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Anything into Oil(solution to dependence on foregn oil?)
DISCOVER Vol. 24 No. 5 ^ | May 2003 | Brad Lemley

Posted on 04/21/2003 5:57:41 AM PDT by honway

click here to read article


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To: PatrickHenry
If I could hook up one of those converters to the back end of each of my dogs, I'd have enough oil around here to light up the whole city.

Or, if it's like my dog, would barely pay for the dog food.

101 posted on 04/21/2003 4:18:09 PM PDT by Gumption
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To: thinden
>> the entire ME oil industry could become non essential

That's what I was thinking too. Ten more years, and they can go back to being goat herders. Also: No billions in oil revenues = no money to fund worlwide terrorism. Everybody wins. I hope the guys who invented this become multibillionaires.

102 posted on 04/21/2003 5:17:16 PM PDT by NewJerseyJoe
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To: zeugma
>> all we need to solve just about any problem is an american with an idea and investors looking to make a profit

Absolutely. Ayn Rand would be proud!

>> could very well have serious geopolitical ramifications over the next 30 years

I had the same thought. There is NO business that would not be affected. Old closed landfills could be "cleaned out" and made profitable for the second and third times, (A) as a raw material source and (B) eventually, re-opened space for recreation, real estate, restored wilderness, etc. Municipal entities could make deals to send all their garbage and recycling (mandatory in many places), and in return getting either cheap fuel oil for their town or money for the town coffers from selling garbage. Construction companies will become hugely profitable because they'll be able to dispose of their debris in a much more cost-effective fashion, which in turn could (theoretically) make it cheaper to live in cities. Taxpayers who've been forced to subsidize municipal incinerators will get a break (although we're still stuck with the outstanding bills.) And so on and so on. I'm sure Freepers will soon start identifying hundreds of obvious (and many not-so-obvious) plus-es to this technology.

103 posted on 04/21/2003 5:29:09 PM PDT by NewJerseyJoe (Time to buy up those closed landfills!!)
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To: honway
"Is that simple enough for you, or would you like more help?"

I think it is you who need to look up the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

--Boris

104 posted on 04/21/2003 6:01:10 PM PDT by boris (Education is always painful; pain is always educational)
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To: NewJerseyJoe
Years ago, before modern sanitation, "night soil" was collected and used as fertilizer. In places like Japan, it was considered quite valuable. I can see the return of an old industry. (And perhaps suitable jobs for those on welfare.)
105 posted on 04/21/2003 6:10:34 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas.)
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To: PatrickHenry
bttt
106 posted on 04/21/2003 6:29:36 PM PDT by US_MilitaryRules (A penny saved is a governmental oversite!!!)
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To: honway
Your 80% energy efficiency is being cautious if the article is correct - they say 85% in the article. They are using the gas generated in the process to provide the energy, they say.

I am a retired chemical engineer, having worked in the rubber industry for 40 years. I am reserving judgement on this while looking to see what else I might learn about the process. If anything in the article adds credibility, for me it is seeing that Warren Buffett's son is involved, representing ConAgra interests.

This certainly fuels the imagination! $15 a barrel for oil they say is equivalent to #2 heating oil calculates 36 cents a gallon (42 U.S. gal barrel). If this goes to $10 a barrel in the next 3 to 5 years this goes to 24 cents a gallon. If this all really works then the bigger, more serious problem is to find a way to keep the grubby paws of state and federal govt (tax) away from it! Note: #2 heating (fuel) oil will also work quite well for diesel engines.
107 posted on 04/21/2003 6:45:08 PM PDT by GGpaX4DumpedTea
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To: boris
It is not a question of getting something for nothing. As I read the article, it says 85% based on using 15 btu's to run the process for every 100 btu's (equivalent) in the feedstock. They say they are using gas formed in the process to provide the energy to drive the depolymerization. This gives 85 btu's of energy available in the product coming out the other end of the process.

The 100 btu's (equivalent) in the feedstock stream is not being input as energy. It is just what is there. 15 of those available btu's are being used as energy to drive the process.

Without the depolymerization conversion process, the 100 btu's (equivalent) in the feedstock is not efficiently or environmentally available, in most cases. And the feedstock will not fuel your truck or car or fuel your home heating system.

We get net negative efficiencies when we start using fossil fuels to generate electricity to charge batteries to power "electric" automobiles vs. using the fossil fuels directly to power the automobile through its internal combustion engine. Don't let the environazi's fool us by citing the "efficiency" of the "electric" auto relating only to the so called efficiency of the electric engine in the auto. They lie.
108 posted on 04/21/2003 7:21:40 PM PDT by GGpaX4DumpedTea
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To: webstersII
Reportedly one of Saddam's sons was feeding people into a chipper/shredder - maybe he already had this process and was converting his political enemies into oil?
109 posted on 04/21/2003 7:30:11 PM PDT by GGpaX4DumpedTea
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To: honway
Bumping for later close reading.
110 posted on 04/21/2003 7:45:53 PM PDT by soundbits
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To: ggekko
They shouldn't get grants unless they let us citizens be able to invest if we want to.
111 posted on 04/22/2003 12:48:33 AM PDT by Bellflower
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To: GGpaX4DumpedTea
We need to investigate the effectiveness of the plant in Carthage Missouri.

According to the articles, it's supposed to be coming on-line about now. I suppose it will take some time to get everything tweaked for maximum efficiency.
112 posted on 04/22/2003 8:11:16 AM PDT by citizen (Praise the Lord and pass the ammunition!)
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To: Walkingfeather
there's room to MOVE as a fry cook!
113 posted on 04/22/2003 8:56:24 AM PDT by Britton J Wingfield
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To: boris
My original statement is correct: 100 BTUs in (feedstock); 85 BTUs out (useful energy).

That feedstock is otherwise useless crap that would actually take resources to dispose of. You arent putting 100 btus of USEFUL energy in.

114 posted on 04/22/2003 9:04:16 AM PDT by Britton J Wingfield
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To: honway; All
Any FReepers live near Carthage, Missouri and can check on this plant?
115 posted on 04/22/2003 9:51:43 AM PDT by citizen (Praise the Lord and pass the ammunition!)
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To: citizen
http://www.solaraccess.com/news/story?storyid=4087

West Hempstead, New York - April 15, 2003 [SolarAccess.com] Changing World Technologies, Inc. unveiled what they believe is the first commercially successful application of thermal technology to convert organic waste into clean energy
116 posted on 04/22/2003 10:36:05 AM PDT by honway
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To: honway
bttt
117 posted on 04/22/2003 6:41:53 PM PDT by citizen (Praise the Lord and pass the ammunition!)
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To: All
It seems to me (twisted brain cells) that the Germans during WWII developed a process of turning coal into gasoline. Anyone know anything about this.
118 posted on 04/22/2003 7:06:37 PM PDT by jslade
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To: IWONDR; CollegeRepublican
If I remember correctly, prions do break up at something like 600-900 degrees F (far hotter than conventional fires, and of course no good for saving the victim). This invention cooks the sludge at 900 degrees, so it should be good for getting rid of mad cow disease too.

Yours in Truth,

119 posted on 04/22/2003 11:51:30 PM PDT by Buggman (Stephen King has forgotten the face of his Father)
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To: m1911
ARF! Light oil... One of our loved elders last "jobs" will be "driving" a Kenworth :)
120 posted on 04/23/2003 12:25:21 AM PDT by Axenolith (Snuggle Bear meets Mossberg... Balance is restored to the world...)
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To: webstersII
"If a 175-pound man fell into one end, he would come out the other end as 38 pounds of oil, 7 pounds of gas, and 7 pounds of minerals, as well as 123 pounds of sterilized water. "

Let's just end energy problems forever...






121 posted on 04/24/2003 11:40:24 PM PDT by Rate_Determining_Step (US Military - Draining the Swamp of Terrorism since 2001!)
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Comment #122 Removed by Moderator

To: m1911
The $20 million facility, scheduled to go online any day, is expected to digest more than 200 tons of turkey-processing waste every 24 hours.

Man, at that rate we're going to need more turkeys.

123 posted on 04/25/2003 3:02:22 PM PDT by Some hope remaining.
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To: m1911
hopefully small enough to power the flux capacitor in your DeLorean.
124 posted on 04/25/2003 3:19:45 PM PDT by Some hope remaining.
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Comment #125 Removed by Moderator

To: PeaceBeWithYou
Bookmark
126 posted on 04/29/2003 2:44:38 AM PDT by PeaceBeWithYou (De Oppresso Liber!)
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To: jslade
It seems to me (twisted brain cells) that the Germans during WWII developed a process of turning coal into gasoline. Anyone know anything about this.

No problem, if cost is no object. The only thing new with this project is the claim of low cost.

127 posted on 04/29/2003 2:52:09 AM PDT by js1138
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To: jslade
Your brain cells are working just fine...

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/B/Bergius/1.html

Bergius, Friedrich Karl Rudolph (1884-1949)
German research chemist who invented processes for converting coal into oil and wood into sugar. He shared a Nobel prize 1931 with Carl Bosch for his part in inventing and developing high-pressure industrial methods.

Bergius was born near Breslau, Silesia (now in Poland), the son of the owner of a chemical factory. He studied chemistry at the universities of Breslau and Leipzig, and did research at Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule with German chemist Fritz Haber, who introduced him to high-pressure reactions. Bergius worked in industry 1914-45, then left Germany and eventually settled in Argentina 1948, as a technical adviser to the government.

In 1912 Bergius worked out a pilot scheme for using high pressure, high temperature, and a catalyst to hydrogenate coal dust or heavy oil to produce paraffins (alkanes) such as petrol and kerosene. Yielding nearly 1 tonne of petrol from 4.5 tonnes of coal, the process became important to Germany during World War II as an alternative source of supply of petrol and aviation fuel. He also discovered a method of producing sugar and alcohol from simple substances made by breaking down the complex molecules in wood; he continued this work in Argentina, and found a way of making fermentable sugars and thus cattle food from wood.
128 posted on 04/29/2003 10:10:13 AM PDT by syriacus (Our tagline composers are assisting other customers. Your input is important to us. Enjoy the music)
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To: thinden
if this technology woulda come on line a couple years ago, ...

If this technology had come on line a couple of years ago, Saddam Hussein would still have been a murderous thug a couple of months ago.

129 posted on 05/07/2003 10:34:22 AM PDT by DuncanWaring (...and Freedom tastes of Reality.)
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To: Bloody Sam Roberts
"Just converting all the U.S. agricultural waste into oil and gas would yield the energy equivalent of 4 billion barrels of oil annually. "

"A nice dream but doing it would present quite a number of logistical nightmares"

How so? Think about it. Just about all agricultural products are shipped to a central facility. Milk, corn, wheat, soybeans, etc., all get shipped out.

Now the waste will too.
130 posted on 05/07/2003 8:22:45 PM PDT by chaosagent
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To: chaosagent
How so?

My thought was not of the waste but of distributing the end product. Infrastructure to deliver the oil etc. would need to be built and that means using energy. There would likely need to be a large network of delivery pipelines to a central depot or several depots from which trucking could then distribute it.

No matter what the hurdles are, I'm all for it.

131 posted on 05/07/2003 8:27:34 PM PDT by Bloody Sam Roberts (1/3 Fewer calories than our regular tagline.)
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To: E. Pluribus Unum
Makes sense, to them Oil is oil. They are currently using the middle east as an excuse, but they do not like the idea of any kind of oil or fuel, there logic is that they want a "cleaner, less polluting fuel", preferrably hydrogen or electricity (for now, if that day arrives, they'll change for somone else, I think they are closet luddites In MHO).
132 posted on 05/16/2003 11:24:41 PM PDT by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
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To: honway
If a 175-pound man fell into one end, he would come out the other end as 38 pounds of oil, 7 pounds of gas, and 7 pounds of minerals, as well as 123 pounds of sterilized water. While no one plans to put people into a thermal depolymerization machine...

Speak for yourself! I mean, um... that's just a crazy paranoid science-fiction conspiracy theory. No one would do such a thing. Not even me.

Muahahahaha

133 posted on 05/16/2003 11:26:30 PM PDT by xm177e2 (Stalinists, Maoists, Ba'athists, Pacifists: Why are they always on the same side?)
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To: Our man in washington
The "make a buck crowd" is the reason we still have whales in the ocean. If Rockefeller and Thomas Edison hadn't come along, who knows where we would be. Years ago, whale oil was used to light lamps, untill Edison came up with the lightbulb, and the whale oil that was used to heat and light, was replaced, thanks to Rockefeller with good ole deep in the ground crude.
134 posted on 05/16/2003 11:32:16 PM PDT by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
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To: m1911
"Oil is made of people!"

"Dinosaurs are People, Too!"

135 posted on 05/16/2003 11:33:22 PM PDT by xm177e2 (Stalinists, Maoists, Ba'athists, Pacifists: Why are they always on the same side?)
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To: js1138
There's no doubt in my mind, that over time, with the right management, and with them striving for efficiency, they will make a profit, its just a matter of time. My guess, before they become big money success, around a decade.
136 posted on 05/16/2003 11:33:45 PM PDT by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
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To: PatrickHenry
I can see the return of an old industry. (And perhaps suitable jobs for those on welfare.)

Not likely, alot of those people, just do not want to work, they don't even make the effort to panhandle.

137 posted on 05/16/2003 11:35:36 PM PDT by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
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To: Bellflower
You mean open an IPO? They could make alot of money off the bat with publicity, but shareholders aren't as patient, as the government is (people generally like results). They're playing it safe with venture capitalists, and retaining control, eventually they'll do an IPO, thats always the goal of venture capitalists.

The government is basically doing the grants to help ease in the feasability, and give them some time, and leeway, so as not to be burdened while they "work the kinks out". I don't personally like giving grants, but this is an intriging situtaion.

138 posted on 05/16/2003 11:38:53 PM PDT by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
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To: jslade
You got it right, I know Gulf was working on making a more efficient and cost effective method then the original way, but I think they may have given up.
139 posted on 05/16/2003 11:40:28 PM PDT by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
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To: JMack
Be nice to watch the mideast become more dependant on US handouts.

To hell with them, no handouts, nothing, nada. Let them go back to herding goats, and sheep, let them turn and become like the worst parts of africa for all I care. If they're lucky, maybe we'll let them become day laborers.

140 posted on 05/16/2003 11:43:48 PM PDT by Sonny M ("oderint dum metuant")
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To: honway
putting the inventors name Paul Baskis in the company search section of the patent records at http://ep.espacenet.com/ I received his patent numbers in various countires. the process is described in detail and is patented in many countries as you can see US5269947 is the us one and easy reading You looked for the following: (Paul AND Baskis) 20 matching documents were found. To see further result lists select a number from the JumpBar above. Click on any of the Patent Numbers below to see the details of the patent Basket Patent Number Title CA2389720 ROTATIONAL INERTIAL MOTOR EP1226374 ROTATIONAL INERTIAL MOTOR BR9917536 No English title available. AU1465200 Rotational inertial motor WO0133107 ROTATIONAL INERTIAL MOTOR BR9307061 No English title available. HK1001257 Reforming process and apparatus AU683624 Reforming process and apparatus DE69312723T No English title available. AT156102T No English title available. DE69312723D No English title available. US5360553 Process for reforming materials into useful products and apparatus US5269947 Thermal depolymerizing reforming process and apparatus ZA9309325 Reforming process and apparatus. WO9406721 REFORMING PROCESS AND APPARATUS NZ256755 WASTE TREATMENT; MATERIAL IS MIXED WITH LIQUID TO FORM A SLURRY WHICH IS PRESSURISED AND HEATED, THE PRESSURE THEN BEING REDUCED AND TEMPERAT IL107963 Reforming process and apparatus EP0660806 REFORMING PROCESS AND APPARATUS CA2144959 Reforming Process and Apparatus AU5161993 Reforming process and apparatus
141 posted on 08/23/2003 4:29:09 PM PDT by FoundingGeorgeW
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To: FoundingGeorgeW
Description

FIELD AND BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to a chemical reforming apparatus and process, and more particularly to a thermal depolymerization processor for converting organic and/or inorganic materials into different more usable products.

Numerous systems have been proposed in the past for converting waste materials into useful products. For example, the following listed U.S. patents describe systems which purport to convert organic waste materials into useful products such as oil and gas:
______________________________________
NUMBER PATENTEE DATE
______________________________________
4,108,730 CHEN et al. 08-22-78
4,175,211 CHEN et al. 11-20-79
4,118,281 YAN 10-03-78
4,935,038 WOLF 06-19-90
4,636,318 BAKER 01-13-87
4,842,692 BAKER 06-27-89
4,842,728 BAKER 06-27-89
4,923,604 BAKER 05-08-90
______________________________________

Further, the Shimizu U.S. Pat. No. 4,203,838 describes a system for processing sludge, and the Ohsol U.S. Pat. No. 4,938,876 describes a system for separating oil, gas and solids.

It is a general object of the present invention to provide an improved process for converting a process material such as organic materials (coal and/or organic waste) and inorganic materials into useful oils, gas and solids.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Generally, a processor in accordance with this invention comprises means for mixing a process material with a process liquid (such as water) and forming an emulsion or slurry. Means is provided for pressuring and heating the slurry, and the slurry is then fed to means for quickly reducing the pressure to a relatively low value and further increasing the temperature. The rapid drop in pressure and increase in temperature causes volatile components of the slurry to convert to a gas and separate from the remainder of the slurry which is removed from the processor in the form of solids. The gas is fed to one or more condensers which separate the gas into useful liquids such as various grades of oil.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURE

The invention will be better understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the single figure of the drawing, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a processor constructed in accordance with a preferred form of this invention.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

While a processor constructed in accordance with this invention may be used to process a variety of organic and inorganic materials, the following description relates to a specific example wherein the material being processed (the process material) is coal and the liquid (the process liquid) mixed with the process material is water.

Small pieces of process material (anthracite coal nuggets in this specific example) are loaded into a hopper 10 which feeds the coal into a grinder 11. In a continuous flow system, a steady flow of coal would go into the hopper whereas in a batch system discrete quantities of coal would be introduced. The ground up pieces of coal move to an emulsifier 12 that mixes the coal with water and forms a coal-water emulsion. The amount of water may be approximately 50 to 100% (mass to mass) of the coal. The water is fed into the emulsifier through a tube 13 which receives recycled water as will be described hereinafter. The emulsion leaves through a flow conduit or pipe 14 connected to the intake of a high pressure pump 16 that discharges the mixture through a pipe 17 connected to the coils 18 of a heat exchanger. The coils 18 receive heat from a main condenser column 19 to be described further hereinafter, and the emulsion is further heated by flowing through a pipe 21 mounted in the enclosure 22 of the heating unit 23. The pipe 21 includes a heat exchanger coil 24 mounted in the upper portion of the enclosure 22.

The portion of the processor including the outlet of the pump 16, the pipe 17, the coil 18, the pipe 21 and the coil 24 may be referred to as the low-temperature-high-pressure (LTHP) portion of the system. At the emulsifier 12, the coal and the water may be at essentially ambient pressure and temperature, whereas in the coil 24 the temperature and the pressure may be increased to approximately 250 DEG C. and 500 to 700 psi (relative pressure). The pressure in the LTHP portion is a function of the temperature and the volume of the pipe 21, and in this portion the coal becomes hydrated or saturated with water. The rate of flow of the emulsion and the length of the tube should be adjusted so that there is about a twenty minute dwell time in the high pressure part of the processor, to allow sufficient time for the reaction under high pressure. The high pressure keeps volatile components dissolved and in the solution. The operating parameters of temperature, pressure, the flow of velocity and the dwell time must be balanced to produce the above dwell time and pressure and to keep the particles in suspension.

The outlet of the coil 24 is connected to a valve 26 that acts as a differential pressure regulator. The outlet 27 of the valve 36 opens into an expansion container 28 wherein the pressure is reduced almost instantly to between approximately 0 and 200 psi (relative pressure). The incoming material is also quickly heated to approximately 350 DEG to 500 DEG C. A portion of the system including the container 28 may be referred to as the high-temperature-low-pressure (HTLP) portion of the processor. The sudden drop in the pressure combined with the sharp increase in temperature causes the slurry to separate into solids and volatile gas. The gas leaves the container through an outlet pipe 29 connected to the upper end of the container 28 and the solids fall to the bottom of the container 28 where they are removed by, for example, an auger 31. In the case where coal is fed into the processor, coke is removed and temporarily stored in a lower bin 32.

The container 28 of the HTLP portion is heated by a gas burner 33 mounted around the bottom of the container 28 within the enclosure 22. A tube 34 receives a gas product of the processor and feeds it to the burner 33. The container 28 and the burner 33 are mounted in the enclosure 22 along with the coil 24 and the pipe 21, and consequently the burning gas heats these components. The burner exhaust is discharged through a chimney portion 36 of the enclosure 22, the pipe 21 extending through the chimney portion to make maximum utilization of the heat.

The gas in the outlet pipe 29 is fed to the interior of the previously mentioned main condenser column 19 where the pressure and the temperature are regulated to cause water and oil to condense and separate from the volatile components which remain in a gaseous state. Regulation is accomplished by a heat exchanger including a first coil 41 mounted within the chimney portion 36 of the enclosure 22, and a second coil 42 which encircles the condenser column 19. Pipes 43 connect the two coils 41 and 42 and a regulator pump 44 circulates a heat exchange fluid (such as oil) through the coils to transfer heat from the chimney portion 36 to the column 19 as needed.

The oil and the water move downwardly through a trap 46 to a reservoir 47 where they naturally separate due to their different weights. A first pump 48 and tubes 49 remove the oil to a storage tank 51. A second pump 5 and tubes 53 remove the water and pass it through a sulfur removal unit 54 and a control valve 56 to the emulsifier 12, thereby recycling the water.

The relatively hot volatile gas moves upwardly through an upper portion 61 of the main or primary condenser column 19, the heat exchanger coil 18 extending around the upper portion 61 so that the slurry in the LTHP part of the system is heated by the gas leaving the column 19. Connected to the upper end of the main condenser column 19 is a pipe 62 which feeds the hot volatile gas to a series of secondary condenser columns 63, 64 and 65. The gas gradually decreases in temperature and increases in pressure as it moves through the secondary columns, and the pressure and temperature determine the condensate drawn off in each condenser stage. In this specific example, the gas is at about atmospheric pressure and 180 DEG C. entering the first stage 63 and kerosine is produced and drawn off to a tank 67. A condenser pump 68 connects the two stages 63 and 64 and gas enters the stage 64 at about atmospheric pressure and 110 DEG C., and toluene is drawn off and fed to a tank 69. Another pump 71 connects the stages 64 and 65 and the gas enters the stage 65 at atmospheric pressure and 30 DEG C., and gasoline is drawn off to a tank 72.

Any remaining gas is fed to a storage tank 73 from the last condenser stage 65, and the previously mentioned tube or pipe 34 is connected to receive gas from the tank 73 for operating the burner 33. Another tube 74 is connected to the tube 34 and the storage tank 73 and is connected to receive a combustible gas from a commercial source (not illustrated). By this arrangement, the processor may be started in operation utilizing gas from the commercial source. Once the processor is running and producing gas, the tube 74 to the commercial source may be turned off and the burner 33 operated by gas produced by the processor. Of course, if the processor produces more gas than can be utilized to power the processor, the surplus gas may be drawn off and sold commercially.

Thus, the system receives coal and, without producing pollution, convertsthe coal into a number of valuable products. The coke in the bin 32 is a valuable source of low pollution heat; the quality and purity of the coke is a function of the temperature in the heating unit 23, the purest coke being produced at the high temperature of about 500 DEG C. The sulfur removed by the unit 54 may also have commercial value, and the oil in the container 51 may find use as, for example, heating oil.

After the HTLP unit the coal slurry is chemically reformed and no longer has the physical attributes of the original coal. The pressure in the HTLP unit or container 28 determines the type of liquid-gas products produced in the main and secondary condenser columns. For example, a low pressure (about 0 psi relative) produces light oils rich in aromatic hydrocarbons; higher pressures (about 200 psi relative) produces heavier oils richer in asphaltenes. Because volatilization is the result of heat gain in the unit 23, the majority of the heat is contained in the volatile gas which flows to the main condenser coil, and part of the heat is given up to the coil 18 to heat the incoming coal slurry. The rate at which the gas travels up the main condenser column 19 is determined by the pressure in the container 28 which in turn can be adjusted by the operator using the pump-valve 26. The pressures in the secondary condenser stages 63, 64 and 65 may be controlled by the operator using the pumps 68 and 71. Higher pressure results in lower temperature required to liquefy the volatile gas components, thus requiring less energy for cooling needed in the liquification process.

While the foregoing specific example relates to the reformation of coal, any other organic or inorganic material may be used, which can be chemically reformed into other products by varying the temperature and the pressure.

As another example, instead of coal, soybeans may be used, and a lower pressure of less than about 100 psi (relative pressure) in the LTHP unit would be necessary because soybeans tend to absorb water until they are saturated. In the HTLP unit, the pressure can be adjusted to about 0 to 200 psi (relative) in order to control the molecular weight of the oil desired to be produced. The remainder of the system would be essentially as described previously with respect to coal.

When processing coal, the process liquid may be plain water or a solution of water plus calcium carbonate, sodium or calcium hydroxide. For organic material other than coal, one may use acid hydrolysis utilizing carbonic acid plus water. The processor may also be used to convert HDPE plastic to oil or a 50% mass to mass mixture of plastic and coal may be run in oil of five barrels per ton of coal processed.

It should be apparent from the foregoing that a novel and improved processor, which may be referred to as a thermal depolymerization processor (TDP), has been provided. The processor may be operated to convert a variety of materials into useful and valuable products. For example, products such as garbage, leaves and grass which otherwise would create environmental problems may be converted to useful products, thereby avoiding the need for landfills and incinerators. The processor may be built in various sizes such as a small unit for a single family home to a large unit for use by a municipality or a large hospital.

While a gas heater has been disclosed for heating the process materials, it will be apparent that other heat sources may be utilized. The valves, pumps, etc. may be operate by hand or by a computerized automatic control.
Data supplied from the esp@cenet database - l2
142 posted on 08/23/2003 4:46:39 PM PDT by FoundingGeorgeW (Text of inventors Paul Baskis's patent us5469927)
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To: boris
Thanks for your analysis. But we would point out that more energy in than out did not stop the oil shale boondoggle and the ethanol boondoggle now proceeds apace with our government moving dangerously into the realm of Soviet science attempting to "prove" that it is a net plus and the Senate "leaders" from both parties calling to double our use of this boondoggle and thus assisting the other side in the war on terror, even as the President says to interviewers that he can almost feel ourselves growing our way out of our dependence on foreign oil. There is a certain love that our leaders have for expensive boondoggles as opposed to actual solutions.
143 posted on 10/15/2003 11:01:24 PM PDT by AmericanVictory (Should we be more like them, or they like us?)
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