Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Roman villas found under playing field
The London Telegraph ^ | August 18, 2002 | Catherine Milner

Posted on 08/17/2002 10:13:48 PM PDT by LostTribe

Roman villas found under playing field By Catherine Milner, Arts Correspondent (Filed: 18/08/2002)

The remains of two Roman villas have been found under a football pitch in Wiltshire in what is believed to be one of the most significant archaeological discoveries since the early 1960s.

The houses, which were built for Roman aristocrats in about 350AD, have 40 rooms each and feature an extensive mosaic which is thought to be one of the biggest and best-preserved Roman examples ever found in Britain.

Archaeologists from Bristol and Cardiff universities, who are carrying out the excavation, have also exhumed the body of a Roman teenage boy, whose head had been cut off and placed at his feet.

The excavation, which began last week on the sports fields of St Laurence's School, Bradford-on-Avon, is expected to last for five years and will be conducted by a team of 40 academics and their assistants.

Dr Mark Corney, a lecturer at Bristol University's archaeology department, who is leading the dig, said that the villa complex was akin to the Blenheim Palace of its day.

"It is the most significant site since the discovery of a Roman palace at Fishbourne in West Sussex in the early 1960s. The condition of the mosaic is the most incredible feature. The walls of the original building and roof tiles collapsed on top of it, so it has been preserved in mint condition for more than 1,500 years," he said.

"The people who lived in these houses had a lot of money. The mosaic is very high quality, made, we think, by the top workshop of the day that was based in Cirencester."

So far only a small part of each villa has been excavated, although aerial photographs reveal that they cover an entire football pitch.

The mosaic, which measures 16ft by 30ft, covered the floor of a large hall which joined the two houses. Made up of tesserae - tiny tiles - of different coloured limestone, it features an interlocking design of squares and a vase flanked by dolphins - symbols of rebirth and good luck in the ancient world.

Fragments of some delicate glass cups imported from the Rhineland have also been dug up, while the academics are especially interested in the discovery of the remains of a teenage boy. He was buried on his front with his head, which was removed after death, placed by his feet.

"This was a late Roman burial rite," said Dr Corney. "However, the reasons behind it are far from clear. The current interpretation is that it was for people who had particular powers in life. The Romans believed that the head was the seat of the soul and so they had to chop it off to ensure that those with these special powers didn't come back to haunt those still living."

The villas are thought to have been part of an estate that stretched across about three miles and included a family cemetery. Flanking the houses are traces of formal gardens - possibly including ornamental pools - and the remains of raised structures that could have been flowerbeds.

Dr Corney said that the complex was likely to have been built on profits from the wool trade, which in the fourth century made the West of England one of the most affluent parts of the country.

"The villas also seem to have had three separate bath houses," he said, "suggesting that there were separate, though probably related, family units dwelling in the same complex. It could have been occupied by grandparents, parents and children, or two brothers and their families.

"There may have been smaller buildings further afield. In some aerial photographs you can see track marks and the networks of old fields and the remains of buildings like barns."

The decision to excavate was taken after teachers noticed how, in the summer, the football pitch became scored with yellow lines of parched grass which corresponded with the Roman walls beneath.

Ian Bolden, the school's bursar, said: "Children at the school often used to graze themselves on bits of Roman brickwork or pottery sticking out from the ground while they were playing football. The remains were remarkably close to the surface - just one foot or so below ground."

Public access to the excavation is currently limited and the mosaic has been covered with earth to protect it. English Heritage, the school and the local council are, however, in discussion about how they can open the site to the public.

Mr Bolden said: "At the moment, we are liaising with the universities and other archaelogical experts, but if there is a way to make it profitable and also for the children to benefit from learning about archaeology, too, then that is what we will try to aim for."

Roy Canham, the archaeologist for Wiltshire county council said: "This is a major find. It appears to be a much larger site than we first thought and is in superb condition."

Mr Canham added that the Cotswolds appeared to be popular among the rich Romans. "Perhaps the views reminded them of Tuscany," he said.

Information appearing on Electronic Telegraph is the copyright of Telegraph Group Limited and must not be reproduced in any medium without licence. For the full copyright statement see Copyright


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: ancientautopsies; archaeology; archeology; bradfordonavon; britain; celts; cotswolds; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; roman; romanempire; wiltshire
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-52 next last
The remains of two Roman villas have been found under a football pitch in Wiltshire in what is believed to be one of the most significant archaeological discoveries since the early 1960s.
1 posted on 08/17/2002 10:13:48 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: blam
Bump.
2 posted on 08/17/2002 10:14:16 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe

3 posted on 08/17/2002 10:20:41 PM PDT by Cultural Jihad
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: William Terrell
I believe this helps point out the relative ease with which people of the med. area could travel great distances to have a "summer place" in Britain. While it does not make the case that Jesus visited NW Europe during his lifetime, it does help establish that it would not have taken "exterrestial means" for him to have done so.

The Cotswolds, the region where this was found is west of London, in the region of Oxford University, famous for it's archeology department, and where the Ashmolean Museum is located. I think this site is on the old Roman travel route between London and what the Brits today call "The West", where so much mining activity took place during Jesus time.

Joseph of Arimethia was in the shipping business big time, hauling tin from "The West" of England to Palestine, and probably to Rome as well. As a member of the Sanhedrin, he undoubtedly had lots of business clout (and of course owned the tomb in which Jesus was buried, briefly).

4 posted on 08/17/2002 10:30:24 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Cultural Jihad
Thanks for posting the pics.
5 posted on 08/17/2002 10:32:57 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
Neat stuff, I saw of the ruins from the romans left in Spain, the government takes good care of such treasures. I must say, one gets the impression one tends to trip over things Roman in Europe.
6 posted on 08/17/2002 10:40:09 PM PDT by Braak
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
Archaeologists from Bristol and Cardiff universities, who are carrying out the excavation, have also exhumed the body of a Roman teenage boy, whose head had been cut off and placed at his feet.

Interesting. The head of a Roman household, the Pater familias, legally held the power of life and death over members of his family and the household staff including slaves.

For example, the wife of Claudius Ceasar was executed on his order. She was beheaded by a Praetorian guard.

I don't know how archeologists at the site would have determined the teenager had his head separated from his body after death; it seems something a forensic pathologist would have to determine. But I can imagine an enraged Roman father or grandfather killing a young man for dishonoring the family in some way.

Roman writings of the period record such incidents.

7 posted on 08/17/2002 10:41:15 PM PDT by goody2shooz
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam
This helps locate the archological site. I've spent quite a bit of time in the region, both while doing post-Doctoral work at Oxford University in Biblican Archeology, and many other times on weekend breaks from business trips to London. Was at Stonehenge before they fenced it and you could walk around freely among the stones.
8 posted on 08/17/2002 10:41:28 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: goody2shooz
>Roman writings of the period record such incidents.

Those had to be tough times, even for the wealthy.

9 posted on 08/17/2002 10:53:02 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Braak
>I must say, one gets the impression one tends to trip over things Roman in Europe.

Yes, it's rare to stumble into a find of this magnitude. Especially since this part of England sometimes seem so well "picked over" already.

10 posted on 08/17/2002 10:54:37 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
There are legends in British lore that Joseph of Arimithea spent his last days at the Roman garrison at what is now Glastonbury and died in Britain. Wonder if there is any truth to the old stories?
11 posted on 08/17/2002 10:59:57 PM PDT by Publius
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
Um, I think as long as you followed the rules and remained cagey, it was okay. No one really had any independence though.

There has been a lot of nonsense about how much Amaricans and the Romans are alike. They were no where near being like us.

12 posted on 08/17/2002 11:21:24 PM PDT by goody2shooz
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
"Roman Villa"............."Bob Villa"............Hmmmmmmmm..................."This old Roman House" episode in the making?

Bob Villa ---"Norm will repair the plumbing in the vomitorium, while I talk to the architect about converting the slave quarters to a new family room and entertainment center complete with colleseum style surround sound."

13 posted on 08/18/2002 12:39:00 AM PDT by You Gotta Be Kidding Me
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: goody2shooz
They were no where near being like us.

Give us a few more years. Wait and see!

14 posted on 08/18/2002 1:16:38 AM PDT by Lucius Cornelius Sulla
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: goody2shooz
The wife of Claudius Caesar (Emperor Claudius), Messalina, held a public mock marriage with her lover in a public insult to him. That is rebellion and it had to be dealt with.

