of Representatives, and this was part of the debate on the House-passed bill.

But from Politifact, it seems she is in the texas STATE legislation, which means she is just some local politician who, in the heat of an argument on the floor, said something stupid (it was part of a debate, not a prepared text — she was answering a question).


40 posted on 06/25/2013 8:50:12 AM PDT by CharlesWayneCT
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine
Poltifact published her response to this story:
By email and telephone, we asked Laubenberg how she reached her conclusion. She didn’t immediately respond. After this article posted, however, Laubenberg said by telephone that she knows a rape kit does not include the D and C procedure and that a kit does not cause abortions. In the floor debate, Laubenberg said, she also was trying to say that a rape survivor who goes to a hospital might be offered the morning-after pill to ward off pregnancy, though she said that she is aware that the pill is not part of a rape kit.
So if she was ignorant during the debate, she isn't now.
41 posted on 06/25/2013 8:52:31 AM PDT by CharlesWayneCT
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: CharlesWayneCT

Good. Glad she got educated.

Wish she would have before opening her mouth.

Now it’s international news the “Republicans” views on rape kits.

As I said, Todd Akins all over again.


42 posted on 06/25/2013 8:54:12 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

How on earth did you jump to that conclusion. I did not say anything even remotely close to that.


43 posted on 06/25/2013 8:58:09 AM PDT by taxcontrol
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: CharlesWayneCT

Agreed


44 posted on 06/25/2013 8:58:37 AM PDT by taxcontrol
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: CharlesWayneCT

I specifically said “morning after” instead of RU-486 to broadly cover any and ALL drugs used to terminate the pregnancy after sex. The intent was not to get caught up in any debate over one medication and not another.


45 posted on 06/25/2013 9:01:17 AM PDT by taxcontrol
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: taxcontrol

“if they put the morning after pill IN THERE”

But if you meant the kit they pull off the shelf, my apologies.

However, I don’t believe they do. Might offer it, but not in the “kit” itself. That is strictly for forensic collection.


46 posted on 06/25/2013 9:04:56 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

Dear GOP: will for for criminy sakes put out a memo? Seriously. WTF?


47 posted on 06/25/2013 9:15:00 AM PDT by NonValueAdded (Unindicted Co-conspirators: The Mainstream Media)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: autumnraine

I was referring to putting in the kit as part of the standard “treatment” or response to a rape victim coming into the hospital.


48 posted on 06/25/2013 9:20:50 AM PDT by taxcontrol
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 46 | View Replies]

To: taxcontrol

I realize that now. I apologize.


49 posted on 06/25/2013 9:30:41 AM PDT by autumnraine (America how long will you be so deaf and dumb to thoe tumbril wheels carrying you to the guillotine?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 48 | View Replies]

To: Marcella

I’m not trying to be critical, but I’m not sure that’s a logically consistent prolife position. It is similar to saying that you would shoot at the wall of a building, not knowing for certain whether anyone was on the other side. That would constitute a reckless disregard for human life. Any time lethal force is used, there must be certainty that the target is a legitimate target. If conception has occurred, there is a living human being present, with rights of their own to consider.

I recognize you most certainly do have a right to try and get back to square one, but not at the expense of an innocent human life. I can tell you from personal experience with people that I love, any person might feel justified at the time of the event, but a person of conscience will keep coming back to such a decision like a wound that will not heal, and will always wonder what it might have been like, if they had withheld the fatal blow.


50 posted on 06/25/2013 9:55:57 AM PDT by Springfield Reformer (Winston Churchill: No Peace Till Victory!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 36 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-59 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson