Educations available to europeans and czarist Russians prior to the 20’th century were probably the zenith. Google some famous scientist of that era and they were probably versed in law, a myriad of languages, art, history, music, and philosophy on top of their technical expertise of renown.
People actually had more time to learn in those days. No television, video games, movies, and other distractions.
I was lucky enough to have a classical education starting in my catholic high school (which, I’m said to say, appears to have been watered down a bit since). But to play devil’s advocate, the problem with a broad based education in the modern era is that the universe of knowledge has expanded to the point where one has to specialize to learn any part of it with enough depth to be economically useful. In the 19th century, it was possible to learn pretty much all there was to learn about physics, and still have time to study literature, philosophy, etc. These days, even of PhD. in Physics has to specialize, and even then they won’t get hired over an electrical engineer.