Perhaps then as now, the Cotswolds (where Bath is and where the Romans had a hot springs resort) was a resort area.
15 posted on 08/18/2002 6:52:58 AM PDT by Tokhtamish
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
"I think this site is on the old Roman travel route between London and what the Brits today call "The West", where so much mining activity took place during Jesus time."

Isn't this also the site of the of the tin mines of the Carthaginians (Phoenicians) of the 8th century BC? I've read that the Carthaginians ran a shipping blockade at Gilbralter to protect the source (England) of their tin.

16 posted on 08/18/2002 7:27:46 AM PDT by blam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: You Gotta Be Kidding Me
"---"Norm will repair the plumbing in the vomitorium, while..." LOL! My question is: "Can talk of reparations for the slaves be far behind?"

Beautiful mosaic! IMHO, The "tile work" in Italy is the best in the world... but they got nothin' on America when it comes to stucco!

17 posted on 08/18/2002 7:40:11 AM PDT by grumpster-dumpster
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
Cool beans. Thanks for the post.
18 posted on 08/18/2002 7:42:33 AM PDT by mewzilla
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: goody2shooz
Re: the severed head thing. The damage done to the cervical vertebrae would make it pretty obvious, even to an archaeologist :)
19 posted on 08/18/2002 7:46:10 AM PDT by mewzilla
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: mewzilla
Oh, well, more caffeine for me. I didn't get the time of death angle. As for that, the damage might still provide a clue, but they'll most likely call in a forensic anthro, too. This site is one heck of a find.
20 posted on 08/18/2002 7:49:21 AM PDT by mewzilla
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: blam
There are ancient tin mines throughout SW England and they are surrounded by lore and legend. Most appear very small by modern mining standards. It was a major story when one, perhaps the last operating one, closed a few years ago. If they were doing a big business at the time of Jesus, they must have been operating before then.

One of the most deep seated local legends is that Jesus was a nephew of Joseph of Arimethia. Joseph, presumed to be a brother of Mary, did own a major shipping fleet hauling tin to Palestine. Jesus supposedly sailed with his Uncle and visited the SW of England. I have seen stained glass windows in very old churchs in the area showing Jesus and Joseph in a boat, landing there. There are also songs or "chantys" sung by miners which recall those events.

There is no Biblical support for this legend that I am aware of, but we now know there were no technical reasons it could not have occured, and there is no Biblical indication that Jesus was engaged in carpentry (or anything else) for ~20 years after the age of 12.

21 posted on 08/18/2002 7:58:51 AM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: Publius
>There are legends in British lore that Joseph of Arimithea spent his last days at the Roman garrison at what is now Glastonbury and died in Britain. Wonder if there is any truth to the old stories?

These legends are certainly deeply ingrained in English history. Glastonbury is a fascinating place to visit.

22 posted on 08/18/2002 8:02:47 AM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
I think you are familiar with this area, huh?

Ancient Ax Found In Harstad

23 posted on 08/18/2002 8:58:16 AM PDT by blam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam
>Trondenes Peninsula in northern Norway found a bronze axe

Sorry, I haven't been quite that far north in Norway.

24 posted on 08/18/2002 9:03:02 AM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
You would thinnk that some record of Jesus' travels would exist somewhere.

25 posted on 08/18/2002 10:27:20 AM PDT by William Terrell
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: William Terrell
>You would think that some record of Jesus' travels would exist somewhere.

You would think so. Who knows what all is buried in the Vatican Library, for instance?

The great library at Alexandria burned before Christ so would have been no help, but who knows what records it held of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Over 400,000 documents were lost. Here is one account:

It is often said that the Romans were civilised [ED: Especially BY the Romans, who wrote the history. The Christians were not asked for their opinion.] but their most famous general was responsible for the greatest act of vandalism during antiquity. Julius Caesar was attacking Alexandria in pursuit of his archrival Pompey when he found himself about to be cut off by the Egyptian fleet. Realising that this would leave him in a desperate predicament, he took decisive action and sent fire ships into the harbour. His plan was a success and the enemy fleet was quickly aflame. But the fire did not stop these and jumped onto the dockside which was laden with flammable materials ready for export. Next it spread in land and before anyone could stop it, the Great Library itself was blazing brightly as 400,000 priceless scrolls were reduced to ashes. As for Caesar himself, did not think it important enough to mention in his memoirs. The accused was indeed in Alexandria in 47 - 48 BC after arriving in pursuit of his rival Pompey.

