Skip to comments.Why Are Black Students Lagging?
Posted on 11/29/2002 11:31:28 PM PST by kattracks
he persistent academic gap between white and black students has touched off difficult and often ugly debates over the question why. Are racist stereotypes to blame? Substandard schools? Cultural attitudes?
This long-running argument may bubble up again next year with the arrival of a book that argues minority communities themselves contribute to student failure.
The book, "Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement" (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), is by John U. Ogbu, an anthropology professor at the University of California at Berkeley and a well-known figure in the field of student achievement for more than three decades. Indeed, it was Mr. Ogbu's research that popularized the phrase "acting white" in the mid-1980's to help explain why black students might disdain behaviors associated with high achievement, like speaking standard grammatical English.
Now Mr. Ogbu is back, arguing with renewed fervor that his most recent research shows that African-Americans' own cultural attitudes are a serious problem that is too often neglected.
"No matter how you reform schools, it's not going to solve the problem," he said in an interview. "There are two parts of the problem, society and schools on one hand and the black community on the other hand."
Professor Ogbu's latest conclusions are highlighted in a study of blacks in Shaker Heights, Ohio, an affluent Cleveland suburb whose school district is equally divided between blacks and whites. As in many racially integrated school districts, the black students have lagged behind whites in grade-point averages, test scores and placement in high-level classes. Professor Ogbu was invited by black parents in 1997 to examine the district's 5,000 students to figure out why.
"What amazed me is that these kids who come from homes of doctors and lawyers are not thinking like their parents; they don't know how their parents made it," Professor Ogbu said in an interview. "They are looking at rappers in ghettos as their role models, they are looking at entertainers. The parents work two jobs, three jobs, to give their children everything, but they are not guiding their children."
For example, he said that middle-class black parents in general spent no more time on homework or tracking their children's schooling than poor white parents. And he said that while black students talked in detail about what efforts were needed to get an A and about their desire to achieve, too many nonetheless failed to put forth that effort.
Those kinds of attitudes reflect a long history of adapting to oppression and stymied opportunities, said Professor Ogbu, a Nigerian immigrant who has written that involuntary black immigrants behave like low-status minorities in other societies.
Not surprisingly, he said, the parents were disappointed when he turned the spotlight on them as well as the schools. Peggy Caldwell, a spokeswoman for the Shaker Heights City School District, said that minority families cared deeply about their children's academic achievement and the district was working with education experts to reduce the racial achievement gap. She noted that while Professor Ogbu called most of the black families in the district middle class, 10 to 12 percent live in poverty.
Also not surprisingly, many researchers take issue with some of Professor Ogbu's latest findings.
"When we asked if friends made fun of kids who do well in school, we don't find any racial difference in that," said Ronald F. Ferguson, a senior research associate at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard who analyzed a new study of 40,000 middle and high school students in 15 middle class school districts, including Shaker Heights.
Indeed, the study, which was administered by the Minority Student Achievement Network, an organization that explores ways to close the racial achievement gap, found that African-American and Latino students work as hard and care as much about school as white and Asian students do.
Mr. Ferguson said that while minorities lag behind whites in things like homework completion, it is wrong to infer that they aren't interested in school. "High achievers are more often accused of acting white than low achievers, but it's because the low achievers suspect the high achievers believe they are superior."
"It's things like talking too properly when you're in informal social settings," he continued. "It's hanging around white friends and acting like you don't want to be with your black friends. It's really about behavior patterns and not achievement."
Mr. Ferguson speculated that what Professor Ogbu saw was a clumsy attempt by black students to search for a comfortable racial identity. "What does it mean to be black?" he said. "What does it mean to be white? The community needs to help kids make sense of their own identity."
"I would agree with Ogbu that there are youth cultural patterns and behaviors that are counterproductive for academic success," he went on, mentioning socializing in class and spending too much time watching television. "But when they engage in those behaviors, they are not purposely avoiding academic success."
Other researchers have zeroed in on other culprits, whether inferior schools, lower teacher expectations, impoverished family backgrounds or some combination.
Theories of black intellectual inferiority, too, have popped up from the 1781 publication of Thomas Jefferson's "Notes on the State of Virginia" to "The Bell Curve" in 1994 and beyond. Given that sensitivity and the implications for policies like school desegregation and affirmative action, virtually every aspect of the academic gap has been examined.
Where Professor Ogbu found that some middle class blacks were clueless about their children's academic life, for example, Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, a sociology professor at the University of North Carolina, instead concluded that such parents were often excluded from the informal networks that white parents use for information about courses, gifted programs and testing. "I believe, based on my own research, that the center of gravity lies with the school system," she said.
Claude Steele, a Stanford University psychologist, meanwhile, has hypothesized that black students are responding to the fear of confirming lowered expectations.
And Walter R. Allen, a professor of sociology at the University of California at Los Angeles, said that even when racial minorities and whites attended the same schools, they could have radically different experiences because of tracking and teacher expectations.
Professor Allen is conducting a long-term project on college access for African-American and Latino high school students in California. In his view, black students sometimes underperform because of subtle exchanges with teachers who convey the message that they find the students inferior or frightening. And, he said, minority schools still overwhelmingly lack good teachers and adequate teaching tools.
He also pointed out that comparing the income level of black and white families, as Professor Ogbu did with his Midwestern subjects, can be misleading. Black incomes might be derived from two-career families juggling several jobs compared with a single breadwinner in white households.
Professor Ogbu is no stranger to controversy. His theory of "acting white" has been the subject of intense study since he first wrote about it in the mid-80's with Signithia Fordham, then a graduate student and now a professor of anthropology at the University of Rochester. They studied an inner-city Washington high school where students listed doing well in school among the "white" behaviors they rejected, like visiting the Smithsonian and dancing to lyrics rather than a beat.
The two anthropologists theorized that a long history of discrimination helped foster what is known in sociological lingo as an oppositional peer culture. Not only were students resisting the notion that white behavior was superior to their own, but they also saw no connection between good grades and finding a job.
Many scholars who have disputed those findings rely on a continuing survey of about 17,000 nationally representative students, which is conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, an arm of the federal government. This self-reported survey shows that black students actually have more favorable attitudes than whites toward education, hard work and effort.
But that has by no means settled the debate. In the February issue of the American Sociological Review, for example, scholars who tackled the subject came to opposite conclusions. One article (by three scholars) said that the government data were not reliable because there was often a gap between what students say and what they do; another article by two others said they found that high-achieving black students were especially popular among their peers.
"It's difficult to determine what's going on," said Vincent J. Roscigno, a professor of sociology at Ohio State University who has studied racial differences in achievement. "`I'm sort of split on Ogbu. It's hard to compare a case analysis to a nationally representative statistical analysis. I do have a hunch that rural white poor kids are doing the same thing as poor black kids. I'm tentative about saying it's race-based."
Indeed, Professor Mickelson of the University of North Carolina found that working class whites as well as middle-class blacks were more apt to believe that doing well in school compromised their identity.
All these years later, Professor Fordham said, she fears that the acting-white idea has been distorted into blaming the victim. She said she wanted to advance the debate by looking at how race itself was a social fiction, rooted not just in skin color but also in behaviors and social status.
"Black kids don't get validation and are seen as trespassing when they exceed academic expectations," Professor Fordham said, echoing her initial research. "The kids turn on it, they sacrifice their spots in gifted and talented classes to belong to a group where they feel good."
I would consider myself a failure as a parent if I did not instill in my child the desire to use his God-given abilities to their fullest.
I have relatives that flat-out do not care to see their children excel. I knew a guy that dropped out of ROTC so that he could enlist, just to make sure that he never would outrank his father (retired master sergeant). I was flabbergasted.
And perhaps this is reinforced when they are constantly told that nothing is their fault, and that they really can't make it without the help of certain politicians, (read DemocRATS)
Promoted by those that prey on these kids, making them believe they are in need of help because they worry more about the color of their skin than the value of a good education .
As long as such is believed by those who trust that a race card will feed and cloth them in their adult lives .........they suffer as will their childrens children.
Just my opinion of course......Stay Safe !
Throughout my entire life, there has not been one talent, generational gift, benefit of perseverent hard work, denial of immediate gratification, obedience and sacrifice over not only days, weeks and months, but decades, generations, and families which hasn't been overwhelmed in this world by affirmative action and promotions for minorities over perceived powerful middle-class America.
I can still strive to change with the times, remain vigilent and dutiful, efficient and productive, but when I observe my behavior won't effect the overall results, I can continue to strive to succeed, but I have no expectation of reward or award or now even a fair return on effort employed. That's not a crutch to NOT succeed, it's a more mature acknowledgement of cause, effect and consequence without overgenerous attention to any one particular factor/function.
It's also strong justification to not place much faith in agnostic or atheistic or do-gooder plans which characterize the bulk of liberal politic and some conservative politic.
True anthropological studies have been censored for a few decades now. But with the advent of human genome research, which is being done for real in other parts of the world, I think we will soon have answers to lots of questions. People need to realize though that it's okey for us all to be different. All groups of people have strong points and weak points. This is a very sensitive subject though and most people with sense will not touch it with a ten foot pole.
Yes, and it's been that way for nearly 100 years.
The egalitarians, however, will only admit scientific evidence when it fits their worldview. Since they presuppose radical human equality, any evidence to the contrary is, in their view, immoral.
we all know in the back of our minds that some people just are more talented at certain things...
we know that Black people for example , have a higher number of great athletes as compared to white or Asian peoples....
why can't we just accept that?
why can't we just accept that perhaps there are genetic/racial components to some of our talents...
That only means that 88-90% of black kids in the Shaker Heights school system are from middle-class or even rich families!
It's time - especially in rather-affluent suburbs like Shaker Heights - to put liberal ideology aside and admit that poverty doesn't explain why so many black kids do so poorly in even schools in affluent liberal suburbs like Shaker Heights.
Shaker Heights does have a "changing neighborhood" problem on its west end and on its south side - but of economic status, not of race; these areas are sliding from middle-class mixed-race to poor mixed-race. But there just aren't enough black kids in poverty in that suburb to explain the reality by poverty.
The mayor is black.
The city council is all black.
The school superintendent is black.
The school administers are black.
The majority of the teachers are black.
Change the process if you don't like the current result.
Of course. Blame someone or something else. That's the time tested approach we've all come to know and love.
If it is a "Fact", prove it. Cite an example.
The old poverty causes poor academic performance ruse. I wonder how many white people are live in poverty in this area. I'll bet it's a similar percentage of the population.
My personal opinion in this matter is that all to often black students expect to be given decent grades because they exist and show up. This is a attitude society has been reinforcing for thirty years and it is the nature of man to take the easy academic path, so when it's available many do just that. There is no need, hence no desire to acheive for far too many students in general.
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Absolutely, I'd acknowledge a difference; but I'd insist that that a large part of that difference comes from the lack of emphasis placed and reenforced in many black households, upon the sheer value of education.
Plenty talk a good game, but how many follow through? We demand excellence from our children because they have shown that they are capable of it. We insist on our kids learning what is on the standardized examinations as opposed to constant "feel good" educational pablum.
As a result, I'm sure that our children are better prepared from day one for the standardized examinations, higher education; and I'd dare say would show higher on an IQ exam than their peers.
In the eyes of some, my wife and I are just as "guilty" as Murray and others who acknowledge that there is a difference. My view is that if you know there is a potential problem, then it is incumbent to work on eliminating that difference. That helped my wife and I as youngsters, and I insist that it helps our children the same way.
Like the Democratic Party leadership? ;^)
That is the biggest part of it, the family influence. I did a study once on Korean children, why they do so well academically in the U.S. It's the family. Education is highly valued in Korean tradition, it was the way to get ahead for the entire family. The children are expected to do well in school, no excuses. And they out-perform whites and blacks in this country because of their traditional family values.
In affluent public schools all over America, this is a problem, for white kids as well as blacks.
Perhaps some kind Freeper can help me understand this thinking. As I kid I never thought what does it mean to be white. Why would I? I was a poor white kid living on welfare that never thought for an instant my skin color had anything to do with who or what I am or what is my potential. Nor have I ever thought I needed to act white. What ever that means
Why would a black kid wonder what it means to be black? Who thinks up this nonsense? What value is there is framing your world in this way? Why is there a need to deconstruct your identity in terms of skin color?
Almost. Maryanne Mahaffey and Sheila Cockrel are whities. In fact, Mahaffey is Counsel President and, if Kwame should die, would become Mayor. Actually, it wasn't that long ago that the split was closer to 50/50. Dave Eberhard and Mel Ravitz left a few years ago, but were always big vote getters.
And you'd be amazed at the percentage of Detroit's teachers who are white.
I think your right that it's a problem for all kids, affluent or not no matter what color or hue. But I also believe that the "I am owed a living attitude" is more prevalent in black students because it is an implied message they have been getting loud and clear from social "leaders" for a long time.
I defy anyone to closely examine today's black culture and point out one aspect of it.......just one........that suggests a desire to excel, improve, educate, edify, or prosper beyond thuggism or pro sports (I know I know....little difference there any more).
Martin Luther King must be spinning in his grave.
After you found out you were the lone white guy/gal, what happened. Did it affect your life? I only ask because it seems that if your a black person there is some social requirement that you are to go through some type of evaluation of your identity as a black person. I don't mean to be forward, but I just don't understand this business of wondering what it mean to be a particular color shape or size. Are fat people supposed to evaluate what it mean to be fat, are they supposed to think and act like fat people?
Isn't that the truth.
The government encourages divisiveness. The last Gov application I saw (circa 1982) had 7 choices for the 'race'box. SEVEN !
The Cubans I worked with were quite upset at being singled out from 'white'and being lumped in 'hispanic'.