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The Institutes Book 1, Chapter 14
The Institutes of the Christian Religion ^ | 1500's | John Calvin

Posted on 10/16/2003 1:17:09 PM PDT by ksen

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

Book I: The Knowledge of the Creator

14. IN THE CREATION OF THE WORLD, AND ALL THINGS IN IT, THE TRUE GOD DISTINGUISHED BY CERTAIN MARKS FROM FICTITIOUS GODS.

In this chapter commences the second part of Book First, viz., the knowledge of man. Certain things premised.
I. The creation of the world generally, (s. 1 and 2.)
II. The subject of angels considered, (s. 3-13.)
III. Of bad angels or devils, (s. 13-20;) and,
IV. The practical use to be made of the history of the creation, (s. 20-22.)

Sections:

1. The mere fact of creation should lead us to acknowledge God, but to prevent our falling away to Gentile fictions, God has been pleased to furnish a history of the creation. An impious objection, Why the world was not created sooner? Answer to it. Shrewd saying of an old man.

2. For the same reason, the world was created, not in an instant, but in six days. The order of creation described, showing that Adam was not created until God had, with infinite goodness made ample provision for him.

3. The doctrine concerning angels expounded. 1. That we may learn from them also to acknowledge God. 2. That we may be put on our guard against the errors of the worshippers of angels and the Manichees. Manicheeism refuted. Rule of piety.

4. The angels created by God. At what time and in what order it is inexpedient to inquire. The garrulity of the Pseudo-Dionysius.

5. The nature, offices, and various names of angels.

6. Angels the dispensers of the divine beneficence to us.

7. A kind of prefects over kingdoms and provinces, but specially the guardians of the elect. Not certain that every believer is under the charge of a single angel. Enough, that all angels watch over the safety of the Church.

8. The number and orders of angels not defined. Why angels said to be winged.

9. Angels are ministering spirits and spiritual essences.

10. The heathen error of placing angels on the throne of God refuted.
1. By passages of Scripture.

11. Refutation continued.
2. By inferences from other passages. Why God employs the ministry of angels.

12. Use of the doctrine of Scripture concerning the holy angels.

13. The doctrine concerning bad angels or devils reduced to four heads.
1. That we may guard against their wiles and assaults.

14. That we may be stimulated to exercises of piety. Why one angel in the singular number often spoken of.

15. The devil being described as the enemy of man, we should perpetually war against him.

16. The wickedness of the devil not by creation but by corruption. Vain and useless to inquire into the mode, time, and character of the fall of angels.

17. Though the devil is always opposed in will and endeavour to the will of God, he can do nothing without his permission and consent.

18. God so overrules wicked spirits as to permit them to try the faithful, and rule over the wicked.

19. The nature of bad angels. They are spiritual essences endued with sense and intelligence.

20. The latter part of the chapter briefly embracing the history of creation, and showing what it is of importance for us to know concerning God.

21. The special object of this knowledge is to prevent us, through ingratitude or thoughtlessness, from overlooking the perfections of God. Example of this primary knowledge.

22. Another object of this knowledge, viz., that perceiving how these things were created for our use, we may be excited to trust in God, pray to him, and love him.

(Creation of the world and of man, 1-2)
1. We cannot and should not go behind God's act of creation in our speculation

Although Isaiah justly charges the worshipers of false gods with stupidity, in not learning from the foundations of the earth, and the circle of the heavens, who the true God is (Isa. 40: 21;) yet so sluggish and grovelling is our intellect, that it was necessary he should be more clearly depicted, in order that the faithful might not fall away to Gentile fictions. the idea that God is the soul of the world, though the most tolerable that philosophers have suggested, is absurd; and, therefore, it was of importance to furnish us with a more intimate knowledge in order that we might not wander to and fro in uncertainty. Hence God was pleased that a history of the creation should exist - a history on which the faith of the Church might lean without seeking any other God than Him whom Moses sets forth as the Creator and Architect of the world.

First, in that history, the period of time is marked so as to enable the faithful to ascend by an unbroken succession of years to the first origin of their race and of all things. This knowledge is of the highest use not only as an antidote to the monstrous fables which anciently prevailed both in Egypt and the other regions of the world, but also as a means of giving a clearer manifestation of the eternity of God as contrasted with the birth of creation, and thereby inspiring us with higher admiration. We must not be moved by the profane jeer, that it is strange how it did not sooner occur to the Deity to create the heavens and the earth, instead of idly allowing an infinite period to pass away, during which thousands of generations might have existed, while the present world is drawing to a close before it has completed its six thousandth year. Why God delayed so long it is neither fit nor lawful to inquire. Should the human mind presume to do it, it could only fail in the attempt, nor would it be useful for us to know what God, as a trial of the modesty of our faith, has been pleased purposely to conceal. It was a shrewd saying of a good old man, who when some one pertly asked in derision what God did before the world was created, answered he made a hell for the inquisitive, (August. Confess., lib. 11 c. 12.)

This reproof, not less weighty than severe, should repress the tickling wantonness which urges many to indulge in vicious and hurtful speculation. In fine, let us remember that that invisible God, whose wisdom, power, and justice, are incomprehensible, is set before us in the history of Moses as in a mirror, in which his living image is reflected. For as an eye, either dimmed by age or weakened by any other cause, sees nothing distinctly without the aid of glasses, so (such is our imbecility) if Scripture does not direct us in our inquiries after God, we immediately turn vain in our imaginations. Those who now indulge their petulance, and refuse to take warning, will learn, when too late, how much better it had been reverently to regard the secret counsels of God, than to belch forth blasphemies which pollute the face of heaven. Justly does Augustine complain that God is insulted whenever any higher reason than his will is demanded. (Lib. de Gent.) He also in another place wisely reminds us that it is just as improper to raise questions about infinite periods of time as about infinite space. (De Civit. Dei.) However wide the circuit of the heavens may be, it is of some definite extent. But should any one expostulate with God that vacant space remains exceeding creation by a hundred-fold, must not every pious mind detest the presumption? Similar is the madness of those who charge God with idleness in not having pleased them by creating the world countless ages sooner than he did create it. In their cupidity they affect to go beyond the world, as if the ample circumference of heaven and earth did not contain objects numerous and resplendent enough to absorb all our senses; as if, in the period of six thousand years, God had not furnished facts enough to exercise our minds in ceaseless meditation. Therefore, let us willingly remain hedged in by those boundaries within which God has been pleased to confine our persons, and, as it were, enclose our minds, so as to prevent them from losing themselves by wandering unrestrained.

2. The work of the six days show God's goodness toward men

With the same view Moses relates that the work of creation was accomplished not in one moment, but in six days. By this statement we are drawn away from fiction to the one God who thus divided his work into six days, that we may have no reluctance to devote our whole lives to the contemplation of it. For though our eyes, in what direction soever they turn, are forced to behold the works of God, we see how fleeting our attention is, and holy quickly pious thoughts, if any arise, vanish away. Here, too, objection is taken to these progressive steps as inconsistent with the power of God, until human reason is subdued to the obedience of faith, and learns to welcome the calm quiescence to which the sanctification of the seventh day invited us. In the very order of events, we ought diligently to ponder on the paternal goodness of God toward the human race, in not creating Adam until he had liberally enriched the earth with all good things. Had he placed him on an earth barren and unfurnished; had he given life before light, he might have seemed to pay little regard to his interest. But now that he has arranged the motions of the sun and stars for man's use, has replenished the air, earth, and water, with living creatures, and produced all kinds of fruit in abundance for the supply of food, by performing the office of a provident and industrious head of a family, he has shown his wondrous goodness toward us. These subjects, which I only briefly touch, if more attentively pondered, will make it manifest that Moses was a sure witness and herald of the one only Creator. I do not repeat what I have already explained, viz., that mention is here made not of the bare essence of God, but that his eternal Wisdom and Spirit are also set before us, in order that we may not dream of any other God than Him who desires to be recognised in that express image.

(The angels, 3-12)
3. God is Lord over all!

But before I begin to treat more fully of the nature of man, (chap. 15 and B. 2 c. 1,) it will be proper to say something of angels. For although Moses, in accommodation to the ignorance of the generality of men, does not in the history of the creation make mention of any other works of God than those which meet our eye, yet, seeing he afterwards introduces angels as the ministers of God, we easily infer that he for whom they do service is their Creator. Hence, though Moses, speaking in popular language, did not at the very commencement enumerate the angels among the creatures of God, nothing prevents us from treating distinctly and explicitly of what is delivered by Scripture concerning them in other places. For if we desire to know God by his works, we surely cannot overlook this noble and illustrious specimen. We may add that this branch of doctrine is very necessary for the refutation of numerous errors. The minds of many are so struck with the excellence of angelic natures, that they would think them insulted in being subjected to the authority of God, and so made subordinate. Hence a fancied divinity has been assigned them.

Manes, too, has arisen with his sect, fabricating to himself two principles - God and the devil, attributing the origin of good things to God, but assigning all bad natures to the devil as their author. Were this delirium to take possession of our minds, God would be denied his glory in the creation of the world. For, seeing there is nothing more peculiar to God than eternity and "autousia", i. e. self-existence, or existence of himself, if I may so speak, do not those who attribute it to the devil in some degree invest him with the honour of divinity? And where is the omnipotence of God, if the devil has the power of executing whatever he pleases against the will, and notwithstanding of the opposition of God? But the only good ground which the Manichees have, viz., that it were impious to ascribe the creation of any thing bad to a good God, militates in no degree against the orthodox faith, since it is not admitted that there is any thing naturally bad throughout the universe; the depravity and wickedness whether of man or of the devil, and the sins thence resulting, being not from nature, but from the corruption of nature; nor, at first, did anything whatever exist that did not exhibit some manifestation of the divine wisdom and justice. To obviate such perverse imaginations, we must raise our minds higher than our eyes can penetrate. It was probably with this view that the Nicene Creed, in calling God the creator of all things, makes express mention of things invisible. My care, however, must be to keep within the bounds which piety prescribes, lest by indulging in speculations beyond my reach, I bewilder the reader, and lead him away from the simplicity of the faith. And since the Holy Spirit always instructs us in what is useful, but altogether omits, or only touches cursorily on matters which tend little to edification, of all such matters, it certainly is our duty to remain in willing ignorance.

(Creation and functions of angels, 4-12)
4. Also we should not indulge in speculations concerning the angels, but search out the witness of Scripture

Angels being the ministers appointed to execute the commands of God, must, of course, be admitted to be his creatures (Ps. 103:20-21), but to stir up questions concerning the time or order in which they were created, (see Lombard, lib. 2 dist. 2, sqq.,) bespeaks more perverseness than industry. Moses relates that the heavens and the earth were finished (Gen. 2:1), with all their host; what avails it anxiously to inquire at what time other more hidden celestial hosts than the stars and planets also began to be? Not to dwell on this, let us here remember that on the whole subject of religion one rule of modesty and soberness is to be observed, and it is this, in obscure matters not to speak or think, or even long to know, more than the Word of God has delivered. A second rule is, that in reading the Scriptures we should constantly direct our inquiries and meditations to those things which tend to edification, not indulge in curiosity, or in studying things of no use. And since the Lord has been pleased to instruct us, not in frivolous questions, but in solid piety, in the fear of his name, in true faith, and the duties of holiness, let us rest satisfied with such knowledge. Wherefore, if we would be duly wise, we must renounce those vain babblings of idle men, concerning the nature, ranks, and number of angels, without any authority from the Word of God. I know that many fasten on these topics more eagerly, and take greater pleasure in them than in those relating to daily practice. But if we decline not to be the disciples of Christ, let us not decline to follow the method which he has prescribed. In this way, being contented with him for our master, we will not only refrain from, but even feel averse to, superfluous speculations which he discourages.

None can deny that Dionysus (whoever he may have been) has many shrewd and subtle disquisitions in his Celestial Hierarchy, but on looking at them more closely, every one must see that they are merely idle talk. The duty of a Theologian, however, is not to tickle the ear, but confirm the conscience, by teaching what is true, certain, and useful. When you read the work of Dionysus, you would think that the man had come down from heaven, and was relating, not what he had learned, but what he had actually seen. Paul, however, though he was carried to the third heaven, so far from delivering any thing of the kind, positively declares, that it was not lawful for man to speak the secrets which he had seen. Bidding adieu, therefore, to that nugatory wisdom, let us endeavour to ascertain from the simple doctrine of Scripture what it is the Lord's pleasure that we should know concerning angels.

5. The designation of the angels in Scripture

In Scripture, then, we uniformly read that angels are heavenly spirits, whose obedience and ministry God employs to execute all the purposes which he has decreed (e.g. Ps. 103:20-21), and hence their name as being a kind of intermediate messengers to manifest his will to men. The names by which several of them are distinguished have reference to the same office. They are called hosts (Luke 2:13), because they surround their Prince as his court, - adorn and display his majesty, - like soldiers, have their eyes always turned to their leader's standard, and are so ready and prompt to execute his orders, that the moment he gives the nod, they prepare for, or rather are actually at work. In declaring the magnificence of the divine throne, similar representations are given by the prophets, and especially by Daniel, when he says, that when God stood up to judgement, "thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him," (Dan. 7: 10.) As by these means the Lord wonderfully exerts and declares the power and might of his hand, they are called virtues (Eph. 1:21; I Cor. 15:24). Again, as his government of the world is exercised and administered by them, they are called at one time Principalities, at another Powers, at another Dominions, (Col. 1:16; Eph. 1:21; I Cor. 15:24.) Lastly, as the glory of God in some measure dwells in them, they are also termed Thrones (Col. 1:16); though as to this last designation I am unwilling to speak positively, as a different interpretation is equally, if not more congruous. To say nothing, therefore, of the name of Thrones, the former names are often employed by the Holy Spirit in commendation of the dignity of angelic service. Nor is it right to pass by unhonoured those instruments by whom God specially manifests the presence of his power. Nay, they are more than once called Gods (e.g. Ps. 138:1), because the Deity is in some measure represented to us in their service, as in a mirror. I am rather inclined, however, to agree with ancient writers, that in those passages wherein it is stated that the angel of the Lord appeared to Abraham (Gen. 18:1), Jacob (Gen. 32:2,28), and Moses, Christ was that angel (Josh. 5:14; Judg. 6:14;13:10,22). Still it is true, that when mention is made of all the angels, they are frequently so designated. Nor ought this to seem strange. For if princes and rulers have this honour given them, because in their office they are vicegerents of God, the supreme King and Judge, with far greater reason may it be given to angels, in whom the brightness of the divine glory is much more conspicuously displayed.

6. The angels as protectors and helpers of believers

But the point on which the Scriptures specially insist is that which tends most to our comfort, and to the confirmation of our faith, namely, that angels are the ministers and dispensers of the divine bounty towards us. Accordingly, we are told how they watch for our safety, how they undertake our defence, direct our path, and take heed that no evil befall us. There are whole passages which relate, in the first instance, to Christ, the Head of the Church, and after him to all believers. "He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone." (Ps. 90:11-12). Again, "The angel of the Lord encampeth round about them that fear him, and delivereth them." (Ps. 34:7p). By these passages the Lord shows that the protection of those whom he has undertaken to defend he has delegated to his angels. Accordingly, an angel of the Lord consoles Hagar in her flight, and bids her be reconciled to her mistress (Gen. 16:9). Abraham promises to his servant that an angel will be the guide of his journey (Gen. 24:7). Jacob, in blessing Ephraim and Manasseh, prays "The angel which redeemed me from all evil bless the lads." (Gen. 48:16.) So an angel was appointed to guard the camp of the Israelites (Ex. 14:19; 23:20); and as often as God was pleased to deliver Israel from the hands of his enemies, he stirred up avengers by the ministry of angels (Judg. 2:1; 6:11; 13:3-20). Thus, in fine, (not to mention more,) angels ministered to Christ (Matt. 4:11), and were present with him in all straits (Luke 22:43). To the women they announced his resurrection (Matt. 28:5,7; Luke 24:5); to the disciples they foretold his glorious advent (Acts 1:10). In discharging the office of our protectors, they war against the devil and all our enemies, and execute vengeance upon those who afflict us. Thus we read that an angel of the Lord, to deliver Jerusalem from siege, slew one hundred and eighty-five thousand men in the camp of the king of Assyria in a single night (II Kings 19:35; Isaiah 37:36).

7. Guardian angels?

Whether or not each believer has a single angel assigned to him for his defence, I dare not positively affirm. When Daniel introduces the angel of the Persian and the angel of the Greeks (Dan. 10:13,20; 12:1), he undoubtedly intimates that certain angels are appointed as a kind of presidents over kingdoms and provinces. Again, when Christ says that the angels of children always behold the face of his Father (Matt. 18:10), he insinuates that there are certain angels to whom their safety has been entrusted. But I know not if it can be inferred from this, that each believer has his own angel. This, indeed, I hold for certain, that each of us is cared for, not by one angel merely, but that all with one consent watch for our safety. For it is said of all the angels collectively, that they rejoice "over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons which need no repentance." (Luke 15:7). It is also said, that the angels (meaning more than one) carried the soul of Lazarus into Abraham's bosom (Luke 16:22p). Nor was it to no purpose that Elisha showed his servant the many chariots of fire which were specially allotted him (II Kings 6:17).

There is one passage which seems to intimate somewhat more clearly that each individual has a separate angel. When Peter, after his deliverance from prison, knocked at the door of the house where the brethren were assembled, being unable to think it could be himself, they said that it was his angel (Acts 12:15). This idea seems to have been suggested to them by a common belief that every believer has a single angel assigned to him. Here, however, it may be alleged, that there is nothing to prevent us from understanding it of any one of the angels to whom the Lord might have given the charge of Peter at that particular time, without implying that he was to be his, perpetual guardian, according to the vulgar imagination, (see Calvin on Mark 5: 9,) that two angels a good and a bad, as a kind of genii, are assigned to each individual. After all, it is not worthwhile anxiously to investigate a point which does not greatly concern us. If any one does not think it enough to know that all the orders of the heavenly host are perpetually watching for his safety, I do not see what he could gain by knowing that he has one angel as a special guardian. Those, again, who limit the care which God takes of each of us to a single angel, do great injury to themselves and to all the members of the Church, as if there were no value in those promises of auxiliary troops, who on every side encircling and defending us, embolden us to fight more manfully.

8. The hierarchy, number, and form of the angels

Those who presume to dogmatize on the ranks and numbers of angels, would do well to consider on what foundation they rest. As to their rank, I admit that Michael is described by David as a mighty Prince (Daniel 12:1), and by Jude as an Archangel (Jude v9). Paul also tells us, that an archangel will blow the trumpet which is to summon the world to judgement (I Thess. 4:16; cf. Ezek. 10:5). But how is it possible from such passages to ascertain the gradations of honour among the angels to determine the insignia, and assign the place and station of each? Even the two names, Michael (Dan. 10:21) and Gabriel (Dan. 8:16; Luke 1:19,26), mentioned in Scripture, or a third (Raphael), if you choose to add it from the history of Tobit (Tobit 12:15), seem to intimate by their meaning that they are given to angels in accommodation to the weakness of our capacity, though I rather choose not to speak positively on the point.

As to the number of angels, we learn from the mouth of our Saviour that there are many legions (Matt. 26:53), and from Daniel that there are many myriads (Dan. 7:10). Elisha's servant saw a multitude of chariots (II Kings 6:17), and their vast number is declared by the fact, that they encamp round about those that fear the Lord (Ps. 34:7p).

It is certain that spirits have no bodily shape, and yet Scripture, in accommodation to us, describes them under the form of winged Cherubim and Seraphim; not without cause, to assure us that when occasion requires, they will hasten to our aid with incredible swiftness, winging their way to us with the speed of lightning. Farther than this, in regard both to the ranks and numbers of angels, let us class them among those mysterious subjects, the full revelation of which is deferred to the last day, and accordingly refrain from inquiring too curiously, or talking presumptuously.

9. The angels are not mere ideas, but actuality

There is one point, however, which though called into doubt by certain restless individuals, we ought to hold for certain viz., that angels are ministering spirits (Heb. 1: 14;) whose service God employs for the protection of his people, and by whose means he distributes his favours among men, and also executes other works. The Sadducees of old maintained (Acts 23:8), that by angels nothing more was meant than the movements which God impresses on men, or manifestations which he gives of his own power, (Acts 23: 8.) But this dream is contradicted by so many passages of Scriptures that it seems strange how such gross ignorance could have had any countenance among the Jews. To say nothing of the passages I have already quoted, passages which refer to thousands (Rev. 5:11) and legions (Matt. 26:53) of angels, speak of them as rejoicing (Luke 15:10), as bearing up the faithful in their hands (Ps. 91:11; Matt. 4:6; Luke 4:10-11), carrying their souls to rest (Luke 16:22), beholding the face of their Father (Matt. 18:10), and so forth: there are other passages which most clearly prove that they are real beings possessed of spiritual essence. Stephen and Paul say that the Law was enacted in the hands of angels (Acts 7:53; Gal. 3:19). Our Saviour, moreover says that at the resurrection the elect will be like angels (Matt 22:30); that the day of judgement is known not even to the angels (Matt 24:36); that at that time he himself will come with the holy angels (Matt 25:31; Luke 9:26). However much such passages may be twisted, their meaning is plain. In like manner, when Paul beseeches Timothy to keep his precepts (I Tim. 5:21) as before Christ and his elect angels, it is not qualities or inspirations without substance that he speaks of, but true spirits. And when it is said, in the Epistle to the Hebrews, that Christ was made more excellent than the angels (Heb. 1:4), that the world was not made subject to them (Heb. 2:5), that Christ assumed not their nature, but that of man (Heb. 2:16), it is impossible to give a meaning to the passages without understanding that angels are blessed spirits, as to whom such comparisons may competently be made. The author of that Epistle declares the same thing when he places the souls of believers and the holy angels together in the kingdom of heaven (Heb. 12:22).

Moreover, in the passages we have already quoted, the angels of children are said to behold the face of God (Matt 18:10), to defend us by their protection (Luke 4:10-11), to rejoice in our salvation (Luke 15:10), to admire the manifold grace of God in the Church, to be under Christ their head. To the same effect is their frequent appearance to the holy patriarchs in human form, their speaking, and consenting to be hospitably entertained (Gen 18:2). Christ, too, in consequence of the supremacy which he obtains as Mediator, is called the Angel, (Mal. 3:1.) It was thought proper to touch on this subject in passing, with the view of putting the simple upon their guard against the foolish and absurd imaginations which, suggested by Satan many centuries ago, are ever and anon starting up anew.

10. The divine glory does not belong to the angels

It remains to give warning against the superstition which usually begins to creep in, when it is said that all blessings are ministered and dispensed to us by angels. For the human mind is apt immediately to think that there is no honour which they ought not to receive, and hence the peculiar offices of Christ and God are bestowed upon them. In this ways the glory of Christ was for several former ages greatly obscured, extravagant eulogiums being pronounced on angels without any authority from Scripture. Among the corruptions which we now oppose, there is scarcely any one of greater antiquity. Even Paul appears to have had a severe contest with some who so exalted angels as to make them almost the superiors of Christ. Hence he so anxiously urges in his Epistle to the Colossians, (Col. 1: 16, 20,) that Christ is not only superior to all angels, but that all the endowments which they possess are derived from him; thus warning us against forsaking him, by turning to those who are not sufficient for themselves, but must draw with us at a common fountain. As the refulgence of the Divine glory is manifested in them, there is nothing to which we are more prone than to prostrate ourselves before them in stupid adoration, and then ascribe to them the blessings which we owe to God alone. Even John confesses in the Apocalypse, (Rev. 19: 10; 22: 8, 9,) that this was his own case, but he immediately adds the answer which was given to him, "See thou do it not; I am thy fellow servant: worship God."

11. God makes use of the angels, not for his own sake, but for ours

This danger we will happily avoid, if we consider why it is that Gods instead of acting directly without their agency, is wont to employ it in manifesting his power, providing for the safety of his people, and imparting the gifts of his beneficence. This he certainly does not from necessity, as if he were unable to dispense with them. Whenever he pleases, he passes them by, and performs his own work by a single nod: so far are they from relieving him of any difficulty. Therefore, when he employs them it is as a help to our weakness, that nothing may be wanting to elevate our hopes or strengthen our confidence. It ought, indeed, to be sufficient for us that the Lord declares himself to be our protector. But when we see ourselves beset by so many perils, so many injuries, so many kinds of enemies, such is our frailty and effeminacy, that we might at times be filled with alarm, or driven to despair, did not the Lord proclaim his gracious presence by some means in accordance with our feeble capacities. For this reason, he not only promises to take care of us, but assures us that he has numberless attendants, to whom he has committed the charge of our safety, that whatever dangers may impend, so long as we are encircled by their protection and guardianship, we are placed beyond all hazard of evil. I admit that after we have a simple assurance of the divine protection, it is improper in us still to look round for help. But since for this our weakness the Lord is pleased, in his infinite goodness and indulgence, to provide, it would ill become us to overlook the favour. Of this we have an example in the servant of Elisha, (2 Kings 6: 17,) who, seeing the mountain encompassed by the army of the Assyrians, and no means of escape, was completely overcome with terror, and thought it all over with himself and his master. Then Elisha prayed to God to open the eyes of the servant, who forthwith beheld the mountain filled with horses and chariots of fire; in other words, with a multitude of angels, to whom he and the prophet had been given in charge. Confirmed by the vision he received courage, and could boldly defy the enemy, whose appearance previously filled him with dismay.

12. The angels must not divert us from directing our gaze to the Lord alone

Whatever, therefore, is said as to the ministry of angels, let us employ for the purpose of removing all distrust, and strengthening our confidence in God. Since the Lord has provided us with such protection, let us not be terrified at the multitude of our enemies as if they could prevail notwithstanding of his aid, but let us adopt the sentiment of Elisha, that more are for us than against us (II Kings 6:16p). How preposterous, therefore, is it to allow ourselves to be led away from God by angels who have been appointed for the very purpose of assuring us of his more immediate presence to help us? But we are so led away, if angels do not conduct us directly to him - making us look to him, invoke and celebrate him as our only defender - if they are not regarded merely as hands moving to our assistance just as he directs - if they do not direct us to Christ as the only Mediator on whom we must wholly depend and recline, looking towards him, and resting in him. Our minds ought to give thorough heed to what Jacob saw in his vision, (Gen. 28: 12,) - angels descending to the earth to men, and again mounting up from men to heaven, by means of a ladder, at the head of which the Lord of Hosts was seated, intimating that it is solely by the intercession of Christ that the ministry of angels extends to us, as he himself declares, "Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man," (John 1: 51.) Accordingly, the servant of Abraham, though he had been commended to the guardianship of an angel, (Gen. 24: 7,) does not therefore invoke that angel to be present with him, but trusting to the commendation, pours out his prayers before the Lord, and entreats him to show mercy to Abraham. As God does not make angels the ministers of his power and goodness, that he may share his glory with them, so he does not promise his assistance by their instrumentality, that we may divide our confidence between him and them. Away, then, with that Platonic philosophy of seeking access to God by means of angels and courting them with the view of making God more propitious, (Plat. in Epinomide et Cratylo,) - a philosophy which presumptuous and superstitious men attempted at first to introduce into our religion, and which they persist in even to this day.

(The devils in the purposes of God, 13-19)
13. Scripture forearms us against the adversary

The tendency of all that Scripture teaches concerning devils is to put us on our guard against their wiles and machinations, that we may provide ourselves with weapons strong enough to drive away the most formidable foes. For when Satan is called the god (II Cor. 4:4) and ruler of this world (John 12:31), the strong man armed (Luke 11:21; cf Matt 12:29), the prince of the power of the air (Eph. 2:2), the roaring lion (I Peter 5:8), the object of all these descriptions is to make us more cautious and vigilant, and more prepared for the contest. This is sometimes stated in distinct terms. For Peter, after describing the devil as a roaring lion going about seeking whom he may devour, immediately adds the exhortation, "whom resist steadfast in the faith," (1 Pet. 5:9.) And Paul, after reminding us that we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities (Eph. 6:12), against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places, immediately enjoins us to put on armour equal to so great and perilous a contest, (Ephes. 6:13f.) Wherefore, let this be the use to which we turn all these statements. Being forewarned of the constant presence of an enemy the most daring, the most powerful, the most crafty, the most indefatigable, the most completely equipped with all the engines and the most expert in the science of war, let us not allow ourselves to be overtaken by sloth or cowardice, but, on the contrary, with minds aroused and ever on the alert, let us stand ready to resist; and, knowing that this warfare is terminated only by death, let us study to persevere. Above all, fully conscious of our weakness and want of skill, let us invoke the help of God, and attempt nothing without trusting in him, since it is his alone to supply counsel, and strength, and courage, and arms.

14. The realm of wickedness

That we may feel the more strongly urged to do so, the Scripture declares that the enemies who war against us are not one or two, or few in number, but a great host. Mary Magdalene is said to have been delivered from seven devils by which she was possessed (Mark 16:9; Luke 8:2); and our Saviour assures us that it is an ordinary circumstance, when a devil has been expelled, if access is again given to it, to take seven other spirits, more wicked than itself, and resume the vacant possession (Matt. 12:43-45). Nay, one man is said to have been possessed by a whole legion (Luke 8:30). By this, then, we are taught that the number of enemies with whom we have to war is almost infinite, that we may not, from a contemptuous idea of the fewness of their numbers, be more remiss in the contest, or from imagining that an occasional truce is given us, indulge in sloth.

In one Satan or devil being often mentioned in the singular number, the thing denoted is that domination of iniquity which is opposed to the reign of righteousness. For, as the Church and the communion of saints has Christ for its head, so the faction of the wicked and wickedness itself, is portrayed with its prince exercising supremacy. Hence the expression, "Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels," (Matt 25:41.)

15. An irreconcilable struggle

One thing which ought to animate us to perpetual contest with the devil is, that he is everywhere called both our adversary and the adversary of God. For, if the glory of God is dear to us, as it ought to be, we ought to struggle with all our might against him who aims at the extinction of that glory. If we are animated with proper zeal to maintain the Kingdom of Christ, v. e must wage irreconcilable war with him who conspires its ruin. Again, if we have any anxiety about our own salvation, we ought to make no peace nor truce with him who is continually laying schemes for its destruction. But such is the character given to Satan in the third chapter of Genesis, where he is seen seducing man from his allegiance to God, that he may both deprive God of his due honour, and plunge man headlong in destruction. Such, too, is the description given of him in the Gospels, (Matt 13: 25,28,39) where he is called the enemy, and is said to sow tares in order to corrupt the seed of eternal life. In one word, in all his actions we experience the truth of our Saviour's description, that he was "a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth," (John 8: 44.) Truth he assails with lies, light he obscures with darkness. The minds of men he involves in error; he stirs up hatred, inflames strife and war, and all in order that he may overthrow the kingdom of God, and drown men in eternal perdition with himself. Hence it is evident that his whole nature is depraved, mischievous, and malignant. There must be extreme depravity in a mind bent on assailing the glory of God and the salvation of man. This is intimated by John in his Epistle, when he says that he "sinneth from the beginning," (1 John 3:8) implying that he is the author, leader, and contriver of all malice and wickedness.

16. The devil is a degenerate creation of God

But as the devil was created by God, we must remember that this malice which we attribute to his nature is not from creation, but from depravation. Every thing damnable in him he brought upon himself, by his revolt and fall. Of this Scripture reminds us, lest, by believing that he was so created at first, we should ascribe to God what is most foreign to his nature. For this reason, Christ declares, (John 8:44p) that Satan, when he lies, "speaketh of his own," and states the reason, "because he abode not in the truth."

By saying that he abode not in the truth, he certainly intimates that he once was in the truth, and by calling him the father of lies, he puts it out of his power to charge God with the depravity of which he was himself the cause. But although the expressions are brief and not very explicit, they are amply sufficient to vindicate the majesty of God from every calumny. And what more does it concern us to know of devils? Some murmur because the Scripture does not in various passages give a distinct and regular exposition of Satan's fall, its cause, mode, date, and nature. But as these things are of no consequence to us, it was better, if not entirely to pass them in silence, at least only to touch lightly upon them. The Holy Spirit could not deign to feed curiosity with idle, unprofitable histories. We see it was the Lord's purpose to deliver nothing in his sacred oracles which we might not learn for edification. Therefore, instead of dwelling on superfluous matters, let it be sufficient for us briefly to hold, with regard to the nature of devils, that at their first creation they were the angels of God, but by revolting they both ruined themselves, and became the instruments of perdition to others. As it was useful to know this much, it is clearly taught by Peter and Jude; "God," they say, "spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness to be reserved unto judgement," (II Pet. 2:4; Jude ver. 6.) And Paul, by speaking of the elect angels (I Tim. 5:21), obviously draws a tacit contrast between them and reprobate angels.

17. The devil stands under God's power

With regard to the strife and war which Satan is said to wage with God, it must be understood with this qualification, that Satan cannot possibly do anything against the will and consent of God. For we read in the history of Job, that Satan appears in the presence of God to receive his commands (Job 1:6; 2:1), and dares not proceed to execute any enterprise until he is authorised. In the same way, when Ahab was to be deceived, he undertook to be a lying spirit in the mouth of all the prophets; and on being commissioned by the Lord, proceeds to do so (I Kings 22:20-22). For this reason, also, the spirit which tormented Saul is said to be an evil spirit from the Lord, because he was, as it were, the scourge by which the misdeeds of the wicked king were punished (I Sam 16:14; 18:10). In another place it is said that the plagues of Egypt were inflicted by God through the instrumentality of wicked angels (Ps. 78:49). In conformity with these particular examples, Paul declares generally that unbelievers are blinded by God (II Thess 2:11), though he had previously described it as the doing of Satan (II Thess 2:9; cf. II Cor. 4:4; Eph. 2:2). It is evident, therefore, that Satan is under the power of God, and is so ruled by his authority, that he must yield obedience to it. Moreover, though we say that Satan resists God, and does works at variance with His works, we at the same time maintain that this contrariety and opposition depend on the permission of God. I now speak not of Satan's will and endeavour, but only of the result. For the disposition of the devil being wicked, he has no inclination whatever to obey the divine will, but, on the contrary, is wholly bent on contumacy and rebellion. This much, therefore, he has of himself, and his own iniquity, that he eagerly, and of set purpose, opposes God, aiming at those things which he deems most contrary to the will of God. But as God holds him bound and fettered by the curb of his power, he executes those things only for which permission has been given him, and thus, however unwilling, obeys his Creator, being forced, whenever he is required, to do Him service.

18. Assurance of victory!

God thus turning the unclean spirits hither and thither at his pleasure, employs them in exercising believers by warring against them, assailing them with wiles, urging them with solicitations, pressing close upon them, disturbing, alarming, and occasionally wounding, but never conquering or oppressing them; whereas they hold the wicked in thraldom, exercise dominion over their minds and bodies, and employ them as bond-slaves in all kinds of iniquity. Because believers are disturbed by such enemies, they are addressed in such exhortations as these: "Neither give place to the devil;" "Your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about seeking whom he may devour; whom resist steadfast in the faith," (Eph. 4:27; I Pet. 5:8.) Paul acknowledges that he was not exempt from this species of contest when he says, that for the purpose of subduing his pride, a messenger of Satan was sent to buffet him, (II Cor. 12:7.) This trial, therefore, is common to all the children of God. But as the promise of bruising Satan's head (Gen. 3:15) applies alike to Christ and to all his members, I deny that believers can ever be oppressed or vanquished by him. They are often, indeed, thrown into alarm, but never so thoroughly as not to recover themselves. They fall by the violence of the blows, but they get up again; they are wounded, but not mortally. In fine, they labour on through the whole course of their lives, so as ultimately to gain the victory, though they meet with occasional defeats.

We know how David, through the just anger of God, was left for a time to Satan, and by his instigation numbered the people, (II Sam. 24:1;) nor without cause does Paul hold out a hope of pardon in case any should have become ensnared by the wiles of the devil, (II Tim. 2:26.) Accordingly, he elsewhere shows that the promise above quoted commences in this life where the struggle is carried on, and that it is completed after the struggle is ended. His words are, "The God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly," (Rom. 16:20.) In our Head, indeed, this victory was always perfect, because the prince of the world "had nothing" in him, (John 14:30;) but in us, who are his members, it is now partially obtained, and will be perfected when we shall have put off our mortal flesh, through which we are liable to infirmity, and shall have been filled with the energy of the Holy Spirit.

In this way, when the kingdom of Christ is raised up and established, that of Satan falls, as our Lord himself expresses it, "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven," (Luke 10:18.) By these words, he confirmed the report which the apostles gave of the efficacy of their preaching. In like manner he says, "When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace. But when a stronger than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour wherein he trusted, and divideth his spoils," (Luke 11:21,22.) And to this end, Christ, by dying, overcame Satan, who had the power of death, (Heb. 2: 14,) and triumphed over all his hosts that they might not injure the Church, which otherwise would suffer from them every moment. For, (such being our weakness, and such his raging fury,) how could we withstand his manifold and unintermitted assaults for any period, however short, if we did not trust to the victory of our leader? God, therefore, does not allow Satan to have dominion over the souls of believers, but only gives over to his sway the impious and unbelieving, whom he deigns not to number among his flock. For the devil is said to have undisputed possession of this world until he is dispossessed by Christ (cf. Luke 11:21). In like manner, he is said to blind all who do not believe the Gospel (II Cor. 4:4), and to do his own work in the children of disobedience (Eph. 2:2). And justly; for all the wicked are vessels of wrath, and, accordingly, to whom should they be subjected but to the minister of the divine vengeance? In fine, they are said to be of their father the devil (John 8:44). For as believers are recognised to be the sons of God by bearing his image, so the wicked are properly regarded as the children of Satan, from having degenerated into his image (I John 3:8-10).

19. Devils are not thoughts, but actualities

Having above refuted that nugatory philosophy concerning the holy angels, which teaches that they are nothing but good motions or inspirations which God excites in the minds of men, we must here likewise refute those who foolishly allege that devils are nothing but bad affections or perturbations suggested by our carnal nature. The brief refutation is to be found in passages of Scripture on this subject, passages neither few nor obscure. First, when they are called unclean spirits and apostate angels, (Matt 12:43; Jude, verse 6,) who have degenerated from their original, the very terms sufficiently declare that they are not motions or affections of the mind, but truly, as they are called, minds or spirits endued with sense and intellect. In like manner, when the children of God are contrasted by John, and also by our Saviour, with the children of the devil, would not the contrast be absurd if the term devil meant nothing more than evil inspirations? And John adds still more emphatically, that the devil sinneth from the beginning, (1 John 3:8.) In like manner, when Jude introduces the archangel Michael contending with the devil, (Jude, verse 9,) he certainly contrasts a wicked and rebellious with a good angel. To this corresponds the account given in the Book of Job, that Satan appeared in the presence of God with the holy angels (Job 1:6; 2:1). But the clearest passages of all are those which make mention of the punishment which, from the judgement of God, they already begin to feel, and are to feel more especially at the resurrection, "What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?" (Matt 8:29) and again, "Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels," (Matt 25:41.) Again, "If God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness to be reserved unto judgement," &c., (II Pet. 2:4.)

How absurd the expressions, that devils are doomed to eternal punishment, that fire is prepared for them, that they are even now excruciated and tormented by the glory of Christ, if there were truly no devils at all? But as all discussion on this subject is superfluous for those who give credit to the Word of God, while little is gained by quoting Scripture to those empty speculators whom nothing but novelty can please, I believe I have already done enough for my purpose, which was to put the pious on their guard against the delirious dreams with which restless men harass themselves and the simple. The subject, however, deserved to be touched upon, lest any, by embracing that errors should imagine they have no enemy and thereby be more remiss or less cautious in resisting.

(The spiritual lessons of Creation, 20-22)
20. Greatness and abundance of Creation

Meanwhile, being placed in this most beautiful theatre, let us not decline to take a pious delight in the clear and manifest works of God. For, as we have elsewhere observed, though not the chief, it is, in point of order, the first evidence of faiths to remember to which side soever we turn, that all which meets the eye is the work of God, and at the same time to meditate with pious care on the end which God had in view in creating it. Wherefore, in order that we may apprehend with true faith what it is necessary to know concerning God, it is of importance to attend to the history of the creation, as briefly recorded by Moses (Gen ch.1&2) and afterwards more copiously illustrated by pious writers, more especially by Basil and Ambrose. From this history we learn that God, by the power of his Word and his Spirit, created the heavens and the earth out of nothing; that thereafter he produced things inanimate and animate of every kind, arranging an innumerable variety of objects in admirable order, giving each kind its proper nature, office, place, and station; at the same time, as all things were liable to corruption, providing for the perpetuation of each single species, cherishing some by secret methods, and, as it were, from time to time instilling new vigour into them, and bestowing on others a power of continuing their race, so preventing it from perishing at their own death. Heaven and earth being thus most richly adorned, and copiously supplied with all things, like a large and splendid mansion gorgeously constructed and exquisitely furnished, at length man was made - man, by the beauty of his person and his many noble endowments, the most glorious specimen of the works of God. But, as I have no intention to give the history of creation in detail, it is sufficient to have again thus briefly touched on it in passing. I have already reminded my reader, that the best course for him is to derive his knowledge of the subject from Moses and others who have carefully and faithfully transmitted an account of the creation (Gen ch.1&2).

21. How should we view God's works?

It is unnecessary to dwell at length on the end that should be aimed at in considering the works of God. The subject has been in a great measure explained elsewhere, and in so far as required by our present work, may now be disposed of in a few words. Undoubtedly were one to attempt to speak in due terms of the inestimable wisdom, power, justice, and goodness of God, in the formation of the world, no grace or splendour of diction could equal the greatness of the subject. Still there can be no doubt that the Lord would have us constantly occupied with such holy meditation, in order that, while we contemplate the immense treasures of wisdom and goodness exhibited in the creatures as in so many mirrors, we may not only run our eye over them with a hasty, and, as it were, evanescent glance, but dwell long upon them, seriously and faithfully turn them in our minds, and every now and then bring them to recollection. But as the present work is of a didactic nature, we cannot fittingly enter on topics which require lengthened discourse. Therefore, in order to be compendious, let the reader understand that he has a genuine apprehension of the character of God as the Creator of the world; first, if he attends to the general rule, never thoughtlessly or obliviously to overlook the glorious perfections which God displays in his creatures; and, secondly, if he makes a self application of what he sees, so as to fix it deeply on his heart. The former is exemplified when we consider how great the Architect must be who framed and ordered the multitude of the starry host so admirably, that it is impossible to imagine a more glorious sight, so stationing some, and fixing them to particular spots that they cannot move; giving a freer course to others yet setting limits to their wanderings; so tempering the movement of the whole as to measure out day and night, months, years, and seasons, and at the same time so regulating the inequality of days as to prevent every thing like confusion. The former course is, moreover, exemplified when we attend to his power in sustaining the vast mass, and guiding the swift revolutions of the heavenly bodies, &c. These few examples sufficiently explain what is meant by recognising the divine perfections in the creation of the world. Were we to attempt to go over the whole subject we should never come to a conclusion, there being as many miracles of divine power, as many striking evidences of wisdom and goodness, as there are classes of objects, nay, as there are individual objects, great or small, throughout the universe.

22. The contemplation of God's goodness in his creation will lead us to thankfulness and trust

The other course which has a closer relation to faith remains to be considered, viz., that while we observe how God has destined all things for our good and salvation, we at the same time feel his power and grace, both in ourselves and in the great blessings which he has bestowed upon us; thence stirring up ourselves to confidence in him, to invocation, praise, and love. Moreover, as I lately observed, the Lord himself, by the very order of creation, has demonstrated that he created all things for the sake of man. Nor is it unimportant to observe, that he divided the formation of the world into six days, though it had been in no respect more difficult to complete the whole work, in all its parts, in one moment than by a gradual progression. But he was pleased to display his providence and paternal care towards us in this, that before he formed man, he provided whatever he foresaw would be useful and salutary to him. How ungrateful, then, were it to doubt whether we are cared for by this most excellent Parent, who we see cared for us even before we were born! How impious were it to tremble in distrust, lest we should one day be abandoned in our necessity by that kindness which, antecedent to our existence, displayed itself in a complete supply of all good things! Moreover, Moses tells us that everything which the world contains is liberally placed at our disposal (Gen 1:28; 9:2). This God certainly did not that he might delude us with an empty form of donation. Nothing, therefore, which concerns our safety will ever be wanting.

To conclude, in one word; as often as we call God the Creator of heaven and earth, let us remember that the distribution of all the things which he created are in his hand and power, but that we are his sons, whom he has undertaken to nourish and bring up in allegiance to him, that we may expect the substance of all good from him alone, and have full hope that he will never suffer us to be in want of things necessary to salvation, so as to leave us dependent on some other source; that in everything we desire we may address our prayers to him, and, in every benefit we receive, acknowledge his hand, and give him thanks; that thus allured by his great goodness and beneficence, we may study with our whole heart to love and serve him.


TOPICS: Theology
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BOOK 1:
Chapter 1 - THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD AND OF OURSELVES MUTUALLY CONNECTED. - NATURE OF THIS CONNECTION.
Chapter 2 - WHAT IT IS TO KNOW GOD,--TENDENCY OF THIS KNOWLEDGE.
Chapter 3 - THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD HAS BEEN NATURALLY IMPLANTED IN THE HUMAN MIND.
Chapter 4 - THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD STIFLED OR CORRUPTED, IGNORANTLY OR MALICIOUSLY.
Chapter 5 - THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD CONSPICUOUS IN THE CREATION, AND CONTINUAL GOVERNMENT OF THE WORLD.
Chapter 6: THE NEED OF SCRIPTURE, AS A GUIDE AND TEACHER, IN COMING TO GOD AS CREATOR.
Chapter 7: THE TESTIMONY OF THE SPIRIT NECESSARY TO GIVE FULL AUTHORITY TO SCRIPTURE. THE IMPIETY OF PRETENDING THAT THE CREDIBILITY OF SCRIPTURE DEPENDS ON THE JUDGEMENT OF THE CHURCH.
Chapter 8. THE CREDIBILITY OF SCRIPTURE SUFFICIENTLY PROVED IN SO FAR AS NATURAL REASON ADMITS.
Chapter 9. ALL THE PRINCIPLES OF PIETY SUBVERTED BY FANATICS, WHO SUBSTITUTE REVELEVATIONS FOR SCRIPTURE.
Chapter 10. IN SCRIPTURE, THE TRUE GOD OPPOSED, EXCLUSIVELY, TO ALL THE GODS OF THE HEATHEN.
Chapter 11. IMPIETY OF ATTRIBUTING A VISIBLE FORM TO GOD. - THE SETTING UP OF IDOLS A DEFECTION FROM THE TRUE GOD.
Chapter 12. GOD DISTINGUISHED FROM IDOLS, THAT HE MAY BE THE EXCLUSIVE OBJECT OF WORSHIP.
Chapter 13. THE UNITY OF THE DIVINE ESSENCE IN THREE PERSONS TAUGHT, IN SCRIPTURE, FROM THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD.
1 posted on 10/16/2003 1:17:10 PM PDT by ksen
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To: RnMomof7
Mom, would you mind giving out an Institutes ping when you get a chance?

Thanks.
2 posted on 10/16/2003 1:18:10 PM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: ksen
read much later
3 posted on 10/16/2003 9:32:22 PM PDT by LiteKeeper
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To: ksen
Thanks for posting the individual chapters of the Institutes for discussion..keep it up, for this is a great way for people to understand what Calvin really taught - instead of relying on half baked misconceptions of what he taught that keep floating around like contagious flu viruses.
4 posted on 10/18/2003 10:51:35 AM PDT by Biblical Calvinist (Soli Deo Gloria !)
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To: RnMomof7; Corin Stormhands; Penny1; JenB; drstevej; xzins; CCWoody; Calvinist_Dark_Lord; ...
Institutes ping!
5 posted on 10/20/2003 5:49:02 AM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: ksen; drstevej; CCWoody; RnMomof7; xzins; Corin Stormhands; Alex Murphy; CARepubGal; Wrigley
Every thing damnable in him he brought upon himself, by his revolt and fall. Of this Scripture reminds us, lest, by believing that he was so created at first, we should ascribe to God what is most foreign to his nature. For this reason, Christ declares, (John 8:44p) that Satan, when he lies, "speaketh of his own," and states the reason, "because he abode not in the truth."

Thanks ksen - as a damnable, heretical arminian - could someone spell out for me something that catches my eye here - Is Calvin assigning "free will" to satan, recognizing God is not the author of evil ?

am I reading that right when he abides not in the truth by choice ?

I recognize God knows that choice before satan has made it - - help me out here

6 posted on 10/20/2003 6:20:41 AM PDT by Revelation 911
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To: Biblical Calvinist
I say let's go forward with the half-baked misconceptions.

They are the real targets.

Shoot them and you shoot the enemy.

Resort to the actual words of John Calvin will be of no help.

There is a report that John Calvin and John Wesley sat down with Luther and Arminius and actually consumed infant children for lunch.

As Bill O'Reilly would say, "What say you?" (And don't give me that often heard trash that they lived at different times and places!)
7 posted on 10/20/2003 6:26:58 AM PDT by xzins (Proud to be Army!)
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To: Revelation 911
Let me try....

Satan was not created with Sin present. He was created good, as everything God created was good (Ge 1:31).

At some point in time Satan sinned and fell. Satan was created good and had the capacity to remain good. He chose to sin all on his own.

Of course God knew before He had created the first atom that Satan would fall into sin and yet He created anyway.

If God had initially created Satan with sin than you could safely charge God with being the Author of Sin. However, He didn't create Satan with sin, He created Satan good.

I think that is the difference.
8 posted on 10/20/2003 7:09:09 AM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: xzins; RnMomof7
Oh, and lest we forget, unitarian heretic Michael Servetus was burned at the stake by the evil John Calvin, right?

(thanks for the ping, Mom :-)

9 posted on 10/20/2003 7:37:43 AM PDT by newgeezer (Cubs are gone. Pedro and Manny are gone. The goodness of the game triumphs again.)
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To: ksen
Of course God knew before He had created the first atom that Satan would fall into sin and yet He created anyway.

Im with ya here

If God had initially created Satan with sin than you could safely charge God with being the Author of Sin. However, He didn't create Satan with sin, He created Satan good.

....and Im still with you - but in my density - then didnt satan act in his own free will - even though God knew what that will would be?

In the same line of thought, cant a fallen man ask Christ to inhabit his heart ?

I know Im splitting hairs here - but as satan was free to choose - arent we, as well, free to choose God?

or is prevenient grace not part of this brain cramp ? LOL

10 posted on 10/20/2003 7:40:02 AM PDT by Revelation 911
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To: Revelation 911
didnt satan act in his own free will - even though God knew what that will would be?

Sure, Satan freely chose to sin, Adam freely chose to sin, I freely choose to sin.

I know Im splitting hairs here - but as satan was free to choose - arent we, as well, free to choose God?

I don't think you would find any Calvinist that would argue otherwise. They would say of course Man is free to choose, it's just that without Divine intervention Man would never freely choose to believe on Jesus Christ.

11 posted on 10/20/2003 8:03:41 AM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: ksen; xzins
I don't think you would find any Calvinist that would argue otherwise. They would say of course Man is free to choose, it's just that without Divine intervention Man would never freely choose to believe on Jesus Christ.

Ksen - we still dont diverge here - Salvation is an act of the Holy Spirit and Gods grace- wether he comes upon me when I ask is another story as only God knows my heart.

hey x, do you see the point I am poorly making?

12 posted on 10/20/2003 10:17:03 AM PDT by Revelation 911
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To: Revelation 911; ksen
Rev, you and ksen agree. Arminians believe that no one can choose Christ without the Holy Spirit's intervention. Calvinists believe the same thing.

Both of you believe that when left to their own devices, a human being will never choose Christ.

Without the Holy Spirit's intervention no one can choose Christ.

It's just that Ksen believes the Holy Spirit intervenes by regenerating the individual. You believe that the Holy Spirit intervenes by ENLIGHTENING the individual short of regeneration so that he/she can make a knowing choice.
13 posted on 10/20/2003 10:27:49 AM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: All
The duty of a Theologian, however, is not to tickle the ear, but confirm the conscience, by teaching what is true, certain, and useful.

This should be emblazoned over the door of every seminary.

14 posted on 10/20/2003 11:28:44 AM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: xzins; Revelation 911; ksen
"Rev, you and ksen agree. Arminians believe that no one can choose Christ without the Holy Spirit's intervention. Calvinists believe the same thing."

Actually, there is a difference. Calvinism believes that through God's unmerited favor (grace), he gives us our Faith in which we believe in him.

Hebrews 12
2 Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.

The arminian denies this.

"It's just that Ksen believes the Holy Spirit intervenes by regenerating the individual. You believe that the Holy Spirit intervenes by ENLIGHTENING the individual short of regeneration so that he/she can make a knowing choice."

Arminians also take issue with the Irresistable nature of God's grace (the "I" in T.U.L.I.P.).

This, then, begs the question as to whether the you and the Arminians believe that this "Enlightening" is "Irresistable".

If this "Enlightening" is not "Irresistable", then what good is it?

If this "Enlightening" is "Irresistable", then what is with the Arminian objection to Calvinism's "Irresistable Grace"?

Jean

15 posted on 10/20/2003 12:01:41 PM PDT by Jean Chauvin (God, who will from shame deliver, Is my God, my rock, forever!)
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To: Jean Chauvin; Revelation 911
Based on the absolute foreknowledge predestining, it would, of course, be foreknown, and, therefore, irresistible.

But, I realize that's not what you mean.

Arminians, in general (except those like me), believe that the ENLIGHTENING is irresistible, but the believing, which preceeds regeneration, is not irresistible.
16 posted on 10/20/2003 12:06:26 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: Jean Chauvin
I'm not a flower, I'm a formula

TU.5UI.5P.9

17 posted on 10/20/2003 12:09:11 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: xzins; CCWoody
"Arminians, in general (except those like me), believe that the ENLIGHTENING is irresistible, but the believing, which preceeds regeneration, is not irresistible. "

So, if "Enlightening" someone's mind in order that they can "see" is acceptable, then what is the objection to the "Regenerating" someone's heart in order that they "believe"?

In the case of the irresistable "Enlightening", one will not have the ability to "not see", while in the case of irresistable "Regeneration", one will not have the ability to "not believe".