26 posted on 08/18/2002 10:45:14 AM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: goody2shooz
For example, the wife of Claudius Ceasar was executed on his order

You're right about Messalina. But beheading is very rare. If a Roman committed suicide, his/her hand was cut off for separate burial. I have never heard about beheading in association with suicide. And a beheading on a teenage boy seems very strange to me.

27 posted on 08/18/2002 10:56:24 AM PDT by Utopia
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Cultural Jihad; LostTribe
Thanks for the story & the pics.
28 posted on 08/18/2002 11:08:17 AM PDT by Ditter
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
Somehow I sense God's hand in that.

29 posted on 08/18/2002 11:15:51 AM PDT by William Terrell
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: William Terrell
>Somehow I sense God's hand in that.

Yep. As in, the time was not yet right for them to be "found". (They had only been lost 700 years.)

30 posted on 08/18/2002 11:32:02 AM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: William Terrell
>You would think that some record of Jesus' travels would exist somewhere.

Maybe some records from Caesarea Maritima, built by Emperor Hadrian to impress Rome, will show something. This was the biggest baddest harbor on the coast, probably second only to Rome in the Med. at the time of Jesus. Joseph of Arimethia had to have a big presence here if he was as big a shipowner and carrier for the Roman Empire as believed.

As a member of the Sanhedrin he was probably President of the local Rotary Club, which would mean he knew everyone who was anyone. That may be how he had the clout to take possession of Jesus body and give him his private tomb.

31 posted on 08/18/2002 11:42:17 AM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: Ditter
>Thanks for the story & the pics.

You're welcome! Have you been to the area, or interested in Olde England?

32 posted on 08/18/2002 11:52:22 AM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: William Terrell
Another view of Caesarea Maritima. (I drove past here years ago, but was too busy chasing you-know-who to stop and explore it.)


33 posted on 08/18/2002 12:04:28 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
I haven't been to that part of England since 1960 & I am facinated with ancient sites anywhere in the world.
34 posted on 08/18/2002 12:23:42 PM PDT by Ditter
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 32 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
Sounds like the opening for a summer movie.

The skeletal remains of the young Roman teenager are taken to Okford for further examination. One of the professors, after examining the skull places back on the examinating table. However, he has placed it between the shoulder blades. Ought oh!

The proefessor goes into an office and begins to write in his journal and......

The title: "Strega" {Witch!}

This can be a doozy! Who want's to produce it.

35 posted on 08/18/2002 1:31:21 PM PDT by Young Werther
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam
I wonder what all those Vikings were doing living in far Northern Norway at that time?  Maybe there was so much "Global Warming" it was too warm to live in the south? {GGG}.

This was an important area during WW2 since the Nazis needed that good Swedish iron ore from just over the Norgwegian border to keep building tanks and ships.  They shipped the ore by rail from Sweden over the mountains to the nearby Norse port of Narvik. (A major reason the Nazis siezed Norway early in the war.)  Narvik is still a tourist attraction today.


               Trondenes was an important centre of power in the Viking and
               Medieval Ages. According to the sagas, the renowned chieftain's
               family on the island of Bjarkøy, and on the peninsula of Trondenes
               on Hinnøy Island, sacrificed to Norse gods and held great feasts
               here. They ruled over an entire kingdom in the districts of
               Southern Troms and Vesterålen.

               Trondenes played an important part during the Christianization of
               Northern Norway. The local chieftains had to be pacified before
               the kings could unify the country and bloody battles were fought.
               The largest stone church north of Trondheim was erected at
               Trondenes after the chieftains had lost the battle against the
               unification of Norway. Trondenes Church remains the most forceful
               symbol of the Christianization of Northern Norway. The church
               became a bastion against Russia. Parts of the wall which were to
               protect against attacks from Russians and Karelians can still be
               seen.
 Guess any of these guys could have left a battle axe behind!

36 posted on 08/18/2002 1:45:55 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: Young Werther
>This can be a doozy! Who want's to produce it.

Sounds like a winner to me. Much more has been made with much less in Hollyweird.

37 posted on 08/18/2002 1:51:17 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
I didn't get the information in the article that it was a "summer house"--you know, England was a part of the Roman Empire in the 4th century--they could have been permanent immigrants.
38 posted on 08/18/2002 1:57:54 PM PDT by stands2reason
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: stands2reason
>I didn't get the information in the article that it was a "summer house"--you know, England was a part of the Roman Empire in the 4th century--they could have been permanent immigrants.

Sure, they could be permanent immigrants, (or undocumented aliens!) I was generalizing the on the idea that travel was not at all impossible, either then, or hundreds of years earlier. The Romans moved large quantities of troops back and forth, and the community of Bath was definitely a Roman tourist venue.

39 posted on 08/18/2002 2:02:16 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 38 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
a late Roman burial rite

Standard procedure for vampires.

40 posted on 08/18/2002 2:05:22 PM PDT by RightWhale
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
What an interesting article! A few years ago, I was in...well, I forget where, but I was looking for a hypocaust (heated Roman floor) that was a local sight. Carefully following the signs through a thick wood, I burst onto a field - right into the midst of a cricket match at what was, to judge by the shouting provoked by my appearance, a rather crucial moment. I hastily retreated back into the shrubbery and was later told that people had turned the signs around as a practical joke. However, when I tried again by another route, I found it, and it was actually very near the playing field.

I also visited a Roman site in Spain, in Alcalá de Henares, that is being excavated after it was found under a site where they were planning to construct a sports complex. I suppose the fact that the land had long been cleared and is usually relatively level accounts for connection between Roman sites and playing fields.
41 posted on 08/18/2002 2:33:13 PM PDT by livius
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: livius
>I burst onto a field - right into the midst of a cricket match at what was, to judge by the shouting provoked by my appearance, a rather crucial moment. I hastily retreated

HA! All the more fun when you are not a local.

> I suppose the fact that the land had long been cleared and is usually relatively level accounts for connection between Roman sites and playing fields.

Hmmm. That's an interesting premise.

42 posted on 08/18/2002 2:51:32 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
"Trondenes was an important centre of power in the Viking and Medieval Ages.

Looks like it would be a nice place to visit in the summer time.

43 posted on 08/18/2002 3:12:25 PM PDT by blam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 36 | View Replies]

To: blam
>Looks like it would be a nice place to visit in the summer time.

There is a popular ship cruise from Bergen to Russia over the top of Norway and back, stopping often for freight and local passengers. Had a relative who took it (had to reserve a year ahead) and she still raves about it.

44 posted on 08/18/2002 3:31:29 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
Fishbourne is amazing. This must be mind blowing.
45 posted on 08/18/2002 3:43:58 PM PDT by Lady Jag
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: sciencediet
> This must be mind blowing.

Yep, this is no mud hut or hole in a cliff.

46 posted on 08/18/2002 4:47:49 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 45 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe
>They had only been lost 700 years.

Still had (2520 - 700) = 1820 years to go.

47 posted on 08/22/2002 5:28:37 PM PDT by LostTribe
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: blam; FairOpinion; Ernest_at_the_Beach; SunkenCiv; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 4ConservativeJustices; ...
A Blast from the Past. Note -- LostTribe is a banned or suspended FR member.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on, off, or alter the "Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list --
Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
The GGG Digest
-- Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

48 posted on 04/19/2005 11:02:21 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (FR profiled updated Monday, April 11, 2005. Fewer graphics, faster loading.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

You mean LostTribe, who was once found, is now lost again? Dang, we gotta get a GPS on that guy! :-)

Thanks for the ping - interesting stuff!


49 posted on 04/20/2005 2:59:21 PM PDT by Hegemony Cricket (I have learned to deal with change. Any possibility of letting me try some currency?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 48 | View Replies]

To: LostTribe

I believe the city of Cirencester was known as corinthium during Roman times. Its at the center of the cotswolds. I spent a month there in 88. Stayed in the Kings Head hotel. Lots of evidence of Roman occupation around the area. A Great place to see.


50 posted on 04/20/2005 3:11:39 PM PDT by Always Independent
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 39 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-52 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson