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Operation Desert-Storm Chronology: Important Events...
desert-storm.com ^

Posted on 11/18/2002 12:30:17 AM PST by mr. mojo risin

Chronology: Important Events

[from a student's website...]

1990 Hussein accuses Kuwait on 17 July of oil overproduction and theft of oil from the Rumailia Oil Field.
1990 On 25 July US Ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie, tells Hussein that the Iraq/Kuwait dispute is an Arab matter, not one that affects the United States.
1990 Hussein invades Kuwait on August 2.
President Bush freezes Iraqi and Kuwaiti assets.
The United Nations calls on Hussein to withdraw.
Aug 6,1990 Economic sanctions are authorized.
Aug 7, 1990 Secretary of Defense Cheny visits Saudi Arabia.
The 82nd Airborne and several fighter squadrons are dispatched.
Aug 8 1990 Iraq annexes Kuwait .
Aug 9, 1990 The UN declares Iraq's annexation invalid .
Aug 12, 1990 The USA announces interdiction program of Irai shipping.
Aug 22, 1990 President Bush authorizes call up of reserves.
Aug 25, 1990 Military interdiction authorized by the UN .
Sep 14, 1990 Iraqi forces storm a number of diplomatic missions in Kuwait City.
Nov 8, 1990 Bush orders additional deployments to give "offensive option" to US forces.
Nov 20, 1990 45 Democrats file suit in Washington to have President Bush first seek Congressional approval of military operations. (eventually thrown out)
Nov 22, 1990 President Bush visits the troops for Thanksgiving.
Nov 29, 1990 UN Security Council authorizes force if Iraq doesn’t withdraw from Kuwait by midnight EST Jan. 15.
Nov 30, 1990 Bush invites Tariq Aziz to Washington and offers to send Secretary of State James Baker to Baghdad.
Jan 9, 1991 Baker and Aziz meet in Geneva. The meeting is 6 hrs, but no results.
Jan 12, 1991 Congress votes to allow for US troops to be used in offensive operations.
Jan 15, 1991 The deadline set by the UN Resolution 678 for Iraq to withdraw.
Jan 16, 1991 First US government statement of Operation Desert-Storm made.
Marlin Fitzwater announces, "The liberation of Kuwait has begun."

The air war started Jan 17 at 2:38 a.m. (local time) or January 16 at 6:38PM EST due to an 8 hour time difference, with an Apache helicopter attack.

US warplanes attack Baghdad, Kuwait and other military targets in Iraq.

Jan 17, 1991 Iraq launches first SCUD Missile attack.
Jan 30, 1991 US forces in the Gulf exceed 500,000.
Feb 6, 1991 Jordan King Hussein lashes out against American bombardments and supports Iraq.
Feb 13, 1991 US Bombers destroy a bunker complex in Baghdad with several hundred citizens inside (placed intentionally by Islamics to be martyred.) Nearly 300 die.
Feb 17, 1991 Tariq Aziz travels to Moscow to discuss possible negotiated end to the war.
Feb 22, 1991 President Bush issues an ultimatum of Feb 23 for Iraqi troops to withdraw from Kuwait.
Feb 23, 1991 Ground war begins with Marines, Army and Arab forces moving into Iraq and Kuwait.
Feb 25, 1991 Iraqi SCUD missle hits a US barracks in Saudi Arabia killing 27.
Feb 26, 1991 Kuwaiti resistence leaders declare they are in control of Kuwait City.
Feb 27, 1991 President Bush orders a cease fire effective at midnight Kuwaiti time.
Mar 3, 1991 Iraqi leaders formally accept cease fire terms
Mar 4, 1991 Ten Allied POWs freed
Mar 5, 1991 35 POWs released
Mar 8, 1991 First US combat forces return home.

(Excerpt) Read more at desert-storm.com ...


TOPICS: Foreign Affairs; Government; News/Current Events; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: timelines
Hmmm.....

See any similarities to what is transpiring today?

Deja Vu all over again...

1 posted on 11/18/2002 12:30:17 AM PST by mr. mojo risin
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To: mr. mojo risin
See any similarities to what is transpiring today?

Not really. The bad guy is Saddam again. Totally different situation other than that.

2 posted on 11/18/2002 1:42:06 AM PST by Prodigal Son
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To: mr. mojo risin
See any similarities to what is transpiring today?

It's a little early in the morning here, so maybe you could point the similarities out? 8^P

3 posted on 11/18/2002 1:52:55 AM PST by hellinahandcart
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To: mr. mojo risin
1990 : (WMD, SCIENTIST KARL-HEINZ SCHAAB IS SOUGHT BY GERMAN AUTHORITIES FOR SALES TO IRAQ) German scientist Karl-Heinz Schaab is sought by German authorities since 1990 on charges of selling German uranium enrichment technology to Iraq before the Gulf War. . - "Brazil uranium sales to Iraq stir debate ," by Carmen Gentile, United Press International 9/25/02

1990 : (BRAZIL APOLOGIZES FOR TECH TRANSFERS TO IRAQ) Brazilian president Fernando Collor de Mello apologized for the technology transfers, which he called "potentially significant." - "Brazil: Trying to Give Up Missiles" from The Risk Report,Volume 1 Number 3 (April 1995) Page 4. 1990 : (RAHMAN COMES TO THE US) Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman came to the US with a history of alleged but unproven involvement in terrorism. He had been detained by Egypt's security services after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981. In spite of this he was admitted to the US and no investigation of him took place for the next two or three years. - "FBI Wary of Investigating Extremist Muslim Leaders: Agency May Rethink Hesitancy on Religious Figures," By Walter Pincus, Washington Post Staff Writer, Monday, October 29, 2001; Page A04

JANUARY 31, 1990. (ARIZONA, JAMAAT AL FUQRA-RELATED ATTACK) Rashad Khalifa, controversial Muslim leader in Tucson, Ariz., is stabbed to death.

MARCH 1990 : (IRAQIS ARRESTED TRYING TO SMUGGLE CAPACITORS THROUGH LONDON) Iraq is caught trying to smuggle military-standard and specification detonation capacitors from CSI Technologies of San Marcos, California. The capacitors' many applications include nuclear weapons as well as conventional warheads and military laser systems. An implosion system can use this type of detonation capacitor, which stores large amounts of electrical energy, with a high-speed electronic switch, called a "krytron." This assembly can supply within a fraction of a microsecond a burst of electrical energy to the detonator or blasting cap which sets off the conventional high explosives. Following an 18-month undercover investigation by the U.S. Customs Service in collaboration with the British government, five persons were arrested in London and the capacitors they were carrying—they had been given dummies instead of real ones—were confiscated. Customs officials identified the end-users for the capacitors as the Al Qaqaa State Establishment, the top-secret facility involved in developing missiles and explosives for Iraq's Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization. German intelligence believes that Al Qaqaa, which has experience with modern conventional high explosive and high-speed measurement technologies, was given responsibility to develop the non-nuclear components of a nuclear explosive device. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

MARCH 30, 1990 : (MASSACHUSETTS, JAMAAT AL FUQRA-RELATED ATTACK) The Islamic center in Quincy, Mass., is attacked.

APRIL 11, 1990 : (US & UK DEMAND THE USSR STOP BIOWEAPONS PROGRAM) U.S. and U.K. demand that the Soviet Union cease their biological weapons program. Gorbachev later 'officially' cancels the program.

MAY 1990 : (PLO ATTACK ON ISRAEL, PANAMANIAN-REGISTERED SHIP USED BY PLO) When an investigation revealed that a ship registered in Panama, the Tiny Star, was used to launch the Palestine Liberation Front's abortive attack on Israel in May, Panamanian authorities withdrew the ship's registration.

MAY 28-30, 1990 : (IRAQ, KUWAIT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein asserts 'oil overproduction' by Kuwait and United Arab Emirates is "economic warfare" against Iraq.

JULY 1990 : (IRAQ, SPIN FORMING MACHINES CONFISCATED BEFORE DELIVERY) The U.S. official also said that Iraq ordered spin-forming machines, which can shape centrifuge endcaps, from another Swiss firm, Schaublin. But the machines were confiscated in July 1990, before they could be shipped to Iraq. The same official said that Iraq acquired seven machine tools, which he described as simple computer-controlled lathes. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

JULY 1990 : (IRAQ, FRANCE) President Saddam Hussein of Iraq said on French television, "We do not have nuclear weapons, but we would see no problem in a Western nation helping us to develop nuclear arms to help compensate for those owned by Israel." - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

JULY 15-17, 1990 : (IRAQ, SADDAM HUSSEIN ACCUSE KUWAIT OF STEALING OIL) Iraq accuses Kuwait of stealing oil from Rumaylah oil field on Iraq-Kuwait border and warns of military action.

JULY 22, 1990 : (IRAQ, SADDAM HUSSEIN PREPARES TO INVADE KUWAIT) Iraq begins military buildup against Kuwait. 1990, summer: bin Laden returns to Saudi Arabia

JULY 27 - AUGUST 1, 1990 : (TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, JAM, BAKR, LIBYA, RED HOUSE ATTEMPTED COUP) The government successfully suppressed a coup attempt that included the taking of hostages, including Prime Minister Robinson, in the Parliament and state television facilities. The government is prosecuting 114 members of the Jamaat Al Muslimeen (JAM), a local Muslim group, on charges of treason and murder for its 27 July-1 August attempt to overthrow the government. Several JAM members including its leader, Yasin Abu Bakr, had traveled on several occasions to Libya, one of several occasions to Libya, one of several sources of funding for the JAM. The crisis began with the blowing up of the police headquarters building in the capital, Port of Spain. After that, groups of young Muslimeen, armed with AK47's, swarmed into the parliament building, known as the Red House, and Trinidad and Tobago Television, TTT. Muslimeen leader, Yasin Abu Bakr, a former Trinidadian policeman, called for public support. Instead Trinidadians stayed home and watched as the six-day drama was reported on local and regional radio and then picked up by the international media. The Parliament was attacked and occupied. The group held the prime minister and members of parliament hostage for days while rioting shook Port of Spain. Before the assault was over the prime minister at the time, now President Robinson, was shot. The coup attempt against the little constitutitonal republic left 24 people dead. What followed was looting and fires that caused millions of dollars in damage.

1990, summer : (BIN LADEN RETURNS TO SAUDI ARABIA)

AUGUST 1990 : (IRAQ INVADES KUWAIT) Hussein sent in Iraqi forces into Kuwait. He accused Kuwait of violating oil production limits set by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), causing the price of oil to drop. The United Nations called for Iraq to withdraw.

AUGUST 1, 1990 : (IRAQ INVADES KUWAIT, USES HOSTAGES AS HUMAN SHIELDS) Iraqi troops invade Kuwait and seize 10,000 western civilians living in Iraq and Kuwait as human shield hostages in response to US and allied military deployments aimed at recapturing the Gulf state. All the hostages are eventually released by the end of the year.

AUGUST 2, 1990 : (GULF WAR BEGINS WITH IRAQI INVASION OF KUWAIT) Iraq invades Kuwait and annexes it as "the Iraqi province of Kuwait." It seizes Kuwaiti oil fields. Kuwait's emir flees. Iraq masses troops along the Saudi border. Bin Laden allegedly offers his services to the Saudi government to help defend against an Iraqi invasion of the kingdom, and is rebuffed. The U.N. condemns Iraq's invasion and demands withdrawal.

AUGUST 3, 1990 : Bush speech : Message to the Congress on the Declaration of a National Emergency With Respect to Iraq

AUGUST 1990 : (IRAQ, GERMANY ENDS TRAINING OF IRAQI ENGINEERS) Immediately after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, the German Foreign Office issued an internal memo to its export control officials. The document ordered an end to a training program three German firms had been conducting for Iraqi engineers, "in the light of newest evidence of German involvement in the nuclear weapons field in Iraq, and threatening political complications [arising from] such a suspicion." The training program was part of a concerted Iraqi effort to overcome what Western experts believe was its nuclear Achilles heel, lack of skilled personnel. The three firms—one of which was Interatom GmbH, which supplied staff from its advanced reactor department—had been training the engineers for nearly a year before the export control office was informed of the full scope of the training program. The Iraqis were on the staff of a Baghdad organization known as Industrial Project Company (IPC), which the Mossad, Israel's intelligence agency, believes is at the pinnacle of Iraq's entire military procurement effort. Although Interatom officials told German export authorities that the transfer of nuclear know-how was forbidden, customs agents emphasized that IPC staff expressed a keen desire to get specific and extensive nuclearrelated information. IPC is also behind a company called Al Fao General Establishment, in Baghdad. According to U.S. and Israeli intelligence reports, Al Fao has been active in procuring missile technology for Iraq. A U.S. government expert said that Al Fao wanted laboratory equipment from Interatom which could be used as a clean room for manufacturing missile guidance systems, or centrifuge components needed to enrich uranium for use in nuclear weapons. A work room, German investigators said, was the first dual-use (civilian-military) export to Iraq which was stopped after Kuwait was overrun. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

1990 : (IRAQ INVASION OF KUWAIT EXPOSES BRAZILIAN TECH TRANSFERS TO IRAQ) The best known is Hugo de Oliveira Piva, who has been called "Brazil's Dr. von Braun." A former head of CTA (Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial) (Aerospace Technical Center), Brazil's premier missile lab, he was caught in Iraq with a team of Brazilian missile experts when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. Piva then humiliated his government by taking as long as he could to come home. "Piva's name comes up a lot," the U.S. official says. In a recent interview with the Brazilian newspaper Istoe, Piva said he would view the resumption of Brazilian missile projects with satisfaction. "I regard these projects as my children whom I used to hold on my lap." Piva's "children" may be the MB/EE and SS-series missiles Brazil was working on during the 1980s. A consortium of Brazilian firms known as Orbita was trying to develop a medium-range missile based on the Sonda-IV space rocket with foreign financing. As a missile, the rocket could carry a 500 kilogram payload up to 1,800 kilometers, almost as far as the U.S. Pershing II missile. Avibras, Brazil's largest weapon exporter, was also working on a line of surface-to-surface missiles known as the SS-300 and the SS-1000. - "Brazil: Trying to Give Up Missiles" from The Risk Report,Volume 1 Number 3 (April 1995) Page 4.

1990 : (IRAQ CLAIMS IT CAN MAKE CAPACITORS Soon after the March 1990 London arrests of Iraqi capacitor smugglers, Saddam Hussein asserted that his Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization had succeeded in producing similar capacitors. While this claim cannot be verified, in 1989 Iraq was able to buy about 150 lower-quality capacitors from Maxwell Electronics, a California-based firm. The head of that company speculated that Iraq may have upgraded these capacitors. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

AUGUST 6, 1990 : (LIBERIA, AMERICANS EVACUATED FROM LIBERIA) Pres.Bush reports that a reinforced rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated U.S. citizens from Liberia.

AUGUST 6, 1990 : (GULF WAR, UN SECURITY COUNCIL) The UN Security Council demands an "immediate and unconditional" withdrawal of Iraqi troops and orders a trade boycott. The UNSC votes 13-0 (2 abstensions Cuba & Yemen) to ban trade with Iraq except for medicine and some food for humanitarian relief after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

AUGUST 6, 1990 : (PAKISTAN STATE OF EMERGENCY) The president of Pakistan, Ghulam Ishaq Kahn, dismisses Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and her government alleging rampant corruption, and declares a state of emergency.

