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Breaking Up The NSA
Cryptogram Newsletter ^ | 3/15/14 | Bruce Schneier

Posted on 03/15/2014 11:54:34 AM PDT by zeugma

Breaking Up the NSA

The NSA has become too big and too powerful. What was supposed to be a single agency with a dual mission -- protecting the security of U.S. communications and eavesdropping on the communications of our enemies -- has become unbalanced in the post-Cold War, all-terrorism-all-the-time era.

Putting the U.S. Cyber Command, the military's cyberwar wing, in the same location and under the same commander, expanded the NSA's power. The result is an agency that prioritizes intelligence gathering over security, and that's increasingly putting us all at risk. It's time we thought about breaking up the National Security Agency.

Broadly speaking, three types of NSA surveillance programs were exposed by the documents released by Edward Snowden. And while the media tends to lump them together, understanding their differences is critical to understanding how to divide up the NSA's missions.

The first is targeted surveillance.

This is best illustrated by the work of the NSA's Tailored Access Operations (TAO) group, including its catalog of hardware and software "implants" designed to be surreptitiously installed onto the enemy's computers. This sort of thing represents the best of the NSA and is exactly what we want it to do. That the United States has these capabilities, as scary as they might be, is cause for gratification.

The second is bulk surveillance, the NSA's collection of everything it can obtain on every communications channel to which it can get access. This includes things such as the NSA's bulk collection of call records, location data, e-mail messages and text messages.

This is where the NSA overreaches: collecting data on innocent Americans either incidentally or deliberately, and data on foreign citizens indiscriminately. It doesn't make us any safer, and it is liable to be abused. Even the director of national intelligence, James Clapper, acknowledged that the collection and storage of data was kept a secret for too long.

The third is the deliberate sabotaging of security. The primary example we have of this is the NSA's BULLRUN program, which tries to "insert vulnerabilities into commercial encryption systems, IT systems, networks and endpoint communication devices." This is the worst of the NSA's excesses, because it destroys our trust in the Internet, weakens the security all of us rely on and makes us more vulnerable to attackers worldwide.

That's the three: good, bad, very bad. Reorganizing the U.S. intelligence apparatus so it concentrates on our enemies requires breaking up the NSA along those functions.

First, TAO and its targeted surveillance mission should be moved under the control of U.S. Cyber Command, and Cyber Command should be completely separated from the NSA. Actively attacking enemy networks is an offensive military operation, and should be part of an offensive military unit.

Whatever rules of engagement Cyber Command operates under should apply equally to active operations such as sabotaging the Natanz nuclear enrichment facility in Iran and hacking a Belgian telephone company. If we're going to attack the infrastructure of a foreign nation, let it be a clear military operation.

Second, all surveillance of Americans should be moved to the FBI.

The FBI is charged with counterterrorism in the United States, and it needs to play that role. Any operations focused against U.S. citizens need to be subject to U.S. law, and the FBI is the best place to apply that law. That the NSA can, in the view of many, do an end-run around congressional oversight, legal due process and domestic laws is an affront to our Constitution and a danger to our society. The NSA's mission should be focused outside the United States -- for real, not just for show.

And third, the remainder of the NSA needs to be rebalanced so COMSEC (communications security) has priority over SIGINT (signals intelligence). Instead of working to deliberately weaken security for everyone, the NSA should work to improve security for everyone.

Computer and network security is hard, and we need the NSA's expertise to secure our social networks, business systems, computers, phones and critical infrastructure. Just recall the recent incidents of hacked accounts -- from Target to Kickstarter. What once seemed occasional now seems routine. Any NSA work to secure our networks and infrastructure can be done openly -- no secrecy required.

This is a radical solution, but the NSA's many harms require radical thinking. It's not far off from what the President's Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies, charged with evaluating the NSA's current programs, recommended. Its 24th recommendation was to put the NSA and U.S. Cyber Command under different generals, and the 29th recommendation was to put encryption ahead of exploitation.

I have no illusions that anything like this will happen anytime soon, but it might be the only way to tame the enormous beast that the NSA has become.

This essay previously appeared on CNN.com.
http://www.cnn.com/2014/02/20/opinion/...

The NSA is putting us at risk:
https://www.schneier.com/essay-469.html

TAO catalog of hardware and software "implants":
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2013/12/...
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jan/...

NSA's bulk collection of call records:
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/06/...

NSA's bulk collection of location data:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/...

NSA's bulk collection of e-mail messages:
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/27/...

NSA's bulk collection of text messages:
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/16/...

Clapper's acknowledgment:
http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/02/17/...

BULLRUN program:
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/05/...
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/09/05/us/...

Hacking the Natanz nuclear enrichment facility:
http://www.cnn.com/2011/11/08/tech/iran-stuxnet

Hacking the Belgian telephone company:
http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/...

Slashdot thread:
http://yro.slashdot.org/story/14/02/21/1418207/...

Hacker News thread:
https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=7277128


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Constitution/Conservatism; Government
KEYWORDS: nsa; spiesrus
I'm actually thinking that just breaking them up is not enough. Most of the functions of the NSA just plain need to be shut down, and all the employees of the agency need to be either be barred from ever being employed by the government, or should be in prison.
1 posted on 03/15/2014 11:54:34 AM PDT by zeugma
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To: zeugma
These are the descendants of World War II’s code breakers. Let's NOT throw out the baby with the bathwater...
2 posted on 03/15/2014 11:56:59 AM PDT by GOPJ (From a bellwether to an "oh-whateverrrr" in less than a single news cycle. -freeper Fightin Whitey)
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To: zeugma
Nothing much new here. This is just one of the many expansions of the communists empire running America now. Just part of the communists Democrat machine headed by our current King, King Obama the magnificent.

Miss Romney yet?

3 posted on 03/15/2014 11:59:01 AM PDT by Logical me
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To: GOPJ

I agree, we need an NSA. Obviously. They just need to be barred from domestic spying.

Hard to enforce that on a secret agency though.


4 posted on 03/15/2014 12:06:30 PM PDT by Monty22002
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To: GOPJ
These are the descendants of World War II’s code breakers. Let's NOT throw out the baby with the bathwater...

There is a legitimate purpose for foreign espionage. This is not what a majority of what the NSA does is though. They are actively working on making the internet more insecure. With our tax dollars no less.  If we have to "throw out some babies", then it's past time to do so.

5 posted on 03/15/2014 12:13:42 PM PDT by zeugma (Is it evil of me to teach my bird to say "here kitty, kitty"?)
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To: zeugma

If a war breaks out with Russia over the Ukraine then all this talk of breaking up the NSA, and rights and liberties will fall to the way side. There will be plenty of folks here on Free Republic that will smear anyone that complains as a Commie Puntinist.


6 posted on 03/15/2014 12:23:45 PM PDT by Count of Monte Fisto (The foundation of modern society is the denial of reality.)
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To: zeugma
No way, Jose. Keep NSA as it is, but have better Congressional and internal oversight.

The writer fails to mention NSA’s #1 mission - crypto - the breaking of codes.

Crypto is what happens after SIGINT is collected, as well as supplying the mil with better cypher system codes.

The writer would have SIGINT demoted, ie less resources/funding, and thereby put our mil at risk of having their codes busted by other States like Russia and China.

Snowden revealed not just an overview of NSA’s secret programs, which was all he needed to do to cause the current uproar, but he also revealed Methods and Means which greatly harmed US security and our mil. And may have had something to do with the Russians capturing our drone the other day.

This is why the Russians love him so much. They now can adjust their ops to avoid detection and eliminate (kill) those of our operatives revealed by Snowden, the traitor.

7 posted on 03/15/2014 12:29:11 PM PDT by PIF (They came for me and mine ... now it is your turn ...)
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To: zeugma

It is vital that nobody assume that the NSA is the *only* government agency abusing its authority in gathering intelligence. The US has 17 MAJOR intelligence agencies, and the NSA is just one of them.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Intelligence_Community

But wait! There’s more!

The Washington Post reported in 2010 that there were 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies in 10,000 locations in the United States that are working on counterterrorism, homeland security, and intelligence, and that the intelligence community as a whole includes 854,000 people holding top-secret clearances.

According to a 2008 study by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, private contractors make up 29% of the workforce in the U.S. intelligence community and cost the equivalent of 49% of their personnel budgets.


8 posted on 03/15/2014 12:38:11 PM PDT by yefragetuwrabrumuy (WoT News: Rantburg.com)
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To: zeugma

So the NSA can track all of us so where is the missing airliner?


9 posted on 03/15/2014 1:00:28 PM PDT by minnesota_bound
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To: Monty22002
They just need to be barred from domestic spying. Hard to enforce that on a secret agency though.

Not really. If it is made illegal, and enough people who break the law get put in jail, they'll get the message.

10 posted on 03/15/2014 1:03:50 PM PDT by abb
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To: zeugma

Metastasis.


11 posted on 03/15/2014 1:04:18 PM PDT by Psalm 144 (My citizenship is not here.)
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy

So it’s really a government jobs program then? Actually “countering terrorism” is not what they’re really about.


12 posted on 03/15/2014 1:05:46 PM PDT by abb
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To: zeugma

Breaking it up will only mean it’s harder to close it down.


13 posted on 03/15/2014 1:13:13 PM PDT by bgill
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To: zeugma

Back in the USSR! You don’t know how lucky you are, Back in the USSR!


14 posted on 03/15/2014 1:21:51 PM PDT by lee martell
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To: zeugma

They are just like any other government agency, ones that just cannot be satisfied doing what their original intent was by the congress. Just like a drug user, they cannot say “enough” and they will not be satisfied until they even know when we all go to the bathroom. 1984 was just a primer.


15 posted on 03/15/2014 1:27:53 PM PDT by biff (WAS)
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To: zeugma

“The NSA has become too big and too powerful.” There is the understatement of the century. I agree it likely needs to be shut down.


16 posted on 03/15/2014 2:06:40 PM PDT by Georgia Girl 2 (The only purpose o f a pistol is to fight your way back to the rifle you should never have dropped.)
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To: minnesota_bound
So the NSA can track all of us so where is the missing airliner?

Airliners are not as interesting apparently, as your iPhone data.

You and I are the 'enemies' that the government is focusing on.

17 posted on 03/15/2014 4:36:02 PM PDT by zeugma (Is it evil of me to teach my bird to say "here kitty, kitty"?)
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To: PIF
This is why the Russians love him so much. They now can adjust their ops to avoid detection and eliminate (kill) those of our operatives revealed by Snowden, the traitor.

Your faith on our government is touching, but misplaced.

The U.S. government hates the restraints of the Constitution more than they do any foreign power.

The NSA and other feral agencies have shown they can't be trusted with power, and they won't submit to any meaningful oversight.

 

18 posted on 03/15/2014 4:45:14 PM PDT by zeugma (Is it evil of me to teach my bird to say "here kitty, kitty"?)
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To: abb

It is far more insidious as a problem than just a jobs program.

Perhaps the biggest flaw in our constitution is that, while it created numerous balances in our government (which have been unbalanced by the 17th Amendment), the emphasis was always on limiting the growth of government. They did not include a mechanism to prune growth after it had come about.

So what has happened in what can now be called the “Military-Intelligence-Police-Industrial-Largess Complex” is that government has continued to grow far beyond any efficiency, to the point where it is inhibiting the proper function of our nation.

That it, like a metastatic cancer, with out of control growth, it is starving the body to death, while not producing cells that do what they are supposed to do.

This is not unique to our government, either. The one thing in human history that determined if a government survived or fell was a simple ratio of efficiency: what the government promised to do vs. what it delivered.

Oddly enough, it depends less on *what* government promises than that it delivers on those promises. But with unrestrained growth, there is no possible way that the US government can deliver.

If things continue in this way, government will fall apart from its own bulk. And I strongly suspect that large parts of the government itself realize this to their horror.

Like a horrifically obese person, they either lose weight or they are going to die. The horribly fat man may be intensely paranoid about foreign and domestic threats, but his worst enemy is himself.

But they cannot stop themselves from gorging more and more resources, while begging others to stop feeding them so much, to return them to the sanity of a reasonable mission and purpose.


19 posted on 03/15/2014 5:16:18 PM PDT by yefragetuwrabrumuy (WoT News: Rantburg.com)
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy

I agree with you wholeheartedly about the 17th amendment. I would also include the 16th (income tax). Right up there with those two amendments, I would include the 1943 legislation known as the “current payment tax act,” aka “withholding.”

In my considered opinion, the tax act was perhaps the most damaging of all.


20 posted on 03/15/2014 6:02:45 PM PDT by abb
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To: zeugma
And your faith in your own self to oversee our security is scary.

You seem to be buying the Russian propaganda line that NSA and other ‘feral,’ as you call them, agencies be broken up.

The current US government may, as you put it, ‘hate the Constitution,’ but what about future ones? Would you handicap them with crippled intel agencies?

Obizmal and his minions are ready to pass off a crippled US mil to future governments, as well as future debt to our children, and you and others like you, if you had your way, would pass off crippled intel agencies as well.

All because you somehow feel access to your phone metadata has cost you your putative privacy?

Can you site one - just one - example where that data has been misused or, more importantly, used against you personally in some detrimental way?

If your privacy is so sacrosanct, get off the Internet, stop using google, stop using credit cards, throw away your cell phone, disconnect any hardwired phones, and go live in a cave in the wilderness - if the EPA would let you, and if you can find any. Maybe you should live like the the guy on TV who lives in the Olympic mts., Mick Dodge.

Good G-d, after I left NSA and the mil, my phone was tapped for years, and it seemed like every time I turned around, there was some one taking my picture ... yet none of that was ever, to my knowledge, used to harm me in any way.

I know, I know to you it is just the thought ... but to me it is the reality - a life you, apparently, have only dreamed about in the worst way.

It is not the ‘government’ that hates the Constitution, but the politicians we elect, either by voting for or staying home in protest of some candidate that does not meet all the standards of conservatism, as many FRers did in the last Presidential election.

Learn that you can never trust any politician of any stripe at any time for any reason ever.

Breaking up NSA and others would turn out badly. It is like wishing for a Constitutional Convention - the finial reality would be far different from the originally stated goals. Be careful of what you wish for ...

21 posted on 03/16/2014 5:19:32 AM PDT by PIF (They came for me and mine ... now it is your turn ...)
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