Skip to comments.The 10 Algorithms That Dominate Our World
Posted on 05/25/2014 9:30:53 PM PDT by ckilmer
The importance of algorithms in our lives today cannot be overstated. They are used virtually everywhere, from financial institutions to dating sites. But some algorithms shape and control our world more than others — and these ten are the most significant.
Just a quick refresher before we get started. Though there's no formal definition, computer scientists describe algorithms as a set of rules that define a sequence of operations. They're a series of instructions that tell a computer how it's supposed to solve a problem or achieve a certain goal. A good way to think of algorithms is by visualizing a flowchart.
There was a time not too long ago when search engines battled it out for Internet supremacy. But along came Google and its innovative PageRank algorithm.
Today, Google accounts for 66.7% of the U.S. market share in core search, followed by Microsoft (18.1%), Yahoo (11.2%), Ask (2.6%), and AOL (1.4%). Google now dominates the market to the point where we don't even question it anymore; for many of us, it's our primary avenue of entry into the Internet.
PageRank works in conjunction with automated programs called spiders or crawlers, and a large index of keywords and their locations. The algorithm works by evaluating the number and quality of links to a page to get a rough estimate of how important the website is. The basic idea is that the more important or worthwhile websites are likely to receive more links from other websites. It's basically a popularity contest. In addition to this, the PageRank algorithm considers the frequency and location of keywords within a web page and how long the web page has existed.
As much as we may be loathe to admit it, the Facebook News Feed is where many of us love to waste our time. And unless your preferences are set show all the activities and updates of all your friends in chronological order, you're viewing a pre-determined selection of items that Facebook's algorithms have chosen just for you.
To calculate which content is most interesting, it considers several factors, such as the number of comments, who posted the story (yes, there's an internal ranking of "popular" people and those with whom you interact with the most), and what type of post it is (e.g. photo, video, status, update, etc.).
Online dating is now a $2 billion industry. Thanks to the growth of such sites as Match.com, eHarmony, and OKCupid, the industry has expanded at 3.5% a year since 2008. Analysts expect this acceleration to continue over the next five years — and for good reason: It's an extremely effective way for couples to meet. Not only do dating sites result in more successful marriages, they do an excellent job matching prospective couples based on their various preferences and tendencies. And of course, all this matching is done by algorithms.
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Take OKCupid, for example, a free online dating site co-founded by Harvard mathematician Christian Rudder. OKCupid takes a decidedly analytic approach to online dating, pulling reams of information from their users. But there's more to OKCupid's matching algorithm than just a brute matching of common interests; each answer is weighed by how important the question is to the user and their prospective partner. It's the so-called difference that makes the difference — one that makes OKCupid one of the more effective online dating sites.
We are increasingly being watched not by people, but by algorithms. Thanks to Edward Snowden, we know that the National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners have been spying on millions upon millions of unsuspecting citizens. Leaked documents have revealed the existence of numerous surveillance programs jointly operated by the Five Eyes, an intelligence alliance comprised of the U.S., Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Together, they've been monitoring our phone calls, emails, webcam images, and geographical locations. And by "they" I mean their algorithms; there is far too much data for humans to collect and interpret.
Interestingly, the NSA claims that they're not actually "collecting" our data. According to a 1982 procedures manual, "information shall be considered as 'collected' only when it has been received for use by an employee of a DoD intelligence component in the course of his official duties." And "data acquired by electronic means is 'collected' only when it has been processed into intelligible form." Bruce Schneier from The Guardian explains:
So, think of that friend of yours who has thousands of books in his house. According to the NSA, he's not actually "collecting" books. He's doing something else with them, and the only books he can claim to have "collected" are the ones he's actually read.
Which is a problem because:
Computer algorithms are intimately tied to people. And when we think of computer algorithms surveilling us or analyzing our personal data, we need to think about the people behind those algorithms. Whether or not anyone actually looks at our data, the very fact that they even could is what makes it surveillance.
Lastly and relatedly, there's also the NSA's Suite B Cryptography to consider, powerful algorithms that are used for encryption, key exchange, digital signatures, and hashing. This is what the agency uses to protect both classified and unclassified documents.
Sites and services like Amazon and Netflix monitor the books we buy and the movies we stream, and suggest related items based on our habits.
Like any automated process, this ubiquitous feature of the 21st Century comes with its pros and cons. While it can be extremely helpful to receive such recommendations, they can also be spectacularly way off the mark — particularly after purchasing a children's book as a gift for your 3-year-old daughter.
Indeed, along with PageRank and Facebook's Newsfeed, these algorithms are creating a so-called filter bubble, a phenomenon in which users become separated from information that disagrees with their viewpoints — effectively isolating them in their own culture of ideological "bubbles." This could result in what Eli Pariser calls "information determinism" where our previous internet-browsing habits determine our future.
Similar to the previous item, Google, Facebook, and other sites track your behavior, word usage, and search queries to deliver contextual advertising. Google's AdWords — which is the company's main source of revenue — is predicated on this model, while Facebook has struggled to make it work (when's the last time you clicked on an ad while in Facebook?).
The financial sector has long used algorithms to predict market fluctuations, but they're also being used in the burgeoning practice of high-frequency stock trading. This form of rapid-fire trading involves algorithms, also called bots, that can make decisions on the order of milliseconds. By contrast, it takes a human at least one full second to both recognize and react to potential danger. Consequently, humans are progressively being left out of the trading loop — and an entirely new digital ecology is evolving.
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But sometimes these algorithms make mistakes. Leo Hickman explains:
[Take] the "flash crash" of 6 May 2010, when the Dow Jones industrial average fell 1,000 points in just a few minutes, only to see the market regain itself 20 minutes later. The reasons for the sudden plummet has never been fully explained, but most financial observers blame a "race to the bottom" by the competing quantitative trading (quants) algorithms widely used to perform high-frequency trading. Scott Patterson, a Wall Street Journal reporter and author of The Quants, likens the use of algorithms on trading floors to flying a plane on autopilot. The vast majority of trades these days are performed by algorithms, but when things go wrong, as happened during the flash crash, humans can intervene.
Algorithms that squeeze data are an indelible and crucial aspect of the digital world. We want to receive our media quickly and we want to preserve our hard drive space. To that end, various tricks have been designed to compress and transmit data.
Back in 1991, for example, Cisco Systems developed the Compressed Real-Time Protocol (CRTP). And in 1987, researchers in Germany came up with the now-ubiquitous MP3, a compression scheme that reduces audio files to about a tenth of their original size. This compression scheme has revolutionized the music industry (for better or worse).
This one doesn't dominate our world yet, but it could very soon. An increasing number of police departments are utilizing a new technology known as predictive analysis — a tool that most certainly brings a Minority Report-like world to mind.
Back in 2010, it was announced that, by using IBM's predictive analysis software (called CRUSH, or Criminal Reduction Utilizing Statistical History), Memphis's police department reduced serious crime by more than 30%, including a 15% reduction in violent crimes since 2006. Inspired, other cities have taken notice, including those in Poland, Israel, and the UK. Pilot projects are currently underway in Los Angeles, Santa Cruz, and Charleston.
It works through a combination of data aggregation, statistical analysis, and of course, cutting-edge algorithms. It allows police to evaluate incident patterns throughout a city and forecast criminal "hot spots" to "proactively allocate resources and deploy personnel, resulting in improved force effectiveness and increased public safety."
In the future, these systems will largely take over the work of analysts. Criminals will be tracked by sophisticated algorithms that monitor internet activity, GPS, personal digital assistants, biosignatures, and all communications in real time. Unmanned aerial vehicles will increasingly be used to track potential offenders to predict intent through their body movements and other visual clues.
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Lastly, and just for fun, the now all-too-frequent auto-tuner is driven by algorithms. These devices process a set of rules that slightly bends pitches, whether sung or performed by an instrument, to the nearest true semitone. Interestingly, it was developed by Exxon's Any Hildebrand who originally used the technology to interpret seismic data.
Cher's "Believe" is thought to be the first pop song to feature auto-tuning:
Top image: Person of Interest
What the hell is an algorithm? Is this something I should fear, is it something that should be on the news? Please, oh please ...
Al Gore trying to play drums?
. . . and Skynet becomes conscious when?
The algorithm that rules the world, the one set that enables all the others mentioned in this article ... TCP/IP (spanning tree, OSPF, EIGRP, RIP, BGP, etc.)
Hmm, one would think ‘binary sort’ or ‘binary reduction’, perhaps even successive approximation would rank in the top 10.
White men don’t have rhythm, can’t jump either.
F = m * a
Simple layman-terms: It's a method for achieving/calculating/determining some result.
a set of rules for solving a problem in a finite number of steps, eg: as for finding the greatest common divisor.
I’d agree; and besides these are more like applications of algorithms than algorithms themselves.
Zero or one, up or down, white or black, spin-left spin-right, yes or no...
Switches are gathered together to form a computing machine. It was first described by Alan Turing as his Universal Computing Machine in a paper he authored in his early twenties.
The first such machine was in fact the Manchester Baby and Turing wrote the programming manual for its later incarnation.
Turing was also the first proponent of RISC (reduced instruction set computer) which refers to the simplicity of machine instructions, not the number of instructions. He wondered why the Americans seemed to inclined to create very complex hardware instructions when only a few very simple ones would do the job better.
The amazing power of binary data and the simple high-speed electronic switch.
The Manchester Baby
The heuristic is the pragmatic cousin of the algorithm. It represents approaches to problem solving that work even when we can’t explain why. The algorithm expresses how to solve the problem explicitly because we do understand why and how to solve it.
Oy, the pop algorithm du jour list.
I don’t have time to think about it, but this is a superficial list.
I notice DATA ENCRYPTION is NOT on the list.
I’ve been an avid skater at indoor rinks for much of my life. When artificial intelligence, computer vision and robotics can produce a roller skating robot that can continuously evaluate a safe path, never collide and never fall, I will concede that the state of the art has caught up to a basic human. We are a long way from that right now.
Item 4 included encryption
I agree but the self driving car is moving closer to a reality all the time.
How about race warfare + welfare = democrat vote. Don’t thank me thank LBJ
I can’t quote his comment on the matter because I don’t think that way.
Moronic to anyone who actually knows anything about algorithms.
The Viterbi algorithm, block error decoding and optimal predictors are the centerpieces of communications and data storage
> An increasing number of police departments are utilizing a new technology known as predictive analysis
I can save you a lot of money on this one.
11. The Mainstream Media party algorithm:
If it is Democrat, it must be good. If it is Republican, it must be bad.
12. The Mainstream Media scandal algorithm:
If it is a Democrat scandal, it is a witch-hunt that must be ignored. If it is a Republican scandal, it is an outrage that must be vigorously investigated.
Cher sings like she’s sitting on a jackhammer.
A fair amount of technology that involves machine learning. Cool stuff.
The data the NSA is gathering in my estimation has less to do with individual privacy, but more to do with establishing the digital DNA of society’s behavior. This is my optimistic perspective.
Everyone was having fun until your post.
~~~Cher sings like shes sitting on a jackhammer.~~~
How do you know she isn’t?
Then again, she may just be trying to get her keys out of the city street........holy cow.....
I just had a vision of her and Sonny on their wedding night that’s not safe to describe on this site. Poor Sonny. LMAO!
I remember the old show, where they were funny, she was cute and Chastity was still a female.
Good article. These aren’t really the top 10 algorithms dominating our lives, but they are certainly innovative systems that have impacts that will wow most everyone.
That bitch broke my heart. LOL!
I’m pretty sure Algore invented them, whatever they are.
“The algorithm that rules the world, the one set that enables all . . . “
One set to rule them all
and in the darkness bind them . . .
All but two to keep track of us and reduce us to digits on a massive spy server.
Self driving car is easier than rollerskating on a floor of mixed experience skaters. Cars can be outfitted with telemetry to interact with other cars and roads. Add a drunk driver in a car lacking instrumentation to “play nice”. That will be the acid test. Can the self driver avoid a crash? Check out the 5.8 GHz Intelligent Highway programs. I started work on that with my colleague in 2009. He died in Jan 2010. I haven’t had the resources to pursue the effort. The radio vendor is up the road in Carlsbad, CA.
I use a more simple algorithm to avoid collisions. Don’t let ________ drive. (Fill in the blank,...women, Asian women, Canadians, octogenarians,...)
If somebody could break SHA1 the whole system would fall apart.
I think we all have a story like that.
I met a girl from India. Nicest girl I ever met in my life. Looked like a model. She was heading into an arranged marriage.
Oy vey. Well, the religious aspect might have been a problem for I would not become Hindu. Not that she asked.
As much of a callous lech as I could be back in those times - something I've asked God to forgive me for now - I honestly did love her and it was one of the few relationships from back then where I felt that there was some true unfinished business on a most personal level. I hope things turned out well for her. What a bad position to be in. And I really did want to help her, even if my motives were emotionally selfish.
I almost got caught up in the same situation with a lovely young Vietnamese lady the following year. Things went swimmingly for weeks until her boyfriend found my phone number in her purse. LOL Two years later I married a Turk from Istanbul. And divorced her for a half-Cherokee from Alabama. Such was the dating game in Washington, DC in the 80's and 90's. My late father wasn't racist by any real means, but he once asked me, "Are you ever going to bring home a white girl like you used to date in high school?" LOL!
Soon, citizen, soon.
Google Adwords has always fascinated me. If you put the time and research in, it’s amazing what a budget as small as $50/day can do for a business.
Algorithm - a precise set of steps needed to solve a problem or preform a task. Cannot be infinite and must be written using an instruction that the computer will understand
(Definition I use in my Computer Logic class)
I sometimes tell people that that we have entered a golden age of math because of computers. That is, computers have provided mathematicians with power tools for the first time. So that crush depth calculations can be done at the speed of a thought. The result is that every 6 months or so you read online that some mathematical problem dating back centuries has been solved.
I argue that the solution to the the long knotty gnarly problem is then turned into an algorithm and hooked up to a computer which in turn enables mathematicians to solve still more complex problems
Here is my problem with this assertion. ,,,, I have no idea what I’m talking about. Nor have I heard anyone make the same assertion that I do. Nor am I a mathematician. This is just my wild ass guess.
umm can anyone say whether my assertion is definitively right or wrong or probably right or wrong. or meh, neither here nor there.
Now depending on the answer that you give —can you assert yeah or nope that the constant stream of solutions to old math problems leads to the acceleration of the rate at which more practical solutions to problems occur in every scientific field of endeavor from computers, communications materials,genetics, medical research and every other kind of R&D.
All of this leads to a third assertion... that I would like to hear yeah or nay on...
The rate of scientific and technological change is accelerating. On this there are other answer than the one proposed above. For example, you could say that yes scientific and technological change is accelerating but but for different reasons, in addition to yes or no or meh, not so much.
fyi. see my question at post 46.
That's never stopped anyone from having a strong opinion!
Knowledge is increasing exponentially. Wisdom is increasing logarithmically.
Computers are not creative and they have no intelligence.
Thus they cannot discover solutions to the great mathematical problems like the Riemann hypothesis, the NP problem, Poincare’s conjecture, or the Navier-Stokes equations.
What a computer does is it amplifies the power of the mind of man. Because it can do billions of things every second it in effect slows down time to a crawl... it is as though you had a million years to do an advanced calculation by hand and when you are done somehow only a moment of time will have passed. It is like magic :-)
Computers are not merely mathematical machines. They can do an endless number of things besides mathematics.
The conception of the universal computing machine is the breakthrough that has set us on a fast path to immortality and ultimate control of the physical universe. It is the end game of evolution, it will change everything.
public key encryption.