AUGUST 7, 1990 : (GULF WAR, OPERATION DESERT SHIELD BEGINS) Desert Shield Begins, First U.S. forces—F-15 Eagle fighters from Langley AFB, VA—arrive in Saudi Arabia

AUGUST 8, 1990 : (SADDAM HUSSEIN ANNEXES KUWAIT) Saddam Hussein proclaims his annexation of Kuwait as the "Iraqi province of Kuwait."

AUGUST 9, 1990 : (UN DECLARES THE ANNEXATION OF KUWAIT 'VOID') Iraq closes its borders. First U.S. military forces arrive in Saudi Arabia. U.N. declares Iraqi annexation of Kuwait void.

AUGUST 9, 1990 : (BUSH ANNOUCES THAT US FORCES HAVE BEEN DEPLOYED) Pres. Bush reported that he had ordered the forward deployment of substantial elements of the U.S. armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq

AUGUST 10, 1990 : (ARAB LEAGUE JOINS ALLIED COALITION, SADDAM HUSSEIN DECLARES WAR ON THE US & ISRAEL) The Arab League meets in Cairo and votes by a narrow margin to send Egyptian, Syrian and Morroccan troops to join Western troops. Hussein declares a "jihad" or holy war against the U.S. and Israel.

AUGUST 12, 1990 : (NAVAL BLOCKADE OF IRAQ) Naval blockade of Iraq begins and all shipments of Iraqi oil are halted. AUGUST 15, 1990 : (IRAQ & IRAN REOPEN PEACE TALKS) Iran and Iraq reopen diplomatic relations after Iraq proposes peace talks.

AUGUST 18, 1990 : (SADDAM USES CAPTURED CIVILIANS AS HUMAN SHIELDS) Iraq says the nationals of "hostile countries" still in Kuwait will be held as "guests" at strategic sites in Kuwait.

AUGUST 22, 1990 : (US RESERVISTS CALLED UP) Pres. Bush authorizes first call-up of Selected Reservists to active duty for 90 days, by executive order. Call-up widened in subsequent authorizations.

AUGUST 25, 1990 : (UN AUTHORIZES USE OF FORCE TO ENFORCE BOYCOT) The UN Security Council authorizes the use of force to make the trade boycott work.

AUGUST 28, 1990 : (GULF WAR, IRAQ DECLARES KUWAIT I SITS 19TH PROVINCE) Iraq declares Kuwait its 19th province, renames Kuwait City al-Kadhima.

1990 (fall of the year) : Hans Josef Horchem, former chief of West Germany’s Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (domestic intelligence service) stated that most of the Iraqi intelligence front companies are import-export firms and used-car dealerships. In the Fall of 1990, at least three firms were operating in Hamburg and the German state of Hesse – with roughly seven additional Iraqi front operations in the rest of Europe.- Ferdinand Protzman, “German Terror Expert Says Iraqis Have Front Companies Across Europe,” New York Times, October 30, 1990.

SEPTEMBER 14-15, 1990 : (PERSIAN GULF WAR, BRITAIN, FRANCE) UK and France announce deployment of 10,000 troops to Gulf.

SEPTEMBER 16, 1990 : Address to the People of Iraq on the Persian Gulf Crisis (This was broadcast unedited on Iraqi television.)

OCTOBER 7, 1990 : () Palestinians attack Jewish worshippers; Israeli police reacted and opened fire on Palestinians at Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem.

SEPTEMBER 1990 : (WMD, IRAQ'S FRANTIC EFFORT TO DEVELOP NUCLEAR BOMB) After the invasion of Kuwait, Iraq launches a “dash for the bomb”, hoping to complete construction within a year.- Iraq - Scotsman says Saddam has weapons to wipe out world's population, nuclear bomb within 3 years "The Scotsman dossier - SPECIAL REPORT ON IRAQ" by Fraser Nelson, Westminster Editor

OCTOBER 13, 1990 : (LEBANON, SYRIA INVADES CHRISTIAN AREAS AND MASSACRES LEBANESE ARMY PERSONNEL) The Christian area of Beirut was invaded by the Syrians and hundreds of officers and soldiers of the Lebanese Army were killed by the Syrian Army and the corpses were thrown into mass graves in Dahr El Wahch.. Syrian responsibility.

OCTOBER 13, 1990 : (SYRIA MASSACRES LEBANESE ARMY SOLDIERS & OFFICERS) The Christian area of Beirut was invaded by the Syrians and hundreds of officers and soldiers of the Lebanese Army were killed by the Syrian Army and the corpses were thrown into mass graves in Dahr El Wahch.. Syrian responsibility.

OCTOBER 13, 1990 : (LEBANON, GEMAYEL ASSASIN RELEASED, SYRIA, SHARTOUNI) : The assassin of President Bashir Gemayel and 26 of the members of the Philangist political bureau , Habib Shartouni, was released by the Syrian forces during the invasion of the Presidential Palace. He is wanted by the Lebanese Court who are unable to seize him as he is under the protection of the Syrian Secret Service. Syrian responsibility.

OCTOBER 17, 1990 : (GULF WAR, BUILDUP) Western troops in the Gulf number 200,000 US troops; 15,000 UK troops and 11,000 French troops.

NOVEMBER 1990 : (UN RESOLUTION ON USE OF FORCE AGAINST IRAQ) The UN Security Council approved the use of force to remove Iraqi troops from Kuwait if they did not leave by 15 January 1991.

NOVEMBER 1990 : (IRAQ ENRICHED URANIUM CHECKED BY IAEA- STILL THERE) The biggest immediate concern was that Iraq would construct one nuclear explosive out of a small amount of highly enriched uranium which remained in its civilian nuclear program. This material was committed to peaceful uses and inspected every six months by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which last checked in November and found the material intact. But the possibility existed that Iraq would snatch the material between inspections and use it in a bomb. Even now it is impossible to say where this material might be. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

NOVEMBER 12, 1990 : (US RESERVISTS' PERIOD OF SERVICE EXTENDED TO 180 DAYS BY E.O.)

NOVEMBER 16, 1990: (US CONTINUES BUILDUP) US Pres. George Bush reported the continued buildup of the forces into the Persian Gulf region to ensure an adequate offensive military option

NOVEMBER 1990 Thanksgiving Day : (H. W. BUSH) President George Bush told U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia that "those who would measure the timetable for Saddam's atomic program in years may be seriously underestimating ... the gravity of the threat." - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

NOVEMBER 29, 1990 : (GULF WAR, UN ULTIMATUM TO IRAQ, AUTHORIZES USE OF FORCE) The UN Security Council says Iraq must voluntarily withdraw from Kuwait by 15 January 1991. It authorises "all necessary means" to force Iraq out if it does not comply. Baghdad rejects the "ultimatum". In his report the BBC's Brian Hanrahan says: "President Bush is under pressure not to be hasty."

NOVEMBER 30, 1990 : (GULF WAR, BUSH OFFERS TO TALK) Bush invites Iraq to join direct talks.

NOVEMBER 30, 1990 : (BUSH INVITES IRAQ TO JOIN TALKS)

DECEMBER 6, 1990 : (GULF WAR, HUSSEIN ANNOUNCES RELEASE OF FOREIGN NATIONALS) Saddam Hussein announces the release of 3,000 foreign nationals being held in Iraq and Kuwait.

DECEMBER 16, 1990 : (IRAQ CASCADE SYSTEM OPERATING?) On the 16th, the London Sunday Times claimed that Iraq had a cascade operating at Tuwaitha the location of Iraq's known nuclear facilities, which are inspected by the IAEA. The German scientist who had secretly worked with Iraq, Bruno Stemmler, called this assertion ridiculous. He said that developing a cascade would be "far, far more difficult" than balancing a rotor in a single centrifuge. Iraq would need large quantities of uranium hexafluoride, computerized control equipment to maintain precise pressures and temperatures throughout the cascade, autoclaves for inserting uranium hexafluoride into the cascade, and desublimers for withdrawing it. Although Stemmler thought that Iraq would have little trouble obtaining a power supply (frequency inverter) for a single rotor assembly, getting the power supply for an entire cascade would prove "extraordinarily difficult." The Sunday Times also claimed that Iraq was mass-producing centrifuge components at a facility code-named Factory 10, located northwest of Baghdad. Stemmler and a colleague, Walter Busse, visited the factory in 1988. Both said that they saw no evidence that Iraq was manufacturing centrifuge components at the facility, although Stemmler said he saw what might have been a single outer casing of a centrifuge. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

DECEMBER 17, 1990 : ( PERSIAN GULF WAR, KUWAIT) U.N. sets deadline for Iraqi withdrawal on January 15, 1991. Hussein rejects all U.N. resolutions.

? 1990 : (NOSAIR, NY KAHANE ASSASSINATION, RAHMAN) ElSayyid A. Nosair assassinates Jewish activist Meir Kahane in New York. Nosair is a follower of Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, who later is linked to the first WTC bombing and a bomb plot against the UN in NY.

1991 : (USSR SCIENTIST DEFECTS TO US) Ken Alibek quits Biopreperat and defects to the United States.

1991 : (BRAZIL NUKE PROGRAM) Brazil plans to expand the Ipero plant to about 1,000 machines, each with a capacity of about two separative work units per year. About 1,600 people, including about 800 engineers, are working on the enrichment program at lpero and an experimental center on the campus of Sao Paulo University. About 40 Brazilian companies are under direct contract to the enrichment program, working on steel, alloys, welding, vacuum technology, and synthetic materials. Another 160 companies are indirectly linked to the program. After all this effort, and assuming it operates 1,000 machines, Brazil would still need about two to three years to produce enough weapongrade uranium for one crude nuclear explosive. It seems safe to assume that what has taken Brazil over a decade would have taken Iraq at least that long. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25 (Don't forget that Albright is a member of 'Friends of the Earth')

1991 : (BAZ RECEIVES LEGAL RESIDENCE STATUS) Rashad Baz receives legal residence, using his marriage to a US citizen to gain that status. He would later attack Hasidic jews on the Brooklyn Bridge in March of 1994.

1991 : (RAHMAN, NY SHALABI ASSASSINATION) Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman and his coterie challenged Mustafa Shalabi, the local imam, for control of a mosque in Brooklyn. After Shalabi was later found murdered, Rahman challenged his successor and won a vote of mosque members in 1993. The murder remains unsolved. - "FBI Wary of Investigating Extremist Muslim Leaders: Agency May Rethink Hesitancy on Religious Figures," By Walter Pincus, Washington Post Staff Writer, Monday, October 29, 2001; Page A04

JANUARY 1991 : (USSR BIOWARFARE FACILITY) U.S. and British experts inspect a Biopreperat facility

JANUARY 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQI PROPAGANDA OF A MASSACRE BY US TROOPS) a Bangladeshi paper ran a story claiming that US troops had massacred several hundred Bangladeshi soldiers- the story had been planted by Iraq.. In a country where accurate and free public information does not exist, propaganda and disinformation are second nature to the regime. Abroad, Iraq has used both overt propaganda and grey and black techniques. During the Gulf War, for instance, it planted stories in the Third World press casting the Western allies in a bad light. - "Saddam's Spies," Globalscan International, LLC, 1999 iraquespies.htm

JANUARY 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQ TESTS CROP SPRAYING HELICOPTERS) Tests run on crop spraying helicopters, to test their suitability for spraying biological weapons. - Iraq - Scotsman says Saddam has weapons to wipe out world's population, nuclear bomb within 3 years "The Scotsman dossier - SPECIAL REPORT ON IRAQ" by Fraser Nelson, Westminster Editor

1991 : (GULF WAR, TURKEY CATCHES SPY FOR IRAQ) The Turkish government charged one of its citizens with passing information to Iraq. - "Saddam's Spies," Globalscan International, LLC, 1999 iraquespies.htm

1991 : (GULF WAR, SAUDI ARABIA REJECTS BIN LADEN) Saudia Arabia reportedly rejects Laden's offer of his help against Iraq, then permits US troops to use its military bases.

1991 : (PHILIPPINES, AFGHANISTAN, ABU SAYYEF) Kidnappings by Abu Sayyef, "Bearer of the Sword" in Arabic, begin. They achieve international prominence through their high profile kidnapping from a luxurious resort, despite previous terrorist actions and a history of kidnapping and piracy. The group founded by Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani, who participated in the war in Afghanistan, began kidnapping in 1991. It has a violent past, including allegedly bombing busses, shopping centers, and even a church. They have kidnapped Spanish nuns, Hong Kong fishery workers, and a US bible translator. Among their demands in the hotel case: an independent Muslim state and the release of convicted Afghan terrorists from US prisons. But at the end of the day they "settled" for $1 million per hostage. Clearly kidnapping pays. According to Philippine authorities, Abu Sayyef purchased their arms with the $5.5 million dollars in ransom monies received from previous kidnappings. Their large coffers attract new recruits. The number of their members reportedly jumped from 200 to 1000. This sudden surge in wealth distorted the local economy. At one time, the Philippine peso was worth substantially less in Manila than in Jolo. The basic micro-economic rules of supply and demand still apply, Western hostages, previously going for $100,000, now command $1million. Feliciano Belmonte, the Philippine House Minority floor leader compared Abu Sayyef's leader, "Commander Robot," to Bill Gates.

JANUARY 9, 1991 : (GULF WAR) Talks between U.S. Sec. of State Baker and Iraqi Foreign Minister Aziz end in stalemate.

JANUARY 11, 1991 : (CALIFORNIA, JAMAAT AL FUQRA-RELATED ATTACK) The Islamic Cultural Center in San Diego is attacked.

JANUARY 12- FEBRUARY 1991- (GULF WAR) US enters the "Gulf War" started by Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait

JANUARY 12, 1991 : (GULF WAR) Congress grants Pres. Bush authority to wage war. Congress passes the Authorization for Use of Military Force against Iraq Resolution (P.L. 102-1).

JANUARY 15, 1991 : (GULF WAR) Iraq ignores the UN ultimatum. There are 580,000 allied troops in the Gulf, against 540,000 Iraqi troops.

JANUARY 15, 1991 : (UN DEADLINE PASSES - IRAQ STILL IN KUWAIT) Iraq did not leave Kuwait.

JANUARY 16, 1991 : (GULF WAR, BUSH ORDERS COMBAT) Pres.Bush directs US forces to begin combat operations against Iraqi forces and military targets in both Iraq and Kuwait, reports it later on the 18th..

JANUARY 16, 1991 : (US WARPLANES ATTACK IRAQ) US warplanes attack Iraq. Just two hours after U.S. warplanes began attacking Iraq, President H. W. Bush went on national television to report the goals of the assault. "As I report to you, air attacks are under way against military targets in Iraq. We are determined to knock out Saddam Hussein's nuclear bomb potential," the president said, before ticking off other objectives. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25

JANUARY 17, 1991 : (BOMBING OF IRAQ BY COALITION) A coalition of 39 countries began bombing Iraq starting the Persian Gulf War.

JANUARY 17, 1991 : (GULF WAR, OPERATION DESERT STORM) Desert Storm is launched at 3 am Bagdad time, with air attacks on Iraq and Kuwait. The BBC's John Simpson is in Baghdad and witnesses the missile attacks. "The bombs and the missiles seem mainly to have landed with pin-point accuracy," he reports the next day.

JANUARY 18, 1991 : (GULF WAR, BUSH ANNOUNCEMENT) Pres. Bush reports that he had directed U.S. forces to begin combat operations on Jan 16 against Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in conjunction with a coalition of allies and U.N. Security Council resolutions.

JANUARY 18, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQI SCUDS STRIKE ISRAEL) (UK source) The first of several Iraqi scud missiles attacks on Tel Aviv. The US warns Israel against retaliation saying it is an attempt to widen the war and break up the opposition.

JANUARY 19, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQI TERRORISM IN THE PHILIPPINES) Philippine authorities aggressively worked against terrorists during the Persian Gulf war, particularly Iraqis who planned to conduct operations against Western targets in Manila. On 19 January, 1991 a bomb exploded close to the Thomas Jefferson Cultural Center in Manila, killing the man carrying the device -- an Iraqi national -- and seriously injuring his partner, also an Iraqi. Following the attempted bombing, the consul general of the Iraqi embassy was expelled. Manila also rejected the credentials of an arriving Iraqi diplomat and forced him to depart. Two Iraqi students were also expelled.asia.html

JANUARY 19, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQI SCUDS STRIKE ISRAEL) (US source): First scud missiles strike Israel.

JANUARY 20, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQ DISPLAYS POWS) Iraqi television broadcasts pictures of seven captured allied airmen.

JANUARY 22, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQ BLOWS UP KUWAITI OIL WELLS) Iraq begins blowing up Kuwaiti oil wells.

JANUARY 24, 1991 : (GULF WAR, COALITION CAPTURES QARAWA) Allied forces capture the small island of Qarawa.

JANUARY 25, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQIS PUMP OIL INTO THE SEA) Iraq begins "environmental war" by pumping millions of gallons of crude oil into Gulf.

JANUARY 29, 1991 : (GULF WAR, CEASEFIRE OFFER) The US and USSR offer to declare a ceasefire if Iraq pledges to withdraw from Kuwait.

JANUARY 30, 1991 : (GULF WAR, SAUDI ARABIA, GROUND BATTLE) Iraqi and Coalition forces engage in first important ground battle in Khafji, Saudi Arabia

FEBRUARY 1, 1991 : (GULF WAR, US WARNS IRAQ ABOUT WMD) SecDef Cheney warns U.S. will retaliate if Iraq uses chemical or unconventional weapons.

FEBRUARY 8, 1991 : (GULF WAR, BUILDUP CONTINUES) Total U.S. troops in Gulf now over half million.

FEBRUARY 10, 1991 : (GULF WAR, SADDAM HUSSEIN SPEECH) In a broadcast on Baghdad Radio, Saddam Hussein praised his countrymen for withstanding attacks by allied warplanes and rockets.

FEBRUARY 12-13, 1991 : (GULF WAR, BOMBING OF BAGHDAD) Air bombardment of Baghdad destroys three major bridges and kills 400 (? Exaggeration ?) people in an air-raid shelter.

FEBRUARY 13, 1991 : (GULF WAR, BOMBING OF BAGDAD) An allied missile lands on an air-raid shelter in Baghdad, killing at least 314 people. Iraqi officials take the BBC's Jeremy Bowen to see the aftermath. He is accompanied at all times but he says the grief and anger is not a propaganda stunt.

FEBRUARY 19, 1991 : (GULF WAR, PEACE PLAN REJECTED, OIL SPILL GROWS) Soviet-Iraqi peace plan rejected by Pres.Bush. Oil spill in Gulf now estimated at 1.5 million barrels.

FEBRUARY 21, 1991: (AL ARIAN USF CASE, WISE) Al-Arian incorporates the World and Islam Studies Enterprise, a think tank in Tampa devoted to Islamic thought and political theory. MGAYGUNBS2D.html

1991 : (FL, SAMI AL-ARIAN, WISE) USF Professor Sami Al-Arian founds the World and Islam Studies Enterprise Inc. , WISE, as an Islamic think tank in Temple Terrace, FL.

FEBRUARY 22, 1991 : (GULF WAR, US ULTIMATUM) Pres.Bush issues 24-hour ultimatum: Iraq must withdraw from Kuwait to avoid start of ground war.

FEBRUARY 24, 1991: (GULF WAR) U.S. begims bombing Iraq; introduces new tactic of "softening up" Iraq with a lengthy series of air strikes before ground troops enter. US introduces new policy of trying to avoid damage to most civilian regions while bombing government, military and industrial facilities.

FEBRUARY 24, 1991 : (GULF WAR, GROUND WAR 'BEGINS') Pres.Bush announces the start of a ground operation. Allied ground campaign begins. Schwarzkopf's warriors carry out Gulf War's critical "left hook" maneuver as conceived by General Grant's 1863 Civil War campaign at Vicksburg. Allied forces commander General Norman Schwarzkopf says it is a "spectacular success".

FEBRUARY 24, 1991 : (COALITION FORCES ENTER IRAQ) Land forces from the coalition entered Iraq.

FEBRUARY 25, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQ LAUNCHES SCUDS ON SAUDI ARABIA) Iraqi Scud missile hits U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 U.S. soldiers and injuring 98.

FEBRUARY 26, 1991 : (GULF WAR, HUSSEIN RETREATS) Hussein announces Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait.on Radio Bagdad that Iraqi troops have been ordered to retreat from Kuwait. But he does not renounce claims to Kuwait. Iraqi troops exodus from Kuwait City results in "Highway of Death."

FEBRUARY 27, 1991 : (GULF WAR, KUWAIT CITY LIBERATED) First Kuwaiti troops and Coalition forces enter Kuwait City. U.S. 1st Armored Div. fights battle of Medina Ridge against Iraqi Republican Guard in Iraq. Pres.Bush announces the liberation of Kuwait. He announces the cessation of hostilities will be effective from 0400 GMT the following day. The allies say they have destroyed more than half the Iraqi divisions and captured 500,000 prisoners.

FEBRUARY 27, 1991 : (IRAQI ARMY DEFEATED) The Iraqi army was defeated.

FEBRUARY 28, 1991 : (GULF WAR, IRAQ CAPITULATES) Iraq accepts all UN resolutions. Combat operations against Iraq are suspended

MARCH 1991 : (IRAQ, MINORITY UPRISINGS) Shiite and Kurdish uprisings broke out in Iraq.

MARCH 3, 1991 : (GULF WAR CEASE FIRE) Ceasefire agreed on Persian Gulf War, or Operation Desert Storm- Iraq - Scotsman says Saddam has weapons to wipe out world's population, nuclear bomb within 3 years "The Scotsman dossier - SPECIAL REPORT ON IRAQ" by Fraser Nelson, Westminster Editor

1991 : (SAMI AL ARIAN) Tampa, FL USF Middle Eastern Committee is formed to 'promote dialogue' after Persian Gulf War.

1991 : (POST GULF WAR, IRAQ, UNSCOM BEGINS OPERATIONS) UNSCOM began operations in Iraq - "Saddam's Spies," Globalscan International, LLC, 1999 iraquespies.htm

