Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

HIV Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men (CDC.gov fact sheet about "MSM")
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/msm/facts/index.html ^ | September 26, 2013 | cdc

Posted on 10/21/2013 12:52:01 PM PDT by longtermmemmory

Fast Facts

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (referred to here as MSM) are more severely affected by HIV than any other group in the United States.

Among all MSM, black/African American MSM bear the greatest disproportionate burden of HIV.

From 2008 to 2010, HIV infections among young black/African American MSM increased 20%.

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM))a represent approximately 2% of the United States population, yet are the population most severely affected by HIV. In 2010, young MSM (aged 13-24 years) accounted for 72% of new HIV infections among all persons aged 13 to 24, and 30% of new infections among all MSM. At the end of 2010, an estimated 489,121 (56%) persons living with an HIV diagnosis in the United States were MSM or MSM-IDU.

The Numbers

New HIV Infections

•In 2010, MSM accounted for 63% of estimated new HIV infections in the United States and 78% of infections among all newly infected men. From 2008 to 2010, new HIV infections increased 22% among young (aged 13-24) MSM and 12% among MSM overall.

•Among all MSM, white MSM accounted for 11,400 (38%) estimated new HIV infections in 2010. The largest number of new infections among white MSM (3,300; 29%) occurred in those aged 25 to 34.

•Among all MSM, black/African American MSM accounted for 10,600 (36%) estimated new HIV infections in 2010. The largest number of new infections among black/African American MSM (4,800; 45%) occurred in those aged 13 to 24. From 2008 to 2010 new infections increased 20% among young black/African American MSM aged 13 to 24.

•Among all MSM, Hispanic/Latino MSM accounted for 6,700 (22%) estimated new HIV infections in 2010. The largest number of new infections among Hispanic/Latino MSM (3,300; 39%) occurred in those aged 25 to 34. HIV and AIDS Diagnosesc and Deaths

•In 2011, in the United States, MSM accounted for 79% of 38,825 estimated HIV diagnoses among all males aged 13 years and older and 62% of 49,273 estimated diagnoses among all persons receiving an HIV diagnosis that year.

•At the end of 2010, of the estimated 872,990 persons living with an HIV diagnosis, 440,408 (50%) were MSM. Forty-seven percent of MSM living with an HIV diagnosis were white, 31% were black/African American, and 19% were Hispanic/Latino.

•In 2011, MSM accounted for 52% of estimated AIDS diagnoses among all adults and adolescents in the United States. Of the estimated 16,694 AIDS diagnoses among MSM, 39% were in blacks/African Americans; 34% were in whites; and 23% were in Hispanics/Latinos.

•By the end of 2010, an estimated 302,148 MSM with an AIDS diagnosis had died in the United States since the beginning of the epidemic, representing 48% of all deaths of persons with an AIDS diagnosis.

Prevention Challenges

The large number of MSM living with HIV means that, as a group, gay, bisexual, and other MSM have an increased chance of being exposed to HIV. Results of HIV testing conducted in 20 cities as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System indicated that 18% of MSM tested in 2011 were HIV-positive and that HIV prevalence increased with increasing age.

In this study, the overall percent of gay and bisexual men with HIV who knew of their HIV infection increased from 56% in 2008 to 66% in 2011. Among those infected, 49% of young MSM aged 18 to 24 years knew of their infection, whereas 76% of those aged 40 and over were aware of their HIV infection. Fifty- four percent of black/African American MSM knew of their infection, compared with 63% of Hispanic/Latino MSM and 86% of white MSM. Persons who don’t know they have HIV don’t get medical care and can unknowingly infect others. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all MSM get tested for HIV at least once a year. Sexually active MSM might benefit from more frequent testing (e.g., every 3 to 6 months).

Sexual risk behaviors account for most HIV infections in MSM. Anal sex without a condom (unprotected anal sex) has the highest risk for passing HIV during sex. It is also possible to become infected with HIV through oral sex, though the risk is significantly less than for anal or vaginal sex. For sexually active MSM, the most effective ways to prevent HIV are to limit or avoid anal sex, or for MSM who do have anal sex, to correctly use a condom every time. Gay men are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), like syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and CDC recommends that all sexually active MSM be tested annually for these infections.

Alcohol and illegal drug use increases risk for HIV and other STIs. Using substances such as alcohol and methamphetamines can impair judgment and increase risky sexual behavior.

Homophobia, stigma, and discrimination may place gay men at risk for multiple physical and mental health problems and affect whether they seek and are able to obtain high-quality health services.

What CDC Is Doing

Guided by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States, CDC and its partners are pursuing a high-impact prevention approach to reducing new HIV infections by using combinations of scientifically proven, cost-effective, and scalable interventions directed to the most vulnerable populations in the geographic areas where HIV prevalence is highest.

As part of high-impact prevention, CDC is aligning surveillance and program activities more closely. For example, while linkage to care soon after HIV diagnosis is relatively high, more people living with HIV should receive continuous care and antiretroviral treatment, and a greater proportion of persons infected with HIV should have a suppressed HIV viral load—the most important goal for maximizing a person’s health as well as reducing the risk of transmission. By increasing the reporting of CD4 and viral load data across the country, CDC will aid health departments and clinicians in monitoring treatment progress toward viral load suppression. Currently, CDC estimates that only 25% of the 1.1 million individuals with HIV have their viral loads adequately suppressed.

CDC is also encouraging MSM and their healthcare providers to take advantage of biomedical approaches to HIV prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which involves taking antiretroviral medications prior to becoming exposed to HIV, can reduce the risk of HIV infection in individuals at very high risk of infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis, which involves taking antiretrovial medications soon after possible exposure to HIV, also plays a role in HIV prevention, but should be not be considered a primary means of HIV prevention. Also, while HIV treatments can dramatically improve the health of HIV-positive persons who are treated, they also have prevention benefits: individuals whose HIV viral loads are suppressed have a greatly reduced chance of transmitting the virus to their partners (Treatment as Prevention).

CDC continues to focus on HIV testing. To expand HIV prevention services for young gay and bisexual men of color, transgender youth of color, and their partners, CDC awarded $55 million over 5 years to 34 community-based organizations with strong links to these populations. This funding will be used to provide HIV testing to more than 90,000 young gay and bisexual men and transgender youth of color, with a goal of identifying more than 3,500 previously unrecognized HIV infections and linking those who are HIV-infected to care and prevention services. Additionally, CDC’s MSM Testing Initiative seeks to identify at least 3,000 MSM with HIV who were previously unaware of their infection and link at least 85% to care.

Through its Act Against AIDS campaigns and other collaborative activities, CDC aims to provide MSM with effective and culturally appropriate messages about HIV prevention. The REASONS/RAZONES testing campaign features Latino gay and bisexual men sharing their reasons for getting an HIV test, while Testing Makes Us Stronger campaign encourages black gay and bisexual men to get tested for HIV. Let’s Stop HIV Together focuses on raising awareness of HIV and AIDS and simultaneously combatting complacency and stigma by increasing support for people living with the disease.

CDC also funds state and local health departments and community-based organizations to support HIV prevention services for MSM. Through the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) project, CDC supports various behavioral interventions and other high-impact prevention strategies.

Read more about CDC activities to reduce HIV risk and improve the health of MSM.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For more background information view the bibliography and other references used in this factsheet.

a The term men who have sex with men (MSM) is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates the behaviors that transmit HIV infection, rather than how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality.

b New HIV infections refer to HIV incidence, or the estimated number of people who are newly infected with HIV each year.

c HIV and AIDS diagnoses are the number of persons diagnosed with HIV infection and the number of persons diagnosed with AIDS, respectively, during a given time period. The terms do not indicate when the persons were infected.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: cdc; homosexualagenda; riskybehavior; std
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-99 next last
note footnote "a" which the CDC defines "MSM" away fromt the popular main stream media into an orwellian morph to mean "homosexuals".

The article is telling in that 2% of the population is responsible for over 60% of the infections and death by STD.

1 posted on 10/21/2013 12:52:01 PM PDT by longtermmemmory
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

And still they DEMAND that they be allowed to donate blood.


2 posted on 10/21/2013 12:56:57 PM PDT by fwdude ( You cannot compromise with that which you must defeat.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

White Heterosexual men aren’t impacted enough to make their chart.

Explains a lot.


3 posted on 10/21/2013 12:57:35 PM PDT by brownsfan (Behold, the power of government cheese.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: brownsfan

Maybe if they stopped putting “things” where they don’t belong?


4 posted on 10/21/2013 12:59:22 PM PDT by hal ogen (First Amendment or Reeducation Camp?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

Men who have sex with men
But are not gay
And are not bi-sexual

I am so confused!


5 posted on 10/21/2013 1:00:10 PM PDT by Ouchthatonehurt ("When you're going through hell, keep going." - Sir Winston Churchill)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

Soon some “civil rights activists” will be out to claim that we (the rest of us) are causing higher rates of STDs among African American men. They will be campaigning to redefine STDs so that the distribution is more reflective of the populations’ demographics. Or, this seems to be what we hear about crime, drop-out rates, welfare utilization rates, passing the firefighters’ exams, etc.


6 posted on 10/21/2013 1:00:23 PM PDT by NEMDF
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

MSM = main stream media

MSM = men having sex with men

its rather fitting, don’t you think?


7 posted on 10/21/2013 1:02:39 PM PDT by PGR88
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt

They’re confused until they realize they’re in denial?

They’re experimenting?


8 posted on 10/21/2013 1:03:25 PM PDT by Antihero101607
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

Soooooo Reggie Love is positive and we don’t have to impeach.


9 posted on 10/21/2013 1:04:11 PM PDT by longfellow (Bill Maher, the 21st hijacker.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

We need to divert all remaining research money not already allocated to this already to curing these diseases immediately since there is no way to prevent them that doesn’t require some form of hate


10 posted on 10/21/2013 1:04:16 PM PDT by dsrtsage (One half of all people have below average IQ. In the US the number is 54%)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

Interesting that “men who have sex with men” and “Main Stream Media” are both designated MSM. It seems both groups are very similar.


11 posted on 10/21/2013 1:04:45 PM PDT by detective
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt

Perhaps they are the heterosexual men being raped in the prisons, and now (sadly) in the military.


12 posted on 10/21/2013 1:05:12 PM PDT by PTBAA
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

The media term should become “LIMP”.

Low Information Media for Peasants.


13 posted on 10/21/2013 1:05:31 PM PDT by rfp1234 (Impeach We Much!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory
They are just exercising their ‘constitutional right’ to free pleasure.

Obamacare will work for them.

BTW Dont smoke, eat fast food or refined sugar. Dont want to cost society $$$

14 posted on 10/21/2013 1:05:41 PM PDT by sickoflibs (To GOP : Any path to US Citizenship IS putting them ahead in line. Stop lying about your position)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory
"What CDC Is Doing"

Blah, blah, blah....

But the elephant in the room is completely ignored...risky, degrading sexual behavior as the cause of infection(s).

15 posted on 10/21/2013 1:05:55 PM PDT by SZonian (Throwing our allegiances to political parties in the long run gave away our liberty.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: rfp1234

LIMP media?

low information mass pimps?

low information mongering propagandists?

low information misinformation pushers?


16 posted on 10/21/2013 1:08:25 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory
Joe...'playing' along.
17 posted on 10/21/2013 1:08:31 PM PDT by JPG (Yes We Can morphs into Make It Hurt.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory
low information misinformation pushers?

Sounds good to me.

18 posted on 10/21/2013 1:09:54 PM PDT by rfp1234 (Impeach We Much!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: brownsfan

impacted

LOL ;)


19 posted on 10/21/2013 1:11:21 PM PDT by polymuser ("We have a right to debate and disagree with any administration!" (HRC))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: SZonian

the interesting point of this “fact sheet” is the US government usurping the term “msm”.

remember the homosexuals “stole” the word gay into meaning sexual hedonist.


20 posted on 10/21/2013 1:12:56 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory
Re: Male homosexuals account for over 60% of HIV.

That number understates the reality. If you toss out the needle sharers and look only at HIV cases that are sexually transmitted, homosexuals probably account for over 95% of HIV cases.

Women don't transfer the virus very efficiently to men. So, any man that only has sex with women and doesn't do IV drugs, has almost no chance of contracting HIV. Any woman who avoids sex with bisexuals (easier said than done if you are promiscuous) also has almost no chance of contracting HIV.

I suppose a true lesbian would really, really be unlikely to contract HIV.

21 posted on 10/21/2013 1:13:32 PM PDT by j. earl carter
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: JPG

AIDS = Anal Insertion Deserves Suffering

I remember that reading on a bathroom wall back in college - around 25 years ago. I thought it was funnythen and I do now. However, it is sad to see perversion celebrated like it is today.


22 posted on 10/21/2013 1:14:02 PM PDT by ohioman
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

Fags get AIDS? You dont say...


23 posted on 10/21/2013 1:14:22 PM PDT by max americana (fired liberals in our company last election, and I laughed while they cried (true story))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

“Homophobia, stigma, and discrimination may place gay men at risk for multiple physical and mental health problems and affect whether they seek and are able to obtain high-quality health services.”

Or maybe they can avoid putting their Obama up other guy’s Baracks?

Are these morons so stupid that they dont know where AIDS comes from?


24 posted on 10/21/2013 1:15:17 PM PDT by VanDeKoik
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: fwdude

The fudge packers believe they have a right to spread HIV.


25 posted on 10/21/2013 1:17:04 PM PDT by forgotten man
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt

Probably men doing long stretches in prison.


26 posted on 10/21/2013 1:17:12 PM PDT by beelzepug (if any alphabets are watchin', I'll be coming home right after the meetin')
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: VanDeKoik

this is about the CDC using the acronym “MSM”.

Thus if you google search MSM you end up with cdc aids information rather than main stream media bias.


27 posted on 10/21/2013 1:20:32 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

MSM: Main Stream Media?


28 posted on 10/21/2013 1:20:36 PM PDT by SERKIT ("Blazing Saddles" explains it all.......)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: beelzepug

Wow.
If it’s all the same though....I think I’ll just remain confused. That’s an existence I don’t want to think about.


29 posted on 10/21/2013 1:22:31 PM PDT by Ouchthatonehurt ("When you're going through hell, keep going." - Sir Winston Churchill)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: forgotten man
The fudge packers believe they have a right to spread HIV.

Everyone knows you're just being facetious, but there is a very real truth to your statement. They indeed WANT AIDS "to be everyone's problem." They truly are malevolent and evil.

30 posted on 10/21/2013 1:24:21 PM PDT by fwdude ( You cannot compromise with that which you must defeat.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

“...young MSM (aged 13-24 years) accounted for 72% of new HIV infections among all persons aged 13 to 24...”

the gays are killing the kids


31 posted on 10/21/2013 1:25:01 PM PDT by elpadre (AfganistaMr Obama said the goal was to "disrupt, dismantle and defeat al-hereQaeda" and its allies.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: PGR88

LOL-

AS I was “perusing” the article- at first
I thought ALL OF THE MSM (main stream media)

Was getting infected- Made me go back to the beginning-

So (at least for me-) a new lexicon: MSM could be a double entendre- Main stream or.... having homosexual sex.

I wonder if you asked Jay Carney- if he “liked “ the
MSM that showed up today- if he would have a clue.


32 posted on 10/21/2013 1:26:17 PM PDT by mj1234
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: brownsfan
White Heterosexual men aren’t impacted enough to make their chart.

From HHS - In the interest of equality and fairness, beginning Jan. 2014, an equal percentage of straight white men will be required to submit to in injection containing a super hot dose of the HIV virus. Participants will be drawn randomly from IRS records for inclusion in this mandatory federal program, named The Fairness Inoculation.

33 posted on 10/21/2013 1:27:42 PM PDT by Bronzewound (Lost Hope & Loose Change)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: SERKIT

the CDC (meaning government leftist bureacrats) wants MSM to mean “men having sex with men”. This will override the use of MSM to mean news bias.

Think goebles propaganda.

If you attack the media it is attacking MSM which is “homophobic” and thus a hate crime.

IOW

conservatives attack the MSM
attacking MSM is a hate crime
thus
conservatives are a hate crime.


34 posted on 10/21/2013 1:29:46 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

Rule 1: Your Obamahole is for passing bodacious Obamalogs, not for receiving boinking from other Obama voters.


35 posted on 10/21/2013 1:34:20 PM PDT by Da Coyote
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

I don’t know...I searched google and bing for the term “msm” and in 5 pages on both sites, I saw a couple of references to this CDC article and too many to count regarding Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM).

I saw one reference to Urban Dictionary regarding MSM (mainstream media) on google within the 5 pages, but none on bing.


36 posted on 10/21/2013 1:37:37 PM PDT by SZonian (Throwing our allegiances to political parties in the long run gave away our liberty.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: j. earl carter
I suppose a true lesbian would really, really be unlikely to contract HIV.

A good portion of lesbians have/do have sex with men.

37 posted on 10/21/2013 1:37:39 PM PDT by fwdude ( You cannot compromise with that which you must defeat.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: elpadre
“...young MSM (aged 13-24 years) accounted for 72% of new HIV infections among all persons aged 13 to 24...”

13 to 24? 13 to 24?!!! 13 to 24?!!!!!!!!

38 posted on 10/21/2013 1:39:43 PM PDT by fwdude ( You cannot compromise with that which you must defeat.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt
Men who have sex with men
But are not gay
And are not bi-sexual

Yeah, I am confused, too. The only folks I could think of would be rape victims.

39 posted on 10/21/2013 1:40:59 PM PDT by Izzy Dunne (Hello, I'm a TAGLINE virus. Please help me spread by copying me into YOUR tag line.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt

“You’re not really here for the hunting, are you, Bob?”


40 posted on 10/21/2013 1:44:05 PM PDT by RichInOC (Palin 2016: The Perfect Storm.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory
HIV Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men

Gay, Bi, and Others = HOMOSEXUALS

Never realized there were truly legitimate sub categories of homosexual (and you can't convince me there are)

41 posted on 10/21/2013 1:44:33 PM PDT by Hot Tabasco (a)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: longtermmemmory

To sum up:

In the US, nearly 80% of all new HIV cases in men is due to homosexual sex.

Its a homosexual disease.


42 posted on 10/21/2013 1:50:31 PM PDT by icwhatudo (Low taxes and less spending in Sodom and Gomorrah is not my idea of a conservative victory)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt
Men who have sex with men
But are not gay
And are not bi-sexual

Think of it as an opportunity for new acronyms. MSG is now Men who have Sex with Goats. "No MSG, please!" takes on a whole new cachet.

43 posted on 10/21/2013 1:51:48 PM PDT by Billthedrill
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt
And it explains THIS. MSF = Men who have sex with fish.
44 posted on 10/21/2013 1:53:53 PM PDT by Billthedrill
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt

And as long as we’re at it, men who have sex with small marsupials on a trapeze while wearing a purple tutu are MSMTWPT. At last, my lovelife has its own entitlement group!


45 posted on 10/21/2013 1:55:45 PM PDT by Billthedrill
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: PGR88

Both are fudging...facts and whatnot.


46 posted on 10/21/2013 1:56:00 PM PDT by TurboZamboni (Marx smelled bad & lived with his parents most his life.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Billthedrill
MSF = Men who have sex with fish.


47 posted on 10/21/2013 1:56:11 PM PDT by dfwgator
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 44 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt

I’ve found that confused can be a warm and fuzzy place. As opposed to prison, which I’m sure is not.


48 posted on 10/21/2013 2:07:02 PM PDT by beelzepug (if any alphabets are watchin', I'll be coming home right after the meetin')
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: fwdude

the new MSM step, recruiting minors.

(see Boston GLSEN tapes)


49 posted on 10/21/2013 2:07:15 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 38 | View Replies]

To: Ouchthatonehurt

I think it’s called “bi-curious”.


50 posted on 10/21/2013 2:10:39 PM PDT by GOPsterinMA (You're a very weird person, Yossarian.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-99 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson