Without stretching, the right to a jury trial can conceivably be extended from the Commandment "Thou shalt not bear false witness" as juries are specifically tasked with the determination of the truthfulness of testimony, as well as the other powers of the jury.
Except that trial by jury of peers, the assumption of innocence before guilt, the right to confront your accuser, the right to an unbiased judge, and the right to an advocate all originated with the pagan warrior tribes fighting Rome.
Basically warrior tribe law. Warriors are equal to one another, and leaders are leaders only because warriors choose to follow them, for as long as they choose to do so.
This was the law that migrated to Britain and became Common Law. Importantly, Christianity grew up part and parcel to both Common Law and Roman Law. It took much longer for Christianity to get along with Scandinavian (Viking) law.
The idea of Natural Law evolved possibly as late as the 5th Century with Augustine of Hippo, though parts of it existed back to Plato and Aristotle. Thomas Aquinas in the 12th Century asserted that Natural Law is a subset that man can grasp of Eternal Law, and from that point it was linked with “God given rights”.