1991 - present : (IRAQI OIL REVENUES DEPOSITED IN NY FOR THE PURCHASE OF FOOD , ETC, ARE MANIPULATED BY IRAQ TO OBTAIN CASH) Saddam's thuggish older son, Uday, controls the first of two Iraqi procurement networks. Its primary purpose is to flood the U.N. sanctions committee with export requests to trigger the release of funds from the escrow account with the BNP in NY City where since 1991 the proceeds from Iraq's oil revenues have been deposited. In some cases, the former Iraqi officer (AL-HAIDER?) said, Uday uses cutouts and middlemen to sign fictitious contracts with European companies for goods such as food and medicine that routinely are approved by the United Nations. "Once the contracts are approved, the money is released from the escrow account," he says. "Iraq then pays the company up to 40 percent for the paperwork, and lets them keep the goods. Saddam desperately needs the 60 percent in cash for forbidden goods and could care less about food or medicine." French exporters, interviewed by Insight, explained yet another finesse of Saddam's commercial network. They said they had been approached by an Iraqi front company known as ALIA, based in the Garden district of Amman, Jordan. "Uday uses ALIA to squeeze a 10 percent commission from exporters that gets kicked back to the regime," an exporter tells Insight. Large companies such as Renault Vehicules Industriels, Schneider Electric SA and Dow Agrosciences have used ALIA to sell several hundred million dollars worth of U.N.- approved goods to Iraq, according to export documents obtained by Insight. The Iraqi purchases included off-road vehicles, large quantities of specialized pumps and chillers that could be used for uranium enrichment, 2,000-liter and 5,000-liter reactor vessels needed to produce chemical weapons and chemicals for pesticides. All ostensibly were sold for civilian purposes and approved by the U.N. sanctions committee in New York. In France, ALIA also is known as SOFRAG ALIA Development France, according to the documents. It applied to the United Nations for permission to export $1 million worth of oil-well logging equipment to Iraq under an approved program to rebuild Iraqi oil fields. Such equipment is particularly sensitive because it includes neutron generators which U.N. weapons inspectors discovered were key components in the crude gun-implosion nuclear device Iraq had designed and tested before the 1991 gulf war - "How Saddam Got Weapons of Mass Destruction" By Kenneth R. Timmerman, Insight Magazine via WorldNetDaily.com , Tuesday, October 1, 2002 ,

1991-1997 : (UNSCOM FOUND 27 TONS OF BRAZILIAN URANIUM IN IRAQ) An International Atomic Energy Agency report says that U.N. weapons inspectors, during a 1991-97 investigation into Iraq's nuclear capabilities, found some 27 tons of uranium originating from Brazil. However, according to Brazil's Jornal da Tarde newspaper, which recently reprinted a 1990 expose entitled "The dark history of the relationship between Brazil and Iraq," Brazil sold three large shipments of uranium to Iraq in clandestine transactions- "Brazil uranium sales to Iraq stir debate ," by Carmen Gentile, United Press International 9/25/02

MARCH 1991 : (IRAQ STOCKPILE OF URANIUM) Iraq has only 12.3 kilograms of 93 percent enriched uranium, some of which might fuel the Tammuz II research reactor at Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center near Baghdad. The material was intended for the 40-megawatt Osiraq reactor, destroyed by Israel in 1981 just before it was scheduled to begin operating. Iraq also has about 10 kilograms of 80 percent enriched uranium at the 5-megawatt IRT-5000 reactor supplied by the Soviet Union. Up to two-thirds of the enriched uranium has been irradiated in the reactor and would require remotely operated chemical processing to extract the highly enriched uranium, a step that would have been difficult for Iraq to accomplish quickly, even before the bombing of Tuwaitha. The unirradiated highly enriched uranium, however, could be added to the 93 percent material, possibly providing Iraq with just enough material for a crude bomb. - "Iraq and the Bomb: Were They Even Close?", By David Albright and Mark Hibbs, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1991, Volume 47, No. 2, pp. 16-25 MARCH 6, 1991 : Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the Cessation of the Persian Gulf Conflict

APRIL 3, 1991 : (POST GULF WAR, UN RESOLUTION 687) UN passes Resolution 687 making a Gulf War ceasefire dependent on a number of conditions, including the dismantling of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.- Iraq - Scotsman says Saddam has weapons to wipe out world's population, nuclear bomb within 3 years "The Scotsman dossier - SPECIAL REPORT ON IRAQ" by Fraser Nelson, Westminster Editor

APRIL 6, 1991 : (IRAQ AGREES TO CEASE FIRE) Iraq agreed to a formal cease-fire.

APRIL 7, 1991: (SAMI AL ARIAN USF CASE) A speaker introducing Al-Arian at a rally in Cleveland calls the ICP ``the active arm of the Islamic Jihad movement in Palestine'' and drums up donations by invoking a stabbing spree by a Jihad activist.

APRIL 11, 1991 : (UN SECURITY COUNCIL CEASE FIRE AGREEMENT) The UN Security Council declared the Persian Gulf War formally over. As part of the cease-fire agreement, Iraq was supposed to destroy all of its biological and chemical weapons and the facilities to produce those weapons.

APRIL 1991 : (IRAQ, UPRISINGS CRUSHED) The Iraqi troops put down most of the rebellions.

APRIL ? 1991 : (IRAQ LIES TO UN ABOUT BIOWEAPONS) Iraq tells UN that it has never had any biological materials, weapons, research or facilities.- Iraq - Scotsman says Saddam has weapons to wipe out world's population, nuclear bomb within 3 years "The Scotsman dossier - SPECIAL REPORT ON IRAQ" by Fraser Nelson, Westminster Editor

APRIL 16, 1991 : (NORTHERN SAFE ZONE ANNOUNCED FOR IRAQI KURDS) After the Persian Gulf War, on 16 April 1991 President Bush announced that US troops would create a safe zone for Kurds north of the 36th parallel.

1991 : (SUDAN, BIN LADEN) Sudan began to allow any Muslim into their country, without a visa, in a show of Islamic solidarity. In those years, hundreds of suspected terrorists from around the world, including Usama bin Laden, used Sudan as a safe haven. By 1993 the US State Department would place Sudan on its list of states sponsoring terrorism.

1990s : (SUDAN, BIN LADEN, RAHMAN) Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman met Osama bin Laden in the Sudan. Rahman "was his religious contact in the U.S.," the former FBI official said . .- "FBI Wary of Investigating Extremist Muslim Leaders: Agency May Rethink Hesitancy on Religious Figures," By Walter Pincus, Washington Post Staff Writer, Monday, October 29, 2001; Page A04

MAY 17, 1991 : (BUSH ANNOUNCEMENT OF STRIKES ON IRAQ FOR ITS TREATMENT OF KURDS) Pres Bush states in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of U.S. forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.

JUNE 1991 : (CHINA GETS CAUGHT SHIPPING MISSILES TO SYRIA) Deliveries of Chinese M-9 launching vehicles to Syria tracked by U.S. and Israeli naval intelligence.- "U.S.-China Techonology Transfer: Annotated Timeline 1980-January 1998," by Bates Gill, GlobalBeat, NYU.edu, June 22, 1998

(NOTICE HOW SUDDENLY, AFTER IRAQ'S DEFEAT, LONG-HELD WESTERN CAPTIVES ARE RELEASED BY TERRORISTS? ... : )

AUGUST 11, 1991 : (TRACY RELEASED) American businessman Edward Tracy, who had been kidnapped in Lebanon by terrorists on October 21, 1986, was released.

AUGUST 25, 1991 : (USSR) Mikhail S.Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary on 25 August 1991, and resigned the presidency of the Soviet Union on 25 December 1991.

AUGUST 1991 : (IRAQ FINALLY ADMITS TO BIOWEAPONS PROGRAM) Iraq admits to a biological weapons research programme- Iraq - Scotsman says Saddam has weapons to wipe out world's population, nuclear bomb within 3 years "The Scotsman dossier - SPECIAL REPORT ON IRAQ" by Fraser Nelson, Westminster Editor

OCTOBER 22, 1991 : (TURNER RELEASED) American citizen Jesse Turner is finally released after being taken prisoner by Islamic terrorists in Beirut, Lebanon on January 24, 1987.

NOVEMBER 1991 : (US SEC STATE BAKER GETS VERBAL AGREEMENT FROM CHINA TO ABIDE BY MTCR GUIDELINES) During visit of U.S. Secretary of State James Baker to China, verbal agreement reached that China will abide by Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) guidelines. - "U.S.-China Techonology Transfer: Annotated Timeline 1980-January 1998," by Bates Gill, GlobalBeat, NYU.edu, June 22, 1998

NOVEMBER 18, 1991 : (WAITE RELEASED) British church envoy Terry Waite, taken hostage while in Beirut trying to secure the release of other western hostages on January 10, 1987, is finally released on 18 November 1991.

DECEMBER 1991 : (CHINA & PAKISTAN SIGN AGREEMENT, CHINA WILL PROVIDE PAKISTAN WITH A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT) Contract between China and Pakistan signed in which China will provide a 300-megawatt nuclear power plant. This plant will ultimately provide the key link in Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. - "U.S.-China Techonology Transfer: Annotated Timeline 1980-January 1998," by Bates Gill, GlobalBeat, NYU.edu, June 22, 1998

DECEMBER 1, 1991 : (CICIPPIO RELEASED) US academic of the American University in Beirut, Joseph Cicippio, who had been taken hostage on September 12, 1986 in Beirut by Iranian-backed terrorists is finally freed.

DECEMBER 1991 : (LEBANON, ANDERSON RELEASED) Terry Anderson, chief Middle East correspondent for the Associated Press, was released after his abduction in Beruit.

DECEMBER 3, 1991 : (STEEN RELEASED) US citizen Alann Steen is released after being taken hostage by Islamic terrorists in Beirut, Lebanon on January 24, 1987.

DECEMBER 25, 1991 : (USSR) Mikhail S.Gorbachev resigned the presidency of the Soviet Union on 25 December 1991.

DECEMBER 29, 1991 : (TAIWAN, AIRCRAFT CRASH) Boeing 747-200 crash lands in Taipei, killing five people.

DECEMBER 1991 : (IRAN OPENS TERRORIST TRAINING CAMPS FOR HIZBOLLAH) After Iran released the last of the American hostages in 1991, the White House kept its fingers crossed that Iran was finally out of the terrorism business. By December, however, it was becoming apparent that Iran had simply switched battlefields. The Iranian Pasdaran opened a training base in the Bekaa for Saudi Hizbullah terrorist cadres. - "See No evil" extracts from "See No Evil: The True Story Of A Ground Soldier In The CIA's War Against Terrorism," by Robert Baer, via Guardian Unlimited, Saturday January 12, 2002 1991 : (IRAQI SOLDIERS HAD BEEN VACCINATED FOR SMALLPOX) Tests on Iraqi soldiers captured during the 1991 Persian Gulf War found that some had been vaccinated for smallpox, according to a declassified Defense Intelligence Agency report. That could be evidence that Iraq was trying to protect some of its soldiers in the event it used a smallpox weapon, although the United States was vaccinating its soldiers for smallpox at the time, as well. MAY 1991 : (US REFUSES TO APPROVE EXPORT LICENSE DUE TO CHINESE EXPORT OF MISSILES TO PAKISTAN, US TIGHTENS RESTRICTIONS/SANCTIONS ON US COMPANIES' SALES TO CHINA) U.S. Government refuses to grant approval of export license for U.S. components to equip a Chinese domestic communications satellite; a Chinese state enterprise believed to be involved in the export of missiles to Pakistan was to receive the satellite components. Owing in part to evidence that China had transferred ballistic missile technology to Pakistan, the US Government bars U.S. companies from participating in Chinese satellite launches. The government also restricts the transfer of computer and missile technology to China. In addition, U.S. companies are barred from selling technology and equipment to the China Precision Machinery Import Export Corporation (CPMIEC) and Great Wall Industry Corporation. - "U.S.-China Techonology Transfer: Annotated Timeline 1980-January 1998," by Bates Gill, GlobalBeat, NYU.edu, June 22, 1998

4 posted on 11/18/2002 2:37:38 AM PST by piasa
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To: piasa
Wow...

Once again, our regular Freepers show they know more than a hundred "wannabe-actor hoping to be discovered" journalists.

I have never heard of most of this information.

If the US public knew this, perhaps they would connect the dots and not listen to liberals, paid war protestors and hollywierd freaks (are your sore-loserman drop-out minions lurking and reading this on DU Babs?)

5 posted on 11/18/2002 7:04:31 AM PST by mr. mojo risin
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To: mr. mojo risin
Of course, there are many differences...

Saddam isn't going to annex Kuwait (he may dream of Israel however...)

My idea was the pattern.

Iraqi pissing contest.

We remain civilized and try the usless, powerless, social engineering, New World Order U.N.

Saddam wont back down.

So we go in and kick his ass.

6 posted on 11/18/2002 7:12:19 AM PST by mr. mojo risin
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To: mr. mojo risin
(* My note : Much ado has ben made of Saddam's recent alleged attempt to pay Libya to provide a safe haven for Saddam's relatives... but if history is any guide, there may be another reason to pay Libya and it isn't to provide safe haven for civilians : to help hide the Iraqi weapons programs and personnel from inspectors. )

1990 : (LESS SOPHISTICATED IRAQI PROGRAMS GO TO SUDAN, MORE SOPHISTICATED ONES GO TO LIBYA TO EVADE INSPECTIONS & DESTRUCTION) By the time the Gulf Crisis erupted in 1990, several Iraqi researchers were already working in Libya as individuals, as were several foreign scientists who had worked in Iraq beforehand. Most were working on Chemical weapons projects, primarily in Rabta. At first Saddam reluctant to share with Qadhafi some of the unique achievements of the Iraqis. However, with pressure from UN inspections mounting, and with intelligence leaking from defectors, Iraq had no alternative but to transfer more and more sensitive projects to Libya as the sole venue for their continuation. Although Sudan was glad to receive anything Iraq had to offer, it had such an abysmal scientific- technological infrastructure that it could not sustain the more sophisticated Iraqi programs. Thus, with not too many takers of the Iraqi systems, Libya would have to do. Meanwhile, Qadhafi was most interested in receiving extensive help from Iraqi scientists for his own covert, biological, weapons program and conditioned his support for Saddam on cooperation in this field. - Yossef Bodansky, "The Iraqi WMD Challenge - Myths and Reality," TASK FORCE ON TERRORISM & UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 20515 , February 10, 1998

1990s early : (IRAQ INITIALLY WORKS WITH LIBYA ON WMD, BUT IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE IRAN_IRAQ WAR, GROWS NERVOUS OVER LIBYA'S TIES TO SYRIA & IRAN) Thus, since the early 1990s, Iraqi scientists have been working in Libya in order to continue the key Iraqi research and production programs into advanced and next generation CW and BW. At first, Baghdad considered the cooperation with Tripoli a temporary necessity. For a while, in the early 1990s, Iraq did not transfer complete projects to Libya. Consequently, several scientists and engineers from the Iraqi military industries were commuting between Iraq and Libya via Amman. They were using new passports with false names and occupations. However, as the contacts were expanding and the Libyans were being exposed to a wider variety of Iraqi programs, Tripoli decided to formalize and expand the cooperation. A special committee of the Libyan defense establishment arrived in Baghdad and negotiated a comprehensive agreement on expanded cooperation in conventional, chemical and biological weaponry. In accordance with these agreements, the Libyans signed contracts with several Iraqi military industry experts. These contracts were drawn as if they were academic invitations for Iraqi professors to lecture in Libyan universities and institutions. At the same time, however, the key Iraqi program equipment, systems and elements remained concealed inside Iraq in anticipation for the end of the UN inspections so that WMD development and production can be resumed. Meanwhile, Baghdad at first drew the line concerning the Iraqi nuclear program. Lingering doubts concerning Libya's long-term strategic cooperation with Syria and Iran prevailed, and Iraq would take no chances. - Yossef Bodansky, "The Iraqi WMD Challenge - Myths and Reality," TASK FORCE ON TERRORISM & UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 20515 , February 10, 1998

1991 - 1992 : (IRAQ BECOMES LEERY OF LIBYA LURING AWAY ITS SCIENTISTS) In 1991-92, Iraqi intelligence feared a Libyan use of financial enticements as an inducement for defections of Iraqi nuclear scientists to the point of undertaking extreme measures- including assassination- to prevent such a trend. - Yossef Bodansky, "The Iraqi WMD Challenge - Myths and Reality," TASK FORCE ON TERRORISM & UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 20515 , February 10, 1998

JULY 1992 : (IRAQI NUCLEAR SCIENTIST JANABI ASSASSINATED IN JORDAN) For example, in July 1992, Iraqi agents shot and killed in Amman, Jordan, Muayad Hassan Naji Janabi -- an Iraqi nuclear scientist. Janabi worked for the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission until 1986, when he was transferred to the Ministry of Military Industries. In 1992, Janabi was on vacation in Jordan. However, he was shot in July 1992 when on his way to pick up Tunisian visas for transit to Libya. He had been offered a "teaching position" at "an atomic institute" in Libya. Baghdad must have been worried because Janabi was supposed to return to Iraq a week earlier and rumors surfaced he had attempted to get to the UK and the US, and failed to get academic visas. By then, Saddam Hussein had banned key personnel in the military-industrial system from leaving Iraq without permission, and fearing that Janabi would not reveal Iraqi nuclear weapons program secrets, he was shot by two Iraqi agents. The two Iraqis were arrested for the assassination but quickly released and sent to Baghdad. - Yossef Bodansky, "The Iraqi WMD Challenge - Myths and Reality," TASK FORCE ON TERRORISM & UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 20515 , February 10, 1998

1994 : (IRAQ BECOMES NERVOUS ABOUT CLOSE-CALL INSPECTIONS) However, by the mid 1990s, Baghdad could no longer be selective in its cooperation with Libya. The BND's 1994 studies of the Iraqi procurement system in Europe was unsettling for it threatened Iraq's ability to revive key WMD programs just as the Iraqi system was being restored to its pre-Gulf War magnitude. Moreover, the UN inspection regime was beginning to grasp the complexity of the Iraqi challenge. Indeed, even before the Summer 1995 "defection" of Lt.Gen. Hussein Kamal, the UN was increasing its efforts to locate hidden stuff. ...Kamal's "defection" was prompted by Baghdad's apprehension that the UN was capitalizing on data provided by genuine defectors in order to zero in on Iraq's hidden WMD facilities. For example, Iraq's biological facilities were first subjected to a meaningful inspection in April 1995, on the eve of the "defection." Even though by then, Baghdad had already hidden its biological weapons cache and destroyed all evidence of its existence, the mere UN visit to the abandoned sites was too close for comfort. - Yossef Bodansky, "The Iraqi WMD Challenge - Myths and Reality," TASK FORCE ON TERRORISM & UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 20515 , February 10, 1998

1994 summer & fall : (IRAQ AUTHORIZES THE MOVEMENT OF ADDITIONAL WEAPONS PROGRAMS TO LIBYA) With the Iraqi-Libyan cooperation in chemical weapons development and production going well, Saddam authorized already in the Summer/Fall of 1994 the move of other weapons programs to Libya. Arrangements for closer cooperation were quickly made. - Yossef Bodansky, "The Iraqi WMD Challenge - Myths and Reality," TASK FORCE ON TERRORISM & UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 20515 , February 10, 1998

1990s : (LIBYA, TARHUNAH CHEMICAL WEAPONS PLANT) The Tarhunah facility, which was erected in the 1990s, is located 50 miles southeast of Tripoli. It consists of a labyrinth of tunnels carved into the side of a hollowed-out mountain, and extends for more than six square miles. As with the Rabta plant, Libya has claimed at different times that Tarhunah is a petrochemical complex or that the facility's tunnels are part of the Great Man-Made River Project (GMMRP) to funnel water from Libya's southern aquifers to its coastal cities. Former CIA director John Deutch has called Tarhunah the world's largest underground chemical weapons plant. Other published reports claim that the GMMRP's underground pipes, which connect with Tarhunah, could be used as an extension of the Tarhunah facility by storing and clandestinely moving chemical agents and other military equipment or forces. Many of the underground pipes at Tarhunah are more than 12 feet in diameter. Once operational, the Tarhunah chemical weapons facility is expected to produce the ingredients for an estimated 2,500 tons of poison agents each year. - "THE FUTURE OF LIBYA'S WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROGRAM, " By Joshua Sinai, April 27, 1999 http://cdiss.org/col99apr27.htm

And, lest we forget Iran and Syria and their pet terrorist groups like Hezballah:

1990 - Iran remains neutral following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, denouncing both Baghdad's conquest of Kuwait and any long-term presence of US forces in the region.

SEPTEMBER 11, 1990 : Iran and Iraq resume diplomatic relations. (* Interesting date, no?)

1990s : (AL QAEDA, THE IRANIAN OGVERNMENT, & AN IRANIAN RELIGIOUS LEADER MEET) Testimony in the East Africa embassy bombings trial, concluded last year (2000), lays out connections between al-Qaida and the Iranian government, an unidentified senior Iranian religious leader and Iran’s most favored terrorist group, the Hizballah, during the early 1990s. .- "Suspected al-Qaida camp seen in Iran." Sources: U.S. images show site near Afghan border By Jim Miklaszewski and Robert Windrem , NBC NEWS, Sept. 26, 2002

1992 - 1996 (SALIM MET WITH IRANIAN CLERICS IN SUDAN IN AN EFFORT TO ARRANGE AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN AL-QAEDA, THE NATIONAL ISLAMIC FRONT OF SUDAN, AND ELEMENTS OF THE IRANIAN GOVERNMENT TO COOPERATE AGAINST THE US, ISRAEL & OTHER WESTERN COUNTRIES) The meetings between al-Qaida and the unidentified Iranian religious leader took place in Sudan with Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, bin Laden’s former financial manager, representing al-Qaida. They took place at “various times” between 1992 and 1996, according to prosecutors -According to U.S. prosecutors, “At various times between in or about 1992 and in or about 1996, the defendant Mamdouh Mahmud Salim met with an Iranian religious official in Khartoum as part of an overall effort to arrange a tripartite agreement between al-Qaida, the National Islamic Front of Sudan and elements of the government of Iran to work together against the United States, Israel and other Western countries.” Salim goes on trial in New York early next year (2003), and it is expected that details of those dealings will be made public. - "Suspected al-Qaida camp seen in Iran." Sources: U.S. images show site near Afghan border By Jim Miklaszewski and Robert Windrem , NBC NEWS, Sept. 26, 2002

1992 - 1996 - on? : (IRAN & HEZBALLAH PROVIDED WEAPONS & TRAINING TO AL QAEDA & THE EGYPTIAN ISLAMIC JIHAD) Among the prosecutors’ revelations at the year 2000 embassy bombing trials was that Iran and Hizballah provided weapons and weapons training to al-Qaida and its ally, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and that “Osama bin Laden and other ranking members of al-Qaida, stated privately ... al-Qaida should put aside its differences with Shiite Muslim terrorist organizations, including the government of Iran and its affiliated terrorist group Hizballah, to cooperate” against the United States. Moreover, there was testimony that bin Laden met with Imad Mugniyeh, the mastermind behind the terrorist attacks that took more than 300 American lives in Beirut during the 1980s. - "Suspected al-Qaida camp seen in Iran." Sources: U.S. images show site near Afghan border By Jim Miklaszewski and Robert Windrem , NBC NEWS, Sept. 26, 2002

1994 : (MEETING BETWEEN BIN LADEN & HEZBALLAH LEADER MUGNIYEH IN SUDAN) The bin Laden meeting with Mugniyeh, the military chief of Hizballah, was held in 1994. All the meetings apparently took place in Sudan.- "Suspected al-Qaida camp seen in Iran." Sources: U.S. images show site near Afghan border By Jim Miklaszewski and Robert Windrem , NBC NEWS, Sept. 26, 2002

7 posted on 11/19/2002 12:52:44 AM PST by piasa
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