It seems that if this "Enlightenting" is "Irresistable" as you claim, then Arminianism has not removed the "problem" of God interfering with man's "free-will" completely. They have only moved it a step away.

In other words, Arminianism takes objection with "Irresistable Grace" because if "Grace" were "Irresistable", then, by definition, man would not have "free-will".

However, if this "Enlightening" (Prevenient Grace) were likewise "Irresistable", then, by definition, man would not have "free-will".

Jean

18 posted on 10/20/2003 12:34:16 PM PDT by Jean Chauvin (God, who will from shame deliver, Is my God, my rock, forever!)
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To: Jean Chauvin; P-Marlowe
Jean, let me emphasize that I'm speaking for myself, and not for Arminians in general. They might not buy what I'm saying. I don't know. (PM might.)

In any case, the enlightening IS irresistible. (He is the light who lightens every man who comes into the world.)

Therefore, the only objection I have to your version (irresistible grace) is that I think it lacks some biblically in terms of explaining the "belief" passages.

Arminianism thinks it has removed the problem of interference with man's free will because the enlightening makes possible a "clear" judicial choice. This choice enlightens all the way to a "no complaints" adjudicating. So then, it is at the "moment of choice and the exercise of choice" that 'free will' is not interfered with.

A positive choice is not irresistible according to classical arminianism.

For me, however, based on absolute foreknowledge, the Lord DOES know who will make the positive choice. They are then irresisibly enlightened by plan, and irresistibly regenerated based on their foreknown positive choice for Christ. (PM might disagree with that.)

19 posted on 10/20/2003 1:04:35 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: xzins; Jean Chauvin
(PM might disagree with that.)

Actually "pre-determination" might be a better way to express it. If God knows that I will positively respond to the gospel, it would then be impossible for me to not positively respond to the gospel. And I will respond to the gospel at the exact moment that God knows that I will. It's not that it's "irresistible" but there's nothing that's gonna stop it.

20 posted on 10/20/2003 1:11:09 PM PDT by P-Marlowe (Milquetoast Q. Whitebread is alive!)
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To: P-Marlowe
The Lord just hit me between the eyes with the fact that 31 years ago I became a Christian. Hallelujah.

What a journey!!

21 posted on 10/20/2003 1:17:04 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: xzins; CCWoody
"Arminianism thinks it has removed the problem of interference with man's free will because the enlightening makes possible a "clear" judicial choice. This choice enlightens all the way to a "no complaints" adjudicating. So then, it is at the "moment of choice and the exercise of choice" that 'free will' is not interfered with. "

What Arminianism "thinks" it has removed is irrelevant. The fact remains that Arminianism believes that God "forces" this "prevenient grace" upon man. God "forces" their eyes to be opened. If Calvinism's "Irresistable Grace" means that God "forces" man's will to believe, then Arminianisms "Prevenient Grace" also means that God "forces" this "enlightenment" upon man's will.

After all, what really is the difference between "seeing" and "believing"???

Luke 8
10 He said, "The knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to others I speak in parables, so that, " 'though seeing, they may not see; though hearing, they may not understand.'

John 3
3 In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again."

Jean

22 posted on 10/20/2003 1:37:36 PM PDT by Jean Chauvin (God, who will from shame deliver, Is my God, my rock, forever!)
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To: xzins
Happy Birthday! ;^)
23 posted on 10/20/2003 1:37:38 PM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: ksen
"What a day that will be, when my Jesus I shall see, and I look upon his Face, the one who saved me by His Grace, and He takes me by the hand, and leads me to that promised land, What a day, glorious day, that will be....What a day, glorious day, that will be."

31 years ago...strung out and in an army bunk in Ansbach, W. Germany, at 2 a.m., I HEARD Jesus knock on my door. And I opened my heart to Him. And He made His abode with me. And He'll never leave me comfortless.

Who am I to judge my brother?

"What a day, glorious day, that will be."


24 posted on 10/20/2003 1:47:31 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: Jean Chauvin
So, then, there's no beef is there?

Arminians explain the choosing moment differently because they see scripture differently.

As you say, no one can see the Kingdom of God unless he is born again.

No one WILL see the Kingdom of God until he is born again.

Is there a disagreement in there someplace?
25 posted on 10/20/2003 1:51:08 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: xzins; CCWoody
"Is there a disagreement in there someplace? "

Yes, don't play dumb.

I find it interesting you frequently hide behind statements which on the surface can be said to be grammatically the same, but that you very well know are entirely different.

The fact remains that the Arminian believes one must first "see" (be Enlightened) the Kingdom of Heaven in order to be subsequently "Born Again".

Calvinism holds steadfast to the Biblical truth that one must first be "Born Again" in order to even see the Kingdom of Heaven.

Furthermore, you have already declared that ALL men are "enlightened" by your interpretation of John 1:9. If your interpretation is correct, then Luke 8:10 is just flat wrong. Luke 8:10 tells us that there are people who have been "given" to "see" and there are likewise people who were not "given" to "see".

Jean

26 posted on 10/20/2003 2:12:14 PM PDT by Jean Chauvin (God, who will from shame deliver, Is my God, my rock, forever!)
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To: Jean Chauvin
one must first "see" (be Enlightened) the Kingdom of Heaven the choice to receive Jesus as savior.

As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become sons of God.

Yeah, just slightly dumb.....but I get it honestly. :>)

27 posted on 10/20/2003 2:27:16 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: xzins
"As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become sons of God. "

Ask yourself this question:

Does the person who God regenerates to belief "receive" Christ?

Jean

28 posted on 10/20/2003 3:07:32 PM PDT by Jean Chauvin (God, who will from shame deliver, Is my God, my rock, forever!))
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To: ksen
Ksen, thanks for pinging me to this. I somehow missed some and need to play catch-up - but Calvin's not as hard as I'd been warned.
29 posted on 10/20/2003 5:58:12 PM PDT by JenB
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To: JenB
Ksen, thanks for pinging me to this. I somehow missed some and need to play catch-up - but Calvin's not as hard as I'd been warned.

You're welcome Jen! I figured you needed something light after your tests this past weekend. ;^)

I'm on section 8 above and slowly making my way through it.

30 posted on 10/20/2003 6:22:13 PM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: Revelation 911; ksen; Jean Chauvin; xzins
- could someone spell out for me something that catches my eye here - Is Calvin assigning "free will" to satan, recognizing God is not the author of evil ?

From the text of Institutes Rev:

Moreover, though we say that Satan resists God, and does works at variance with His works, we at the same time maintain that this contrariety and opposition depend on the permission of God. I now speak not of Satan's will and endeavour, but only of the result. For the disposition of the devil being wicked, he has no inclination whatever to obey the divine will, but, on the contrary, is wholly bent on contumacy and rebellion. This much, therefore, he has of himself, and his own iniquity, that he eagerly, and of set purpose, opposes God, aiming at those things which he deems most contrary to the will of God. But as God holds him bound and fettered by the curb of his power, he executes those things only for which permission has been given him, and thus, however unwilling, obeys his Creator, being forced, whenever he is required, to do Him service.

That does not appear what one would define or understand as free will. The question that you are getting at i believe is: "Did Satan in an original state of perfection excercise free will and rebel against God"? The answer to that is that i cannot know. i don't know the extent of free will, or even if God has it (knowing that there are some things that God cannot do) as we are popularly defining it. Maybe that is the key to this controversy, we are using a term and do not know the correct definition of it, or at least a consistent definition. IMO we need to agree on a definition of terms before we presume to argue pro or con on the question.

31 posted on 10/20/2003 6:58:32 PM PDT by Calvinist_Dark_Lord (I have come here to kick @$$ and chew bubblegum...and I'm all outta bubblegum! ~Roddy Piper)
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To: Jean Chauvin
does the person God regenerates to belief "receive" Christ?

Person A gets regenerated by God. Since this was done irresistibly, then they have not yet had a conscious thought about belief. Since being an unbeliever is the sign of a lost and not an unregenerate person, then that person must at some point believe. (Interesting thought; is it possible to be regenerated and yet be an unbeliever? It is illogical, therefore, they must be irresisibly implanted with 'believingness' as well.) Since the "believing" and the "receiving" are merely synonymous expressions for the same work, then it is necessary (within a C'vist framework) for the person to be irresistibly brought to receiving Christ after they've been regenerated. That is what I'd expect a calvinist to say. Correct?

32 posted on 10/20/2003 8:38:17 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: xzins
Xzins, remember logical order, not temporal order. How easily you forget.
33 posted on 10/20/2003 8:41:01 PM PDT by drstevej
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To: Jean Chauvin; xzins
Does the person who God regenerates to belief "receive" Christ?

Which comes first, receive or believe?

34 posted on 10/20/2003 8:46:20 PM PDT by P-Marlowe (Milquetoast Q. Whitebread is alive!)
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To: drstevej
I didn't forget. Didn't I say that it would be illogical to irresistibly regenerate someone and not implant them with belief at the same time. Otherwise, you'd have the odd case of one who is reborn but unbelieving. That is a locial impossibility given the facts of scripture.

However, regeneration must precede believing according to the c'vist theories. The timing would have to be instantly contemporaneous, though. And that is where the "logical" order rather than temporal order comes in.

However, Arminianism does not teach this.

It teaches, on the other hand, that one is enlightened to clarity of choice. When that choice is made for Jesus, in that case the person is immediately regenerated.
35 posted on 10/20/2003 8:55:40 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: xzins
2. A NOTE OF AN INQUIRY WITH CALVIN INTO 'CHRIST'S PERSON', FROM THOSE WORDS READ OUT OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED

After I had read out these words to Calvin as well as to fifty clerics of his sect, I asked Calvin whether he had not departed from these statements in the Creed - a Creed acknowledged and accepted by the entire Christian world.
Calvin said
(1) he saw that he had plainly departed from them.

(2) I asked why he had done so. He replied that he had paid no heed to those words, but now when he did take notice of them he saw that he had departed from them and had followed his own thought in writing.

(3) I asked him what he thought now. He answered that if the Creed was true, and if it was acknowledged on every side as the true doctrine on the Trinity and on Christ's Divinity, plainly he had erred.

(4) I asked, Did he not want to acknowledge that the Divine and the Human, or God and Man, in Christ were one person, as soul and flesh were one man, according to the words of the Creed! He said he would like to, but could not because he had made up his mind differently.

(5) I asked whether he believed Christ to be one person or two. He replied, One, if hypostatic union made one, but he held the view that the Son of God was not the same [as Christ] and was with the Father, and that Jesus Christ was separate from the Son because the Son was in heaven.

(6) I asked, Was Christ then two! He replied, Yes; and in this he had departed from the Creed.

(7) I asked about hypostatic union, who was it from? He replied, From God the Father; that was the idea he had had.

(8) I asked about Christ's soul, what was it? Might it not be the Divine Itself, since it was said in Luke that it was from the Holy Spirit and the Power of the Most High ! He answered that he had observed this in Luke, but had believed tacitly within himself that the soul was from Joseph.

(9) I put the question, Was not Christ as to His Human the Son of God, as is openly said in Luke i 35? And in Matthew [iii 17], when Jesus was baptised; also in John [i 34]; and when He was transfigured [in Matthew xvii 5; Mark ix 7; Luke ix 35]; and in many other passages! He answered that when he mentioned or thought about the words 'the Son of God', he did not mean Christ Jesus as to His Human. When I said that to comprehend it in that way was contrary to Scripture, he answered that he saw it to be so, but had not thought it to have been so. I wanted him to renounce the idea, but he was conscious of his thinking while in the world and said that on that account he could not.

(10) At length he admitted that he had thought Christ was Joseph's son, but had not dared to write it.


Above from perhaps a dubious site of which I had not been aware. http://www.theheavenlydoctrines.org/

When I ran another search to see if it was considered 'New Age' or untrustworthy I encountered this reference: (Is this the ancestor of George Bush and if so, would this explain a great deal of freemasonry conspiracy theories?)

http://www.clements.umich.edu/Webguides/B/Bush.html
36 posted on 10/21/2003 3:57:34 AM PDT by Cvengr (0:^))
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To: Cvengr
Looks like the Rev George Bush circa 1841 had a father Fairbanks Bush whose brother was a direct ancestor of our current president. Interesting lineage. This via http://boards.ancestry.com/mbexec/message/an/surnames.bush/1842.1
37 posted on 10/21/2003 4:31:01 AM PDT by Cvengr (0:^))
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To: Cvengr; drstevej; OrthodoxPresbyterian
Is this information purporting to show that Calvin was not a trinitarian?

If so, I've never heard such before. Believe me, there was a time I would have pounced on something like this.

What is the source?
38 posted on 10/21/2003 5:41:46 AM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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To: Biblical Calvinist
Thanks for posting the individual chapters of the Institutes for discussion..keep it up, for this is a great way for people to understand what Calvin really taught - instead of relying on half baked misconceptions of what he taught that keep floating around like contagious flu viruses.

Sorry I didn't respond to this sooner.

You're welcome BC. I have never read The Institutes and I am enjoying working my way through them with people who can answer my questions as they come up. ;^)

39 posted on 10/21/2003 5:42:41 AM PDT by ksen (HHD)
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To: Cvengr
Your link
http://www.theheavenlydoctrines.org/

doesn't work.

***(10) At length he admitted that he had thought Christ was Joseph's son, but had not dared to write it. ***

Yeah, right.
40 posted on 10/21/2003 5:51:00 AM PDT by drstevej
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To: xzins
A simple "Yes" would do, x.

You were utilizing that passage, I think, in an attempt to show Biblical support for "Free-Willism".

However, Calvinism also testifies that the individual "receives" Christ. That is not something that is exclusive to Arminianism.

The problem I was showing you was that this passage only shows what happens to an individual in the event that that individual "receives" Christ.

The problem for you is that this passage does not speak to or inform us of just ~HOW~ one "receives" Christ. It simply and only tells us that those who "received" were given the power to become the sons of God.

Therefore, in the attempt to support the "Free-Will" philosophical paradigm, you are once again guilty of an eisegetical interpretation of a Biblical passage.

Jean
41 posted on 10/21/2003 3:35:40 PM PDT by Jean Chauvin (History shows again and again how nature points out the folly of man...Godzilla!)
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To: P-Marlowe
"Which comes first, receive or believe?"

Irrelevant to my point.

Jean

42 posted on 10/21/2003 3:36:37 PM PDT by Jean Chauvin (History shows again and again how nature points out the folly of man...Godzilla!)
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To: drstevej
The link still works. If having difficulty, run a Google search on hypostatic union and Calvin,..that brought up the web site. Upon closer inspection though, I find it to be dubious at best. lookup the Conv. with Calvin by Whitehead or Duckworth at the bottom of the page.

I had never heard of Swedenborg before, but the more I read, the Rev George Bush of 1830s apparantly studied the New Church of Jerusalem theology quite a bit, but I also see it is associated with Mesmer, so I tend to lump it with New Age occultic stuff, yet I'm surprised by the early date associated with the studies.

Had you ever heard of them? I don't respect them initially, but it's the first I had bumped into it.
43 posted on 10/21/2003 8:15:28 PM PDT by Cvengr (0:^))
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To: Cvengr
Yep, Emmanuel Swedenborg is a fruitcake.
44 posted on 10/21/2003 8:20:13 PM PDT by drstevej
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To: xzins
Source was
http://www.theheavenlydoctrines.org/static/d6991/2.htm

I referenced the index page. I was trying to verify the sources when it bumped into the Rev George Bush link.

Ever hear of this group? Swedenborg/New Church

Their statement of faith is explained a bit here

http://www.theheavenlydoctrines.org/doctover.htm

Interesting study in discernment.
45 posted on 10/21/2003 8:22:57 PM PDT by Cvengr (0:^))
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To: drstevej
But on what position?
46 posted on 10/21/2003 8:24:12 PM PDT by Cvengr (0:^))
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To: Jean Chauvin
Calvinism holds steadfast to the Biblical truth that one must first be "Born Again" in order to even see the Kingdom of Heaven.Is the Great White Judgment Seat held in the Kingdom of heaven or elsewhere?
47 posted on 10/21/2003 8:29:31 PM PDT by Cvengr (0:^))
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To: Cvengr
Sorry for the poor formatting,......I must be reading too many posts from the Institutes!
48 posted on 10/21/2003 8:31:17 PM PDT by Cvengr (0:^))
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To: Cvengr
Swedenborgianism

Definition: Founded by Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1771), Swedenborgianism was an important vehicle for the transmission of paranormal and occult beliefs in America during the 19th century. Swedenborg would probably today still be famous for his scientific accomplishments if it had not been for his abandoning science in favor of mysticism. Among his early discoveries were the functioning of the brain's pituitary gland and he even created plans for a submarine.

Swedenborg followed a Platonic philosophy of idealism in which the spiritual realm was more "real" than the physical world. There, is, however, a corresondence between everything in the spiritual and physical realms - he called this his "law of correspondences". Thus, when a person dies, they travel to some spiritual level which corresponds to whatever level of moral development they achieved while alive. The goal of life, then, is to simply reach as high of a moral level as possible. These beliefs were later adopted by most New Age philosophies.

After his death, followers created the Church of New Jerusalem around his teachings, even though while alive he professed that he didn't want to found a new religion. Today we can find Swedenborgian congregations all around the world and his writings have been translated into many languages
49 posted on 10/21/2003 8:38:02 PM PDT by drstevej
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To: Jean Chauvin; P-Marlowe
I did say "yes" regarding its interpretation under a calvinist paradigm.

However, the nature of the word "receive" makes me wonder if its meaning isn't more purely preserved in a paradigm wherein one must "choose."

"Irresistible receiving" and "simple receiving" really are different. The definition of receive it seems to me is to permit someone to enter, or to welcome them to enter as in a "receiving room."

I don't think it's eisegetical at all. It operates under a more pure definition of "receive."

The bottom line is really this, Jean. We have 2 contenders for the understanding of salvation.

1. The person is moved all the way through regeneration by a specific act of God.

2. The person is enlightened by God and expected to make a choice to believe.

3. Little elves carry ideas in the shape of little lincoln logs into the person's brain and construct their doctrines into a salvation house.

The real issue is which seems to align better with scripture.
50 posted on 10/21/2003 8:47:15 PM PDT by xzins (And now I will show you the most excellent way!)
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