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To: piasa
Iraqi Entity: Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center

Entity Name: Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center
Activity Memo: Reported storage of 1.8 metric tons of uranium oxide powder, enriched to 2.6% U-235 [low-enriched uranium (LEU)], and an additional 13 metric tons of natural uranium; included the Tuwaitha Agricultural and Biological Research Center, which contained an undeclared biological laboratory unit identified by the UN monitoring system in 1996.
Historical Role in Iraqi WMD Programs. Site of all R&D on uranium enrichment, including EMIS, centrifuge enrichment and chemical enrichment; enriched milligram quantities of uranium to 40-45 percent (for a total, with Tarmiya's product, of 0.6 kg with an average enrichment level of four percent); site of legal and illegal plutonium separation and fuel element production at Building 73 complex; produced five fuel elements from natural uranium, irradiated them in the IRT-5000 reactor, then reprocessed them to separate out the plutonium – all in violation of the NPT safeguards agreement with the IAEA; Iraq placed two unreprocessed irradiated elements on a truck and moved them around as IAEA1 moved, within Tuwaitha; Iraq declared Tuwaitha tested an oil-type centrifuge (model 1) in 1987, on an aluminum cylinder 3 inches in diameter with oil-lubricated bearings; a magnetic/pivot bearing centrifuge (model 2) based on Zippe type, for which two rotors were planned (all-maraging steel with caps and baffles electron-beam-welded into place, and a carbon-composite rotor cylinder with maraging steel caps and baffles held in place with epoxy resin) for which main drawings of components, feed and extraction pipes were supplied; Iraq claimed only single-machine tests from mid-1988 to late 1990; carbon rotor design speed of 60,000 rmp was achieved with two rotors (one in mechanical test stand and one with UF6 gas in process test stand); 1.9 SWU/year obtained, to be optimized to 2.7 SWU/yr.

- Building 2: former cafeteria, then contained a large presentation featuring displays describing individual research projects
- Building 3: administrative building with personal computers for hydrodynamic models
- Building 4: agriculture research lab
- Building 9: found by IAEA4 to be an unsafeguarded radiochemical laboratory where Iraq carried out chemical processing of three irradiated fuel elements and purification of the separated plutonium between November 1989 and July 1990; found by IAEA7 to have separated plutonium from exempted pins and irradiated pins, and produced Po-210 sources; site of hot cells with 150 mm lead shielding found, intact, by IAEA1-2; hot cell compartments were used for dissolution, equipment maintenance and mixer settlers; hot cells were also found to have been used for extracting 2.26 grams (declared) plutonium; found by IAEA15 to be the chemical analysis portion of the radiochemistry building
- Building 10: found by IAEA7 to have produced uranium metal and to have melted and cast uranium metal;
- Building 10 Annex: nuclear physics department
- Building 13: Reactor IRT-5000, irradiated EK-10 and EK-07 cassettes, and Bismuth for Po-210 production
- Building 15: Radioisotope production lab and site of two hot cells found by IAEA1-2, one with 900 mm of shielding, the other with 1200 mm barytic shielding; extensively damaged with all services destroyed; also originally contained 23 lead cells which were scattered as a result of the Gulf War bombing; found by IAEA7 to have produced UF4 and UF6
- Building 16: workshop, served as initiator workshop
- Building 22: LAMA building, in or near which IAEA 15 collected samples, smears and tree trunks for tritium analysis; LAMA hot metallurgy testing lab, site of two hot cells found during IAEA1-2, which found no independent evidence of the use made of this building
- Building 23: Laboratory and workshop building, declared to have been used primarily for laser and optics work; totally destroyed with all accessible equipment removed by Iraq prior to inspection; found by IAEA7 to be site of gaseous diffusion enrichment and ceramic capacitor fabrication
- Building 24: Tammuz reactor office building and reactor building; site of badly damaged hot cells found by IAEA1-2; found by IAEA7 to be site of Tammuz-2 zero power reactor and hot cells, storage site for irradiated cassettes; disassembled cassettes and performed neutron measurements
- Building 35: radioactive waste treatment center, site of two hot cells in good condition, plus undamaged machinery, found by IAEA1-2; found by IAEA7 to have handled wastes from irradiation program
- Building 42: library
- Building 63: materials testing lab (ceramics and metals), made unusable by Gulf War bombing, Iraq removed all equipment; found by IAEA7 to be cold material testing lab where Iraq conducted gas centrifuge enrichment
- Building 64: engineering
- Building 66: declared by Iraq to develop detonators, with future plans to undertake uranium metal production
- Building 73 complex: included the "Italian" Area with fuel fabrication and chemical engineering research labs (both almost completely destroyed in the Gulf War) and a material testing building (whose essential equipment survived the Gulf War); site in which Iraq carried out a series of undeclared activities, revealed in IAEA 12 (all unsafeguarded activity took place in 73C--including production of 1 ton of uranium metal--except for the production of 18.9 kg natural uranium as five fuel rods, which took place in 73A using Al Jesira UO2); otherwise 73A and 73B were under safeguards; found by IAEA7 to be the Experimental Fuel Fabrication Laboratory, which manufactured EK-07
- Building 80: nuclear physics labs; found by IAEA1-2 to be a dedicated EMIS facility; declared use was research on plasma physics, ion source physics, magnet development and future cyclotron operation; Iraq removed its concrete reinforced floor prior to IAEA1, plus all equipment; singled out for “unusually thorough demolition” after IAEA1; serviced by large electrical (7.4MW) and cooling services found to be in excess of declared needs
- Building 82: physics department; found by IAEA7 to house electronic research labs
- Building 85 complex: chemistry and chemical engineering research and development; declared purpose was chemical and chemical engineering-related R&D, including pilot-scale extraction to recover uranium from ore with high organic content; contained a small UCl4 pilot line; declared during IAEA3 to have produced the UCl4 for testing EMIS at Tuwaitha and Tarmiya; extensively bombed, followed by "vigorous removal operation" and "extensive site leveling" by Iraq; two process halls removed before IAEA1; equipped with unusually large ventilation system; singled out for "unusually thorough demolition" after IAEA1; found by IAEA7 to be chemical research laboratories that produced yellow cake, UO2 and UCl4
- Building 90: found by IAEA7 to be the site of chemical enrichment activities for the nuclear weapon program; polymer chemistry research lab which performed enrichment by solvent extraction and ion exchange, and U6 enrichment research
- Associated Location B: site at which IAEA4 found the two unreprocessed irradiated cells in a water- filled open steel cylinder, plus five irradiated beryllium elements from the IRT-5000 core, stored in a drum
- Associated Location C: site of nuclear material including "uranium concentrates and various uranium compounds, oxide powder, etc."

Also Known As:
Program: Nuclear
Physical Location:
Date Entered: 10/4/2000 3:36:00 PM
Date Last Modified:
Address 1:
Address 2:
Address 3:
Address 4:
State/Region: Tuwaitha
Zip/Postal Code:
Country: Iraq
116 posted on 07/13/2003 8:55:58 PM PDT by Calpernia (Remember the three R's: Respect for self; Respect for others; Responsibility for all your actions.)
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To: Calpernia
132 posted on 07/14/2003 1:06:48 AM PDT by piasa (Attitude adjustments offered here free of charge.)
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